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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948900

RESUMO

The diffusion of the internet and technological progress have made gambling on online platforms possible, also making it more anonymous, convenient, and available, increasing the risk of pathological outcomes for vulnerable individuals. Given this context, the present study explores the role of some protective and risk factors for problematic gambling in online gamblers by focusing on the interaction between alexithymia, dissociation, and family functioning. A sample of 193 online gamblers (Mage = 28.8 years, SD = 10.59; 17% females, 83% males) completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen, Twenty-Items Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Dissociative Experience Scale-II, and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-IV through an online survey. MANOVA, ANOVA and moderated mediation analyses were carried out to analyse the data. Significant differences in cohesive family functioning, alexithymia and dissociation have been found between online gamblers with problematic, at-risk or absent levels of gambling disease. Furthermore, the results showed a significant and positive association between alexithymia and problematic online gambling, partially mediated by dissociation, with the moderation of cohesive family functioning. Such data may have relevant clinical implications, highlighting the interaction of some core personal and environmental variables that may be involved in the etiology of online pathological gambling and could be kept in mind to tailor preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogo de Azar , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dissociativos , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Psychosom Res ; 150: 110634, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Severe hypoglycemia complicates insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes, with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) being a major risk factor. We explored associations between the personality traits, alexithymia and perfectionism, and cognitive barriers to hypoglycemia avoidance described in IAH, and evaluated their prevalence in people with and without IAH. METHODS: Cross-sectional exploratory study. Ninety adults with type 1 diabetes, 54 hypoglycemia aware and 36 with IAH, completed validated questionnaires exploring alexithymia (Total Alexithymia Scale [TAS-20]) and perfectionism (Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale [FMPS]); and cognitive barriers related to hypoglycemia avoidance (Attitudes to Awareness Questionnaire [A2A]. RESULTS: Alexithymia and perfectionism scores correlated positively with cognitive barriers associated with IAH. Specifically, alexthymia scores correlated with the 'Hyperglycaemia Avoidance Prioritised' factor (r = 0.265; p = .02, n = 77) and the 'Asymptomatic Hypoglycemia Normalised' factor (r = 0.252-0.255; p = .03, n = 77). Perfectionism scores correlated with the 'Hyperglycaemia Avoidance Prioritised' factor (r = 0.525; p < .001, n = 66). Overall, IAH participants were significantly more likely to score at the high end for alexithymia (17.6% vs. 1.9%, p = .008, n = 87) and at the extreme ends (high and low) for perfectionism (69.0% vs. 40.0%, χ2 (1) = 6.24, p = .01, n = 77). CONCLUSION: These novel data showing associations between alexithymia and perfectionism scores and maladaptive health beliefs in IAH suggest the intriguing possibility that personality traits may contribute to the risk of IAH, perhaps through their influence on incentives to avoid hypoglycemia. If confirmed, measuring such traits may help tailor early adjunctive psychological intervention to reduce hypoglycemia burden for people with IAH.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hipoglicemia , Perfeccionismo , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Humanos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682393

RESUMO

The scientific literature has shown the key role played by attachment to parents and peers and difficulties in recognizing, processing, and regulating emotions (i.e., alexithymia) in the (mal-)adaptive psychological response to the COVID-19 pandemic during late adolescence. No study has yet explored the complex interplay between these variables. We recruited a sample of 454 late adolescents (Mage = 22.79, SD = 2.27) and assessed attachment to parents and peers, alexithymia, and peritraumatic distress due to COVID-19 through self-report instruments. Attachment to fathers and peers, but not to mothers, and alexithymia significantly predicted levels of peritraumatic distress. Alexithymia fully and partially mediated the effect of, respectively, attachment to mothers and attachment to peers on peritraumatic distress due to COVID-19. These findings suggested that intervention programs focused on the promotion of peer social relationships, supportive parent-adolescent relationships, and the ability to recognize and discriminate one's own and others' emotions are needed in helping late adolescents to face the current health emergency and preventing short- and long-term psychopathological consequences related to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 32(2): 109-117, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It has been emphasised recently that emotion regulation problems may be the core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we aimed to determine the incidence of alexithymia, the relationship between alexithymia and impulsiveness, the severity of ADHD, depression and anxiety semptoms in adult ADHD. METHOD: All participants were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview For DSM IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I); and completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), the Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Adult Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder Self Reporting Scale (ASRS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). The ADHD patients were also assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD (DIVA) for DSM-5 criteria. RESULTS: The study included 101 ADHD patients with a mean age of 23.06 ± 4.24 years with 47.5% females, and 100 healthy control individuals with a mean age of 22.76 ± 5.68 years with 50% female participants. Alexithymia incidence was 41.5% in the ADHD group. The increase in the levels of impulsiveness, depression and anxiety correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms; and impulsiveness predicted alexithymia in the ADHD group. CONCLUSION: Alexithymia incidence was higher in the ADHD group. When ADHD and control participants were combined, alexithymic individuals was more associated with impulsivity with frequent display of anxiety symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Ansiedade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1507, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, as the "gatekeepers"of rural residents' health, the primary-level village doctors, play a very crucial role in ensuring and serving the health level of rural residents. However, the burnout of village doctors is gravely threatening the stability of rural primary medical system step by step. This study systematically evaluated the effects of personality, work engagement and alexithymia on burnout of village doctors, and further measured and assessed the mediating effect of alexithymia and work engagement in the association between personality and burnout. METHODS: The subjects were 2684 village doctors in Jining, Shandong Province, China, from May to June 2019. Sociodemographic characteristics, alexithymia, personality, work engagement and job burnout were quantitated by self-completed questionnaire and measured by Likert 5-7 scale. One-way ANOVA, Person correlation analysis, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) were used for statistical analysis and mediating effect evaluation. RESULTS: 2693 questionnaires were collected in total, of which 2684 were valid, with an effective rate of 96.2%. 65.2% of village doctors were diagnosed with burnout, and 54.3% showed moderate to severe emotional exhaustion, 61.6% showed moderate to severe low sense of personal achievement, and 33.9% showed moderate to severe depersonalization burnout. Personality had a direct positive effect on work engagement (ß = 0.50, p < 0.001), a direct negative effect on alexithymia (ß = - 0.52, p < 0.001) and burnout (ß = - 0.50, p < 0.001) respectively. Work engagement had a direct negative effect on burnout (ß = - 0.10, p < 0.001), while alexithymia had a direct positive effect on burnout (ß = 0.16, p < 0.001). In the path between personality and burnout, both work engagement 95%CI:(- 0.17)-(- 0.08), and alexithymia 95%CI:(- 0.36)-(- 0.09), have significant mediating effects. These results strongly confirm that personality, alexithymia, and work engagement are early and powerful predicators of burnout. CONCLUSION: According to the results, medical administrators should pay attention to the personality characteristics of village doctors in vocational training, practice selection and job assignment, encourage village doctors to reflect on their own personality actively, and to reduce job burnout by obtaining necessary social support, constructing reasonable achievable career expectations, improving time management ability, and participating in psychological counselling programs.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Engajamento no Trabalho
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444058

RESUMO

Accurate measures of alexithymia, an inability to recognise and describe one's own emotions, that are suitable for children are crucial for research into alexithymia's development. However, previous research suggests that parent versus child reports of alexithymia do not correlate. Potentially, children may report on the awareness of their emotions, whereas parent-report measures may reflect children's verbal expression of emotion, which may be confounded by children's communicative abilities, especially in conditions such as Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). Given theoretical arguments that alexithymia may develop due to language impairments, further research into alexithymia in DLD is also needed. This project examined parent and child report measures of alexithymia in children with DLD (n = 106) and without DLD (n = 183), and their association to children's communication skills. Parent and child reports were not significantly correlated in either group, and children with DLD had higher alexithymia scores on the parent-report measure only. Thus, parent and child measures of alexithymia likely reflect different constructs. Pragmatic language problems related to more parent-reported alexithymia, over and above group membership. Structural language abilities were unrelated to alexithymia. We suggest decreased social learning opportunities, rather than a language measure artefact, underlie increased alexithymic difficulties in DLD.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Emoções , Humanos , Idioma , Relações Pais-Filho
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14739, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282245

RESUMO

The COVID-19 lockdown has drastically limited social interactions and brought about a climate of fear and uncertainty. These circumstances not only increased affective symptoms and social isolation among community dwelling older adults but also alter the dynamics between them. Using network analyses, we study the changes in these dynamics before and during the lockdown. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 419) completed questionnaires assessing depression, anxiety, and social isolation, before the COVID-19 pandemic, as part of a cohort study, and during the lockdown period. The total scores of these questionnaires were compared across time. For the network analyses, partial correlation networks were constructed using items in the questionnaires as nodes, separately at both timepoints. Changes in edges, as well as nodal and bridge centrality were examined across time. Depression and anxiety symptoms, and social isolation had significantly increased during the lockdown. Significant changes were observed across time on several edges. Greater connectivity between the affective and social isolation nodes at lockdown was observed. Depression symptoms have become more tightly coupled across individuals, and so were the anxiety symptoms. Depression symptoms have also become slightly decoupled from those of anxiety. These changing network dynamics reflect the greater influence of social isolation on affective symptoms across individuals and an increased vulnerability to affective disorders. These findings provide novel perspectives and translational implications on the changing mental health context amidst a COVID-19 pandemic situation.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Pandemias , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206284

RESUMO

Although research provides a rich literature about the influence of emotional states on temporal cognition, evidence about the influence of the style of emotion processing, as a personality trait, on temporal cognition is extremely limited. We provide a novel contribution to the field by exploring the relationship between difficulties of identifying and describing feelings and emotions (alexithymia) and time perspective. One hundred and forty-two healthy participants completed an online version of the TAS-20 scale, which measures alexithymia, and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, which monitors individual differences in time-orientation regarding the past, present, and future. The results show greater attention to past negative aspects in participants whose TAS-20 score was indicating borderline or manifest alexithymia, as compared to non-alexithymic individuals. Moreover, the higher the TAS-20 score, the higher the tendency was to focus on negative aspects of the past and interpret the present fatalistically. These results suggest that difficulties in identifying and describing feelings and emotions are associated with a negative bias for past and present events. Theoretical and clinical implications of this finding are discussed.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Emoções , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Viés , Cognição , Humanos
9.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 177(9): 1145-1150, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In multiple sclerosis (MS), the prevalence of alexithymia, defined as an inability to identify and describe emotions, is close to 50% but the prevalence of this symptom in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is unknown. Characterizing alexithymia at an early stage of the disease can help to clarify psychobehavioural disturbances in CIS patients. METHODS: Forty CIS patients, who fulfilled the MRI criteria for dissemination in space, were matched with 40 healthy subjects. They completed self-assessment scales for alexithymia, depression, anxiety, apathy and empathy. Cognitive functions were assessed using a battery of neuropsychological tests. RESULTS: The mean delay (± standard deviation) between the occurrence of CIS and inclusion in the study was 3.9 (2.8) months. The frequency of alexithymia was higher in CIS patients than in controls, with a prevalence of 42% (P<0.0001). Alexithymia correlated with anxiety and depression but not with cognition. Alexithymia was dependent only on depression (P=0.003). CONCLUSION: Alexithymia, characterized by difficulty identifying feelings, is present in patients in the early stage of MS, and seems to be strongly associated with depression. Difficulty in social interaction could be a risk of future affective disorders.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Ansiedade , Cognição , Emoções , Humanos
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(2): 240-247, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic process caused many physiological and psychological effects on individuals. This study aims to examine the ruminative thinking and alexithymia levels of people in the COVID-19 pandemic process. METHODS: The descriptive, cross-sectional, and the correlational designed study was conducted with 852 people in ?stanbul\Turkey during the COVID-19 pandemic process between March and May 2020. The data of the research was collected with the Sociodemographic Form Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire. RESULTS: It was found that the average of ruminative thought score of the people was 92.49±19.89 and the alexithymia score average was 71.76±13.70. A positive and significant relationship was found between the Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and subscale scores (p<0.05). According to the results, ruminative thinking levels were affected by 12% alexithymia level and 9% time spent on conversation. A statistically significant relationship was found between rumination, alexithymia, and its sub-dimensions and the number of times people spend for conversation during the day and the number of people they live with (p<0.05). It was determined that those living with family/friends were lower than those who were alone, and those with good communication in relationships had lower rumination and alexithymia (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Care should be taken against alexithymia and rumination during the COVID-19 pandemic process, and attention should be given to interpersonal relationships, conversation, and communication in the quarantine process.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Turquia/epidemiologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26329, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190150

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of burnout among medical students in China.A systematic search from the following electronic databases: China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wangfang database, VIP database, Chinese biomedical literature database, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar was independently conducted by 2 reviewers from inception to September 2019. The data were analyzed using stata software Version 11. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 tests, and publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots and Egger's test. The source of heterogeneity among subgroups was determined by subgroup analysis of different parameters.A total of 48 articles with a sample size of 29,020 met the inclusion criteria. The aggregate prevalence of learning burnout was 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 38.1%-53.8%). The prevalence rate of high emotional exhaustion was 37.5% (95% CI: 21.4%-53.7%). The percentage was 44.0% (95% CI: 29.2%-58.8%) for low personal accomplishment. The prevalence rate was 36.0% (95% CI: 23.0%-48.9%) in depersonalization dimension. In the subgroup analysis by specialty, the prevalence of burnout was 30.3% (95% CI: 28.6%-32.0%) for clinical medicine and 43.8% (95% CI: 41.8%-45.8%) for other medical specialties. The total prevalence of burnout between men and women was 46.4% (95% CI: 44.8%-47.9%) and 46.6% (95% CI: 45.5%-47.6%), respectively. The prevalence of burnout with Rong Lian's scale was 43.7% (42.1%-45.2%), and that with the other scales was 51.4% (50.4%-52.4%). The prevalence rates were 62.9% (61.3%-64.6%), 58.7% (56.3%-61.1%), 46.5% (42.9%-50.2%), and 56.0% (51.6%-60.4%) from Grades 1 to 4, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference among the different grades (P = .000).Our findings suggest a high prevalence of burnout among medical students. Society, universities, and families should take appropriate measures and allot more care to prevent burnout among medical students.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Despersonalização/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prevalência
12.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(4): 1139-1143, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125758

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify gender and age differences in alexithymia and anxiety. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to March 2019 at Burewala, a city of South Punjab and comprised adolescents selected through random sampling method from different schools. The subjects were assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Multiple analysis of variance was applied to determine the direct and interactive effects of age groups and gender on alexithymia and anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Of the 185 subjects, 105(57%) were boys and 80(43%) were girls. The overall mean age was 14.42+/-1.31 years (range: 11-16 years). Boys had significantly (p<0.05) higher level of alexithymia symptoms partially compared to the girls. Significant (p<0.05) interactive effects of age and gender were also noted. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of clinical symptoms in schoolgoing adolescents may hinder physical and psychological health of adolescents.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Ansiedade , Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia
13.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 23(1): 0-0, mar.-jun. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201956

RESUMO

La soledad es un fenómeno emergente relacionado con la pérdida funcional de las capacidades básicas (ABVD), el riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades y el aumento de la morbimortalidad. Objetivo principal: describir la prevalencia del sentimiento de soledad en las personas > 60 años de un entorno semirrural. Objetivos secundarios: estudiar la relación de la soledad con factores personales y uso de los servicios médicos. Estudio transversal en el ámbito de la Atención Primaria. Población de estudio: personas entre 60 y 85 años usuarias del Centre d'Atenció Primaria Palafrugell. La variable principal es la soledad medida con una escala validada en España (Escala De Jong y Gierveld de 11 ítems [DJGS-11]). Se pasó la escala a los usuarios del centro de salud mediante entrevista telefónica. Obtuvimos una muestra aleatoria de 149 pacientes estratificada por edad y sexo. El 54,4% de las personas estudiadas se sienten solas en Palafrugell. Existe más riesgo de probabilidad (RP) de sentirse solo entre las personas de 71-85 años que entre las de 60-70 años (p > 0,05; RP = 1,41), entre aquellos que tienen una mala percepción de la salud (p < 0,05; RP = 1,65), viven solos (p < 0,05, RP = 1,48) y no tienen carné de conducir (p < 0,05; RP = 1,48). Las personas solas visitan el doble las urgencias hospitalarias (p < 0,05; RP = 1,98). La soledad es un determinante de salud importante en la población anciana, ya que una de cada dos de estas personas experimenta soledad. Se han observado tendencias como la relación entre soledad y uso de los servicios sanitarios, pero son necesarios más estudios en esta dirección


Loneliness is an emergent social phenomenon related to a loss of basic activities of daily living (Barthel Index), increased risk of developing disease as well as morbidity and mortality rate. The main objective was to report the prevalence of loneliness in elderly people (> 60 years old) in a non-urban setting. The secondary objective was to study the relationship between personal factors and use of health services. We performed a transversal study in the scope of primary care. People aged 60 to 85 years old and users of the Primary Health Care Centre from Palafrugell were included. The De Jong and Gierveld 11-item scale was used to determine loneliness by phone interview. We obtained a random sample of 149 patients which was stratified by age and sex. The prevalence of loneliness in Palafrugell is 54,4%. There is a higher risk of feeling lonely in those people aged 71-85 years old compared to those aged 60-70 years old (p > 0,05; RP = 1,41), those who have a poor perception of one's own state of health (P < 0,05; RP = 1,65), those who live alone (p < 0,05; RP = 1,48) and do not have a driving licence (p < 0,05; RP = 1,48). Lonely people visit the casualty department twice as often (p < 0,05; RP = 1,98). Loneliness is a key health determinant in elderly people and one in two feels lonely. Trends such as the relationship between loneliness and use of health services are observed. However, further studies along these lines are needed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Solidão/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Medicina Comunitária/métodos , Medicina Comunitária/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Neurology ; 97(5): e464-e475, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Knowledge regarding psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) is limited. This study outlines the spectrum and risk of psychiatric disorders in childhood-onset PNES. METHODS: We performed a nationwide matched cohort study of children and adolescents with PNES 5 to 17 years of age at the time of diagnosis between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2014. Two matched comparison groups were included: children and adolescents with epilepsy (ES) and children and adolescents without PNES or epilepsy, called healthy controls (HC). Outcomes were prevalent psychiatric disorders before index (i.e., date of diagnosis or corresponding date for HC) and incident psychiatric disorders 2 years after index. Relative risks (RRs) were calculated and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: We included 384 children and adolescents with validated PNES, 1,152 with ES, and 1,920 HC. Among the cases of PNES, 153 (39.8%) had prevalent psychiatric disorders and 150 (39.1%) had incident psychiatric disorders. Compared to the ES and HC groups, children and adolescents with PNES had elevated risks of both prevalent psychiatric disorders (adjusted RRPNES/ES 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59-2.21, adjusted RRPNES/HC 5.54, 95% CI 4.50-6.81) and incident psychiatric disorders (adjusted RRPNES/ES 2.33, 95% CI 1.92-2.83, adjusted RRPNES/HC 8.37, 95% CI 6.31-11.11). A wide spectrum of specific psychiatric disorders displayed elevated RRs. CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with PNES are at higher risk of a wide range of psychiatric disorders compared to children and adolescents with ES and HC. A careful psychiatric evaluation is warranted to optimize and individualize treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dissociativos/complicações , Transtornos Dissociativos/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/psicologia , Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos/complicações , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pais , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco
15.
Georgian Med News ; (311): 125-129, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814405

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to analyze empirically obtained data to identify psychoemotional states of adolescents with manifestations of cyber addiction. The study, conducted from 2016 to the present, involved 559 respondents, 408 of whom with certain types of cyber addictions made up the main group and 151 were relatively healthy, who were included in the control group. All respondents were diagnosed using a psychodiagnostic technique - Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS). According to the results of the study, it was found that the majority (more than 80%) of respondents in the age group from 14 to 21 years old, who made up the control group, did not show signs of alexithymia (passive aggression, difficulty in choosing words when describing their own feelings and interpersonal contacts, depression and anxiety they were not typical), and respondents with cyber-addiction demonstrate manifestations of alexithymia in 30-50% of cases. The highest indicators of alexithymia manifestation were found among the respondents of the main group of males aged 16 to 18 years - 50.00% of the respondents, as well as high indicators of manifestation of alexithymia were revealed among young men of the main group aged 14 to 15 years - 45.76% and at the age from 19 to 21 years old - 46.27% of respondents. Among girls of the main group, manifestations of alexithymia were revealed in more than 25% of the respondents (MGG1 - 26.15%, MGG2 - 30.26%, MGG3 - 33.33% of the respondents). This made it possible for us to characterize cyber addicts as persons, mainly with manifestations of alexithymia, capable of reflection, prone to the manifestation of short-term, sharply expressed in the behavior of emotional outbursts, the causes of which are poorly understood, and also have manifestations of depression and anxiety. The study made it possible to include alexithymic manifestations in research markers for the further development of psychocorrectional programs for adolescents suffering from various types of cyber addictions.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Agressão , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(2): 299-304, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between childhood trauma and suicidal risk in prisoners and the mediating effect of alexithymia in this relationship. OBJECTIVE: We investigated a total of 362 male prisoners in Guangdong Province using Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), the Twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Suicidal Behaviors-Revised Questionnaire (SBQ-R). OBJECTIVE: Thirty-five (9.7%) prisoners had a high risk of suicide. The total score and the dimension scores of the CTQ-SF was positively correlated with the total score of SBQ-R (r=0.065-0.358, P < 0.01) and the total score of TAS-20 (except for the dimension score of sexual abuse) (r=0.156-0.255, P < 0.01). The total score of TAS-20, the dimensions scores for difficulty in identifying and describing feeling and the dimension score for externally oriented thinking were positively correlated with the total score of SBQ-R (r=0.330, P < 0.01; r=0.294-0.305, P < 0.01; and r=0.130, P < 0.05, respectively). The results of structural equation analysis showed that alexithymia had a partial mediating effect on childhood trauma and suicide risks (ß=0.07, 95%CI: 0.023-0.12, P < 0.05). OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma affects suicidal risk in prisoners not only directly but also indirectly through the mediating effect of alexithymia.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Prisioneiros , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Criança , Emoções , Humanos , Masculino , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Appetite ; 161: 105120, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450300

RESUMO

Emotional eating, generally defined as (over)-eating in response to negative emotions, has been associated with poor physical and psychological outcomes. During a time of heightened negative affect, it is important to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdown measures on eating behaviours, and further elucidate the ways in which emotional eating is related to emotion dysregulation and impaired abilities to identify emotions (i.e. alexithymia). The aims of this study were to explore perceived changes in eating behaviours in relation to self-reported negative affect during the pandemic and to examine direct and indirect effects of alexithymia on emotional eating. An online questionnaire measured these constructs in the general population of the United Kingdom (n = 136). Findings demonstrated that those who reported changes to their eating behaviours during the pandemic also reported greater levels of depression during the same time frame. Mediation analyses revealed that difficulties identifying and describing feelings both predicted emotional eating indirectly via emotion dysregulation. Findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the relationship between alexithymia and emotional eating and describe changes to eating behaviours during COVID-19. We discuss how these findings should be applied, and recommendations for future research.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Appetite ; 160: 105122, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453336

RESUMO

Due to the spread of COVID 2019, the Italian government imposed a lockdown on the national territory. Initially, citizens were required to stay at home and not to mix with others outside of their household (Phase 1); eventually, some of these restrictions were lifted (Phase 2). To investigate the impact of lockdown on emotional and binge eating, an online survey was conducted to compare measures of self-reported physical (BMI), psychological (Alexithymia), affective (anxiety, stress, and depression) and social (income, workload) state during Phase 1 and Phase 2. Data from 365 Italian residents showed that increased emotional eating was predicted by higher depression, anxiety, quality of personal relationships, and quality of life, while the increase of bingeing was predicted by higher stress. Moreover, we showed that higher alexithymia scores were associated by increased emotional eating and higher BMI scores were associated with both increased emotional eating and binge eating. Finally, we found that from Phase 1 to Phase 2 binge and emotional eating decreased. These data provide evidence of the negative effects of isolation and lockdown on emotional wellbeing, and, relatedly, on eating behaviour.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bulimia/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 177(8): 995-1000, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454126

RESUMO

Twenty-three severe migraine participants were studied to investigate social and emotional cognition features and explore their relationship with depression, anxiety and alexithymia. In comparison to normative data, 74% were under the norm for the Faux Pas subtest, 13% for the facial emotion recognition subtest and 52% for the overall composite score of the mini-SEA. Factor 1, Factor 3, and the total score of the TAS-20 were negatively correlated with the Faux Pas subtest. Our preliminary study shows that severe migraine patients present difficulties in inferring mental states, which could be related to alexithymia. It would be useful to identify these impairments in order to improve the quality of care provided. Clinical Trials registration number: NCT03577548.


Assuntos
Cognição , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Emoções , Cefaleia , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 3, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe asthma affects a small population but carries a high psychopathological risk. Therefore, the psychodemographic profile of these patients is of interest. A substantial prevalence of anxiety, depression, alexithymia and hyperventilation syndrome in severe asthma is known, but contradictory results have been observed. These factors can also affect patients' quality of life. For this reasons, our purpose is to evaluate the psychodemographic profile of patients with severe asthma and assess the prevalence of anxiety, depression, alexithymia and hyperventilation syndrome and their impact on the quality of life of patients with severe asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 63 patients with severe asthma. Their psychodemographic profile was evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Nijmegen questionnaire and Asthma Control Test (ACT) to determine the state of anxiety and depression, alexithymia, hyperventilation syndrome and control of asthma, respectively. Quality of life was assessed with the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Mini-AQLQ). RESULTS: The mean age was 60 ± 13.6 years. Personal psychopathological histories were found in 65.1% of participants, and 8% reported previous suicidal attempts. The rate of anxiety and/or depression (HADS ≥ 11) was 68.3%. These patients present higher scores on the TAS-20 (p < 0.001) for the level of dyspnea (p = 0.021), and for emotional function (p = 0.017) on the Mini-AQLQ, compared with patients without anxiety or depression. Alexithymia (TAS-20 ≥ 61) was observed in 42.9% of patients; these patients were older (p = 0.037) and had a higher HADS score (p = 0.019) than patients with asthma without alexithymia. On the other hand, patients with hyperventilation syndrome (Nijmegen ≥ 23) scored higher on the HADS (p < 0.05), on the Mini-AQLQ (p = 0.002) and on the TAS-20 (p = 0.044) than the group without hyperventilation syndrome. Quality of life was related to anxiety-depression symptomatology (r = - 0.302; p = 0.016) and alexithymia (r = - 0.264; p = 0.036). Finally, the Mini-AQLQ total score was associated with the Nijmegen questionnaire total score (r = - 0.317; p = 0.011), and the activity limitation domain of the Mini-AQLQ correlated with the ACT total score (r = 0.288; p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of anxiety, depression, alexithymia and hyperventilation syndrome is high in patients with severe asthma. Each of these factors is associated with a poor quality of life.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Asma/psicologia , Hiperventilação/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hiperventilação/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia
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