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1.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 38: 14-20, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461642

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to examine the effect of emotional awareness skills training on emotional awareness and communication skills in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 44 patients with schizophrenia (22 in the intervention group and 22 in the control group) registered at a community mental health center. The personal information form, Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and communication skills scale-adult form were used to collect patient data. The emotional awareness skills training was implemented once a week for 8 weeks. RESULTS: After the training, the mean scores of the "Difficulty Identifying Feelings" and "Difficulty Describing Feelings" subscales of TAS-20 decreased and the mean scores of the communication skills scale-adult form increased in the intervention group; the difference between the groups was statistically significant. While there was no difference between the groups in the initial measurements, a significant difference was found between the mean scores of "Difficulty Identifying Feelings" and "Difficulty Describing Feelings" in the intervention group and a significant difference was found in both groups between the subscales of "Basic Skills and Personal (Self) Expression", "Willingness to Communicate", "Caring Communication" and "Active Listening and Non-Verbal Communication" and the total mean score after the intervention. CONCLUSION: Based on the study results, it can be concluded that emotional awareness skills training is an effective psychiatric nursing intervention that improves emotional awareness and communication skills. NCT05038927.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Comunicação , Emoções , Humanos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disease with a high risk of developing mental health difficulties. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of the study were to evaluate in moderate-to-severe psoriasis (a) the prevalence of depression and psychopathology, (b) the relationship between depression, psychopathology symptoms, and alexithymia, including its three dimensions, difficulty in identifying feelings (DIF), difficulty in describing feelings (DDF), and externally oriented thinking (EOT), and (c) to establish a novel index for the development of depression according to patients' psychopathological profile. METHODS: In 104 patients, alexithymia was evaluated with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and psychopathology with the Brief Symptom Inventory SCL-90 (SCL90). A psychopathology index that combines information from the BDI and SCL90 scales was constructed and the performance of the index with alexithymia was examined. RESULTS: Female patients and active smokers score higher on BDI and SCL90 scales. Overweight patients tend to score arithmetically higher. The psychopathology index developed correlates significantly with age, DIF, DDF, and TAS-20. DIF, DDF, and TAS-20 are significant predictors of the psychopathology index. Patients with alexithymia/possible alexithymia are six times as likely to score higher in one of the psychopathology scales. CONCLUSIONS: Alexithymia is a significant factor in the development of psychopathology in psoriasis patients. The use of the proposed novel psychopathology index could be essential in order to identify patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis who are more likely to experience depression and psychopathology. This could have an impact on the decision-making of psoriasis treatment and monitoring of the patient.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psoríase , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
3.
J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ ; 27(2): 179-192, 2022 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253852

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to examine theory of mind (ToM), the ability to infer the mental states of others, in young adults who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH), and to explore the influence of alexithymia, an inability to understand emotions of the self and others, on ToM performance in this group. Compared to participants with typical hearing, DHH participants displayed significantly lower affective ToM skills and greater alexithymia. After accounting for verbal intelligence quotient, hearing status and alexithymia significantly contributed to poorer ToM performance, accounting for over 14% of the variance. Having a parent who is deaf and being part of the Deaf community were associated with better emotion processing and appear to be important protective factors. Findings provide support that ToM difficulties may linger into young adulthood among DHH individuals and that alexithymia may be a contributing factor. Early intervention programs emphasizing emotional understanding, perspective-taking, and communication skills are warranted for DHH children as well as their caregivers.


Assuntos
Surdez , Perda Auditiva , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Teoria da Mente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Criança , Surdez/psicologia , Audição , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common skin disease that affects quality of life, especially mental health. Alexithymia has been considered a relevant feature in psoriasis patients. Moreover, psoriasis was found to be associated with negative psychological health, including anxiety and depression. As the pathways linking alexithymia and mental health remain unclear among patients with psoriasis, we aimed to examine the mediating role of anxiety and depression in the relationship between alexithymia and mental health in these patients. METHODS: To explore our variables of interest, we used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: Forty-four percent of patients were alexithymic and reported higher anxiety and depression, and lower quality of life compared to non-alexithymic patients. Alexithymic patients also had lower educational attainment. A correlation analysis showed positive associations between alexithymia and both anxiety and depression, whereas mental and physical health were negatively associated with alexithymia. Moreover, anxiety and depression fully mediated the relationship between alexithymia and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of assessing alexithymia and psychological distress in clinical practice to identify vulnerable patients and to implement interventions aimed at improving negative emotional states.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Psoríase , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Psoríase/complicações , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
5.
Behav Ther ; 53(2): 196-207, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227398

RESUMO

Emotion dysregulation (ED) is prevalent among youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and significantly impacts functioning. Nuanced measurement of ED is central to understanding its role in this disorder and informing treatment approaches. The present study examined the factor structure of the Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC) among children with ADHD with and without Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) conducted in a sample of 328 youth (mean age = 6.08) with ADHD indicated a four-factor solution, comprised of the following factors: Negative Emotion Lability, Positive Emotion Lability, Socially Appropriate Affect, and Socially Incongruent Affect. The Negative and Positive Emotion Lability subscales assess the reactivity of negatively and positively valenced emotions, respectively. The Socially Appropriate and Socially Incongruent Affect subscales provide an assessment of social-emotional functioning. All subscales discriminated between children with ADHD only and ADHD with co-morbid ODD, such that children with ODD had greater emotional lability and social-emotional difficulties. This revised factor structure of the ERC facilitates a uniquely brief, yet multifaceted and specific, assessment of emotional difficulties in children with ADHD that can inform treatment planning and operationalize emotional reactivity and social-emotional functioning in future research efforts.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Regulação Emocional , Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos/complicações , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Lista de Checagem , Criança , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos
6.
J Genet Psychol ; 183(3): 250-262, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35356843

RESUMO

Migraine, which is a highly prevalent headache, is often comorbid with alexithymia. Parental styles contribute to the development of alexithymia. The core psychological mechanisms that connect parenting to alexithymia and can be targeted in psychotherapy are not yet studied. The objective of this study was to explore the role of emotional schemas as a possible mediator between perceived parental styles and alexithymia in migraine patients. Study participants consisted of 208 (67 males and 141 females) Iranians who completed the Farsi version of Toronto Alexithymia Scale (FTAS-20), Leahy Emotional Schema Scale (LESS II), and Measure of Parental Styles (MOPS) online. For mediation analysis, structural equation modeling was used based on Baron and Kenny's mediation model. The results demonstrated that mother overprotection and mother indifference were significantly related to alexithymia in migraine patients. Emotional schemas and alexithymia were also positively and significantly related. Additionally, mother overprotection and father indifference showed positive and significant covariation with emotional schemas. Data analysis with structural equation modeling revealed that emotional schemas partially mediate the relationship between parental styles and alexithymia in migraine patients. The current study expands our knowledge of possible mechanisms that relate childhood experiences of being parented and alexithymia in migraine patients. Findings of this research imply psychological treatments can benefit from targeting emotional schemas in migraine patients with alexithymia.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia
7.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 37: 33-38, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is more than just sentiment sad or passing a rough patch. It is a serious psychological wellbeing disorder that needs curative care and maintenance. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a comprehensive personality construct denoting the capability to perceive and control affects within the self. Alexithymia is another personality construct that refers to the difficulty of recognizing and expressing feelings, with an outside oriented thinking style. Suicidal ideation is defined as thinking of appealing in conduct intentional to end one's life. AIM: The current study aimed to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence, alexithymia and suicidal ideation among depressive patients. DESIGN: A descriptive correlation design was utilized. SETTING: This study was conducted at the Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic in El Ahrar Hospital, Alsharkia Governorate, Egypt. SUBJECTS: A purposeful sample of 65 depressed patients was recruited for this study. TOOLS: Data were collected by using four tools: Socio-demographic Data Sheet, Emotional Intelligence Scales, Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Suicidal Ideation Scale. RESULTS: The majority of depressed patients were having alexithymia and having low emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence was statistically significantly negatively correlated with alexithymia and suicidal ideation. Nevertheless, alexithymia was statistically significantly positively correlated with suicidal ideation. It was statistically significantly positively predictor of suicidal ideation and alexithymia, while it was statistically significantly negatively predictor of suicidal ideation and emotional intelligence. CONCLUSION: Lower emotional intelligence led to higher suicidal ideation in depressive patients. Increasing alexithymia in patients with depressive disorders caused an increase in their suicidal ideation. Therefore, it is recommended implementing a training program such as mindfulness and emotional intelligence skills for patients to enhance their emotional intelligence.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Ideação Suicida , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Egito , Inteligência Emocional , Humanos
8.
J Psychosom Res ; 155: 110751, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35152185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Poor respiratory health outcomes have been associated with poorer physical health and higher psychological distress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether illness worry, alexithymia or low sense of coherence predict i) the onset of new respiratory disease, ii) respiratory symptoms or iii) lung function among the working-age population, independently of comorbidity mood-, anxiety, or alcohol abuse disorders. METHODS: The study was conducted among a nationally representative sample of the Finnish population (BRIF8901) aged 30-54 years (N = 2310) in 2000-2001 and was followed up in 2011. Individuals with a diagnosed respiratory disease or a severe psychiatric disorder at baseline were excluded. Lung function was measured by a spirometry test and psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using a structured clinical interview. Structured questionnaires were used to measure self-reported respiratory symptoms and diseases, illness worry, alexithymia, and sense of coherence. RESULTS: High illness worry predicted an 11-year incidence of asthma (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.09-1.99, p = 0.01). Alexithymia predicted shortness of breath (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.13-1.53, p < 0.01) and 11-year incidence of COPD (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.37-5.88, p < 0.01), even after several adjustments for physical and mental health. Psychological dispositions did not associate with lung function in 2011. CONCLUSIONS: In the general population, psychological factors that modify health behaviour predicted adverse respiratory health outcomes independently of lung function after 11 years of follow-up. This indicates that considering them part of personalized treatment planning is important for promoting health-related behaviour among the working-age population.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Ansiedade , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 30(3): 193-205, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137501

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alexithymia is proposed as a prominent clinical feature of eating disorders (EDs). However, despite theoretical reason to believe that alexithymia could interfere with the success of treatments, few studies have tested whether alexithymia changes over the course of treatment. The goals of the current study were to evaluate (a) changes in alexithymia over the course of intensive Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) for EDs, and (b) associations between alexithymia and ED symptoms over time. METHOD: A mixed-diagnostic group of patients with EDs (N = 894) completed the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) throughout intensive treatment and at various lengths of follow-up (6, 12, 24 months). RESULTS: Results suggested that even after controlling for relevant covariates, there were significant decreases in alexithymia from intake to discharge and discharge to follow-up. Models exploring changes in self-reported ED symptoms indicated that TAS-20 scores significantly related to ED symptoms across timepoints, such that greater alexithymia was associated with greater severity of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, findings support an association between alexithymia and ED symptoms over treatment and suggest that emotion-focussed therapies like DBT may result in decreases in alexithymia. Future research should explore whether this effect is consistent across therapies without an emotional focus.


Assuntos
Terapia do Comportamento Dialético , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Emoções , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Humanos
10.
Autism ; 26(2): 308-316, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35109700

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: In this study, we aim to explore the ability of autistic children to process emotions and respond to a range of feelings in relation to a triad of difficulties known as alexithymia, namely children's difficulties to recognize, describe, and distinguish emotions. Alexithymia is common in autistic adults but we know very little about children. To understand this condition better, within a large group of studies, first we study the extent to which alexithymia difficulties are present in autistic children. In reviewing the literature, we also present the assessment measures implemented in each study, their limitations, and potential effects on our understanding of findings. This knowledge will help us understand the extent to which alexithymia is present in autistic children and how it may be related to their emotional difficulties. Also, it will allow us to further detect challenges early on in children's lives so that we recommend interventions that teach autistic children how to recognize, describe, and distinguish emotions in themselves and in others. Such interventions may include family members of autistic children to assist interactions with their child. Supporting children from an early age will help them develop skills that will ready them for school and life and it will enhance their ability to build supportive relationships and meet their fullest potential.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Emoções , Família , Humanos
11.
J Affect Disord ; 302: 224-233, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35092756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alexithymia is a multidimensional personality trait comprised of difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, and externally orientated thinking. The assessment of alexithymia in people with acquired brain injury (ABI) is of clinical interest because alexithymia is linked to poor psychosocial functioning and community reintegration after ABI. To date, alexithymia measures have not been psychometrically investigated/validated in an ABI sample, restricting confident empirical work in this area. We aimed to fill this gap by assessing the psychometric properties of the Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire (PAQ) in adults with ABI and determining whether the alexithymia construct manifests similarly in ABI samples compared to the general community. METHODS: The PAQ and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 were administered to an ABI sample (N = 350) and a community sample (N = 1012). Factor structure, measurement invariance, internal consistency reliability, and concurrent/discriminant validity were explored. RESULTS: Our confirmatory factor analysis of the PAQ supported the intended five-factor correlated model as the best solution, where items loaded well onto the five intended subscales. This factor structure was invariant across ABI and community samples. Good reliability and concurrent and discriminant validity were also established. LIMITATIONS: The PAQ is a self-report measure and may be impacted by insight deficits known to occur after ABI. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that the PAQ has good validity and reliability as a measure of alexithymia. The latent structure of alexithymia manifests similarly in ABI and community samples. This study provides the first psychometric foundation for confident assessment of alexithymia in ABI.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Lesões Encefálicas , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Scand J Psychol ; 63(2): 100-108, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066882

RESUMO

In the postpartum period, some parents experience problems in bonding with the infant, which can lead to difficulties in adjusting to the parental caregiving role. Alexithymia, through deficits in emotional processing, could potentially be associated with problems in parental postpartum bonding. In the current study, this association has been explored in a large population-based sample of mothers and fathers, and to our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate this association. The study population (n = 2,671) was part of the FinnBrain Birth Cohort study and included 1,766 mothers and 905 fathers who returned The Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) at three months postpartum and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) at six months postpartum. Correlation analyses and hierarchical regression modeling, adjusted for selected background factors, were performed separately for mothers and fathers. The alexithymia dimension "Difficulty Identifying Feelings" (DIF) in mothers and fathers, and additionally dimensions of "Difficulty Describing Feelings" (DDF) and "Externally Oriented Thinking" (EOT) in fathers were associated with weaker postpartum bonding, when related background factors were controlled for. To our knowledge this was the first study to investigate the relationship between parents' alexithymic traits and postpartum bonding within a large birth cohort study population. The main finding was that especially higher levels of maternal DIF and paternal EOT were associated with weaker postpartum bonding. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish the potential causality of this relationship.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pais , Período Pós-Parto
13.
Am J Addict ; 31(1): 55-60, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prescription opioid (PO) use disorder is a national public health crisis. Distress tolerance and alexithymia are two separate but related components of emotion regulation that are known to impact substance use disorders. No studies to date, however, have examined the role of distress tolerance and alexithymia in PO use disorder. Thus, the current study examined the association between distress tolerance, alexithymia, and specific motivations for PO use. METHODS: Participants were non-treatment-seeking individuals with current PO use disorder (N = 81; average age = 35.0). Assessments included the Distress Tolerance Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Inventory of Drug Taking Situations. RESULTS: The findings indicate that distress tolerance mediated the association between alexithymia and PO use in negative situations. Specifically, distress tolerance mediated the association between alexithymia and unpleasant emotions, testing personal control, and conflict with others. CONCLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: The results provide novel information regarding emotional states that may contribute to PO use and are malleable intervention targets. Additionally, this study adds to existing literature exploring the relationship between distress tolerance and substance use and is the first to expand upon the connection between alexithymia and distress tolerance in an opioid-using population. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Emoções , Humanos , Motivação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Prescrições
14.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 33(1): e13680, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality construct described as "a lack of words to express emotions" that includes difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings and a concrete, externally oriented cognitive style. Among patients with food allergy (FA) alexithymia has been found higher than in general population and associated with dysfunctional coping strategies. Childhood traumatic experiences and/or dysfunctional parent-child relationship can contribute to alexithymia. The study aimed to explore possible associations between child alexithymia and mother alexithymia and anxiety, as well as previous anaphylaxis. METHODS: Sixty-five mother-child pairs have been recruited. Children had a medical diagnosis of FA. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 was used to assess alexithymia in participants. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess trait anxiety in mothers. Statistical analysis was performed to investigate the influence of variables sex, previous anaphylaxis, and adrenaline auto-injector prescription on child and mother's alexithymia and to explore possible association between maternal and child alexithymia. RESULTS: A substantial percentage of children were alexithymic (21.5%) or borderline (33.8%), while mothers' frequencies were lower and in line with prevalence in general population. Child alexithymia was positively associated with previous anaphylaxis and mothers' trait anxiety (p < .05). Mother trait anxiety was also associated with maternal alexithymia. Furthermore, a positive association between child and mother alexithymia has been found. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians must be aware of the role of alexithymia and its association with maternal anxiety and previous anaphylaxis in children with FA, encouraging seeking psychological support when needed. A multidisciplinary patient-centered approach should be put in place for the effective care of FA.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Adaptação Psicológica , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos
15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 85(2): 691-699, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) have a large impact on the quality of life of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Few studies have compared BPSD between early-onset (EOAD) and late-onset (LOAD) patients, finding conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to: 1) characterize the presence, overall prevalence, and time of occurrence of BPSD in EOAD versus LOAD; 2) estimate the prevalence over time and severity of each BPSD in EOAD versus LOAD in three stages: pre-T0 (before the onset of the disease), T0 (from onset to 5 years), and T1 (from 5 years onwards); 3) track the manifestation of BPSD sub-syndromes (i.e., hyperactivity, psychosis, affective, and apathy) in EOAD versus LOAD at T0 and T1. METHODS: The sample includes 1,538 LOAD and 387 EOAD diagnosed from 1996 to 2018. Comprehensive assessment batteries, including the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), were administered at the first medical assessment and at different follow-up period. RESULTS: The overall prevalence for the most of BPSD was significantly higher in EOAD compared to LOAD whereas most BPSD appeared significantly later in EOAD patients. Between the two groups, from pre-T0 to T1 we recorded a different pattern of BPSD prevalence over time as well as for BPSD sub-syndromes at T0 and T1. Results on severity of BPSD did not show significant differences. CONCLUSION: EOAD and LOAD represent two different forms of a single entity not only from a neuropathological, cognitive, and functional level but also from a psychiatric point of view.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apatia , Demência/complicações , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Agitação Psicomotora/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 52(5): 2019-2034, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060002

RESUMO

Despite the heterogeneity in autism, socioemotional difficulties are often framed as universal. Increasing evidence, however, suggests that socioemotional difficulties may be explained by alexithymia, a distinct yet frequently co-occurring condition. If, as some propose, autistic traits are responsible for socioemotional impairments, then alexithymia may itself be a symptom of autism. We aimed to determine whether alexithymia should be considered a product of autism or regarded as a separate condition. Using factor-analytic and network approaches, we provide evidence that alexithymic and autistic traits are distinct. We argue that: (1) models of socioemotional processing in autism should conceptualise difficulties as intrinsic to alexithymia; and (2) assessment of alexithymia is crucial for diagnosis and personalised interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Humanos , Fenótipo
17.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 52(4): 1855-1871, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047905

RESUMO

To date, studies have not established whether autistic and non-autistic individuals differ in emotion recognition from facial motion cues when matched in terms of alexithymia. Here, autistic and non-autistic adults (N = 60) matched on age, gender, non-verbal reasoning ability and alexithymia, completed an emotion recognition task, which employed dynamic point light displays of emotional facial expressions manipulated in terms of speed and spatial exaggeration. Autistic participants exhibited significantly lower accuracy for angry, but not happy or sad, facial motion with unmanipulated speed and spatial exaggeration. Autistic, and not alexithymic, traits were predictive of accuracy for angry facial motion with unmanipulated speed and spatial exaggeration. Alexithymic traits, in contrast, were predictive of the magnitude of both correct and incorrect emotion ratings.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Reconhecimento Facial , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ira , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Humanos
18.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 52(5): 1971-1983, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041681

RESUMO

People on the autism spectrum may have difficulty inferring others' emotions (cognitive empathy), but may share another's emotions (affective empathy) and exhibit heightened personal distress. The present study examined independent autistic trait dimensions (social difficulties and restricted/repetitive behaviours) and the roles alexithymia and trait anxiety have in explaining this profile of empathy. Results from the general population (n = 301) revealed that pronounced social difficulties and not restricted/repetitive behaviours related to reduced cognitive and affective empathy, and heightened personal distress. However, both dimensions, through alexithymia and anxiety, indirectly influenced empathy. Surprisingly, while the dimensions indirectly improved affective empathy, pronounced social difficulties directly reduced affective empathy. This study motivates a nuanced model of empathy by including autistic trait dimensions, anxiety, and alexithymia.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ansiedade , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Emoções , Empatia , Humanos
19.
Psychol Res ; 86(3): 844-857, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097132

RESUMO

In recent years, research on interoceptive abilities (i.e., sensibility, accuracy, and awareness) and their associations with emotional experience has flourished. Yet interoceptive abilities in alexithymia-a personality trait characterized by a difficulty in the cognitive interpretation of emotional arousal, which impacts emotional experience-remain under-investigated, thereby limiting a full understanding of subjective emotional experience processing. Research has proposed two contrasting explanations thus far: in one model, the dimensions of interoceptive sensibility and accuracy in alexithymia would increase; in the other model, they would decrease. Surprisingly, the contribution of interoceptive awareness has been minimally researched. In this study (N = 182), the relationship between participants' level of alexithymia and the three interoceptive dimensions was tested. Our results show that the higher the level of alexithymia is, the higher interoceptive accuracy and sensibility (R2 = 0.29 and R2 = 0.14); conversely, the higher the level of alexithymia is, the lower interoceptive awareness (R2 = 0.36). Moreover, an ROC analysis reveals that interoceptive awareness is the most accurate predictor of alexithymia, yielding over 92% accuracy. Collectively, these results support a coherent understanding of interoceptive abilities in alexithymia, whereby the dissociation of interoceptive accuracy and awareness may explain the underlying psycho-physiological mechanisms of alexithymia. A possible neurocognitive mechanism is discussed which suggests insurgence of psychosomatic disorders in alexithymia and related psychotherapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Emoções , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Nível de Alerta , Transtornos Dissociativos , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos
20.
J Gambl Stud ; 38(1): 235-251, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844125

RESUMO

Gambling Disorder is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon which requires a careful understanding by analysing both the life experiences and the psychopathological components linked to this type of behaviour. This study aimed to apply a Comprehensive Model of Addiction and to delve deeper the dimensions involved in the vulnerability and maintenance of the disease. Therefore, the effect of alexithymia and traumatic experiences in mediating the relationship between insecure attachment and dissociation, as well as the roles of impulsiveness and compulsiveness in influencing obsessiveness were explored in pathological gamblers. A sample composed of 253 individuals with a mean age of 47.8 years (SD = 12.4) with a diagnosis of Gambling Disorder (82.6% males, 17.4% females) completed the battery of measures. Results showed that alexithymia significantly mediates the relationship between insecure attachment and dissociation, while no significance was found in the effect of complex trauma. Furthermore, a significant impact role of impulsiveness and compulsiveness in determining obsessiveness was found. Therefore, the data suggested that alexithymia may increase the risk of developing a gambling disorder, mediating the association between insecure attachment and dissociation. The model of craving which could have a core role in disease maintenance processes was also confirmed, highlighting a significant influence of impulsiveness and compulsiveness on obsessiveness. Such findings might have relevant implications to increase the effectiveness of both preventive interventions and therapeutic works, favouring positive results for a better mental health of the subjects.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogo de Azar , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Compulsivo , Transtornos Dissociativos , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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