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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(Suppl 3): 801, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989272

RESUMO

Ecotourism is the greener variant of tourism which advocates conservation of biodiversity and acts as a development strategy to build a self-sustainable system to help protect and further enhance the ecosystem through the income generated by ecotourism activities. There is a strong linkage between biodiversity conservation and ecotourism which has also been recognized by the UN and finds its place under the technical note on "Biodiversity and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development". But, are the stakeholders of the ecotourism destinations religiously following practices that will ensure biodiversity conservation at all times is something that needs continuous evaluation and validation. The authors have worked in the past on developing multi-stage methodology (ESA Framework, ESM Model and their validation) using Qualitative and Quantitative techniques and successfully developed Ecotourism Sustainability Assessment Method (ESAM) for such an appraisal. The present paper aims at devising a process which will show the applicability of ESM model in identifying the biodiversity related and other environmental factors, adversely impacting the ecotourism destination at present, or may impact it in times to come. In addition, it also offers the prescription to solve these issues and achieve the goal of ecotourism sustainability at the operational level. This proposed process initially will be defined with the help of a site-level case study of Mt. Kangchendzonga Base Camp Trek, Sikkim. Later, this would be extended to other ecologies and geographies so that in the future, a robust and useful model, applicable for most of the ecotourism destinations, can be developed.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Siquim
2.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(3): 435-438, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553803

RESUMO

Emitted scent volatile profile of an orchid species Zygopetalum maculatum was studied using dynamic headspace sampling technique with four different adsorbent matrices, namely Porapak Type Q polymer (mesh size: 80/100), Tenax (mesh size: 60/80), activated charcoal and graphite. In addition, developmental variations in scent emissions and endogenous volatile levels were also investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of 21 volatile compounds in the headspace, which was predominantly enriched with benzenoid compounds. Among these benzenoids, o-diethylbenzene and p-diethylbenzene were the major compounds followed by benzyl acetate and methyl salicylate. Among the phenylpropanoid compounds, 2-phenylethyl acetate was the major volatile. However, as compared to benzenoids, the quantity was much lesser, indicating the inclination of phenylalanine flux towards benzenoid pathway. The outcome of this study has the implications in enhancing fragrance and vase life of orchids of the Sikkim Himalaya region and thus may further help to meet the growing market demand.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Orchidaceae/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/química , Derivados de Benzeno/isolamento & purificação , Carvão Vegetal , Flores/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Siquim , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
3.
Environ Manage ; 63(2): 233-248, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542741

RESUMO

The governance of natural resources now attracts greater participation of different stakeholders, ushering in a shift from conventional governance by the state to that by a network of stakeholders-a form of governance marked by a growing role of non-state and local actors. These changing dynamics are highlighted through a study of the governance network for springsheds in the Indian Himalayas by empirically mapping the changes in the Dhara Vikas Yojna, a plan or scheme (yojana) by the state for the development (vikas) of springs (dhara) in Sikkim, India, from policy planning to policy implementation. The study highlights the diverse existing and emerging roles of different stakeholders, the complex relationships between them, and the power dynamics that influence the management of springsheds. The study (1) identified some new but missing actors/actor groups that were critical to managing springs; (2) showed that although state governments continue to play a dominant role, decision making is shifting to non-state and local actors; and (3) highlighted the importance of exchanging knowledge and information in implementing a policy more effectively. Understanding the characteristics of the governance network helped in drawing lessons to make the plan more sustainable and replicable, which include considering the policy in the wider context of policies for other sectors such as sanitation and hydropower development, incentivising the emerging actors, and building a stronger interdisciplinary and inclusive knowledge network. Such an integrated approach to policymaking can also be adopted to analyze governance networks related to natural resources other than water.


Assuntos
Formulação de Políticas , Rede Social , Tomada de Decisões , Índia , Siquim
5.
Indian J Med Res ; 147(3): 268-277, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923516

RESUMO

Background & objectives: : The prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in India is among the highest in the world. In the last two decades, several national surveys have estimated haemoglobin levels in pregnant women. In this study, data from these surveys were analyzed to find out changes, if any, in prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Methods: : National and State-level estimates on the prevalence of anaemia were tabulated from the reports of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2, NFHS 3, Fact Sheets of NFHS 4 and District Level Household Survey (DLHS) 2. Unit level data from DLHS 4 and Annual Health Survey Clinical Anthropometric and Biochemical component (AHS CAB) were obtained and State level prevalence of different grades of anaemia was estimated. Time trends in the prevalence of anaemia and different grades of anaemia were assessed from these surveys. Results: : NFHS 2, 3 and 4 reported relatively lower prevalence of anaemia as compared to DLHS and AHS CAB. There was not much change in the prevalence or severity of anaemia between NFHS 2, 3 and 4. There was substantial reduction in the prevalence and severity of anaemia in all States except Uttarakhand between DLHS 2 and 4 and DLHS 2 and AHS CAB. Interpretation & conclusions: : There was a reduction in the prevalence and severity of anaemia in the last 15 years. The two-pronged strategy of increasing iron intake (dietary diversification and use of iron-fortified iodized salt) in all the population and testing, and detecting and treating pregnant women with anaemia will accelerate the pace of reduction in anaemia.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Anemia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Siquim
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 637-638: 730-745, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758429

RESUMO

Northeastern regions of India are known for their floral and faunal biodiversity. Especially the state of Sikkim lies in the eastern Himalayan ecological hotspot region. The state harbors many sulfur rich hot springs which have therapeutic and spiritual values. However, these hot springs are yet to be explored for their microbial ecology. The development of neo generation techniques such as metagenomics has provided an opportunity for inclusive study of microbial community of different environment. The present study describes the microbial diversity in two hot springs of Sikkim that is Polok and Borong with the assist of culture dependent and culture independent approaches. The culture independent techniques used in this study were next generation sequencing (NGS) and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Analysis (PLFA). Having relatively distinct geochemistry both the hot springs are thermophilic environments with the temperature range of 50-77 °C and pH range of 5-8. Metagenomic data revealed the dominance of bacteria over archaea. The most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes although other phyla were also present such as Acidobacteria, Nitrospirae, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Parcubacteria and Spirochaetes. The PLFA studies have shown the abundance of Gram Positive bacteria followed by Gram negative bacteria. The culture dependent technique was correlative with PLFA studies. Most abundant bacteria as isolated and identified were Gram-positive genus Geobacillus and Anoxybacillus. The genus Geobacillus has been reported for the first time in North-Eastern states of India. The Geobacillus species obtained from the concerned hot springs were Geobacillus toebii, Geobacillus lituanicus, Geobacillus Kaustophillus and the Anoxybacillus species includes Anoxybacillus gonensis and Anoxybacillus Caldiproteolyticus. The distribution of major genera and their statistical correlation analyses with the geochemistry of the springs predicted that the temperature, pH, alkalinity, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl2+, and sulfur were main environmental variables influencing the microbial community composition and diversity. Also the piper diagram suggested that the water of both the hot springs are Ca-HCO3- type and can be predicted as shallow fresh ground waters. This study has provided an insight into the ecological interaction of the diverse microbial communities and associated physicochemical parameters, which will help in determining the future studies on different biogeochemical pathways in these hot springs.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Archaea , Biodiversidade , Índia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Siquim
7.
Microb Drug Resist ; 24(9): 1284-1288, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653482

RESUMO

Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria are a global health threat both in hospital and in community settings. The emergence of these organisms poses major difficulty in treating infections. This study was carried out to assess major ESBL-producing uropathogens in female patients of Sikkim and Darjeeling by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Out of 1,516 urine samples, 454 uropathogens were isolated with a prevalence rate of 29.94%. Among them, Escherichia coli (74.3%) was the predominant type followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.4%), and Proteus mirabilis (1.98%). Four different ESBL genes were detected in 63 isolates, which included CTX-M (n = 32), CTX-M+OXA-2 (n = 15), CTX-M-15+OXA-2+TEM (n = 6), OXA-2 (n = 5), TEM+CTX-M-15 (n = 2), TEM+OXA-2+SHV-76 (n = 2), and TEM (n = 1). All ESBL genes (bla genes) were found on a plasmid, which was mostly of HI1, I1, FIA+FIB, FIA, and Y types and was horizontally transferable. Among all ESBL genes, blaCTX-M-I5 group was the most prevalent. The study of urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by ESBL-producing bacteria needs to be studied in other high-altitude parts of India to understand the actual burden of UTI in the female.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Plasmídeos/genética , Siquim , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 50(5): 1131-1138, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445929

RESUMO

In this study, the seroprevalence and distribution of Leptospira in dairy cattle in endemic states of India were investigated in association with reproductive problems of the cattle. A total of 373 cattle serum samples from 45 farms in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Sikkim and Uttarakhand states were collected from animals with a history of reproductive disorders like abortion, repeat breeding, anoestrus and endometritis, and also from apparently healthy animals. These samples were screened for Leptospira serogroup-specific antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) using a panel of 18 live reference serovar antigens. The seropositivity of 70.51% (263/373, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.75) was associated with reproductive problems (χ2 = 55.71, p < 0.01) and sampled states (χ2 = 32.99, p < 0.01) and independent of apparently healthy animals (χ2 = 15.6, p > 0.10) and age groups of cattle (χ2 = 0.91, p > 0.10). Further, the odds (risk-relation) of reproductive disorders was 5.29 compared to apparently healthy animals (0.25 odds). The frequency distribution of predominant serogroup-specific Leptospira antibodies were determined against the serovars: Hardjo (27.76%), Pyrogenes (18.63%), Canicola and Javanica (17.49%), Hebdomadis (17.11%), Shermani and Panama (16.73%), Djasiman (16.35%), Tarassovi, Grippotyphosa and Pomona (15.97%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (15.59%), Copenhageni (14.83%), Australis (13.69%), Kaup and Hurstbridge (10.65%), Bankinang (10.27%) and Bataviae (9.51%). In conclusion, dairy cattle have a role in maintaining important several serovars besides well-known Hardjo serovar in endemic states of India and warrant mitigating measures to reduce the incidence of cattle leptospirosis including need for an intensive surveillance programme, preventive vaccination and control strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/veterinária , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Endometrite , Feminino , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/microbiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/imunologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Reprodução , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo , Siquim/epidemiologia
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 626: 468-477, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396330

RESUMO

Narrowing the gap between research, policy making and implementing adaptation remains a challenge in many parts of the world where climate change is likely to severely impact water security. This research aims to narrow this gap by matching the adaptation strategies being framed by policy makers to that of the perspectives of development agencies, researchers and farmers in the Himalayan state of Sikkim in India. Our case study examined the perspectives of various stakeholders for climate change impacts, current adaptation strategies, knowledge gaps and adaptation barriers, particularly in the context of implementing the Sikkim State Action Plan on Climate Change through semi-structured interviews carried out with decision makers in the Sikkim State Government, researchers, consultants, local academia, development agencies and farmers. Using Stakeholders Network Analysis tools, this research unravels the complexities of perceiving climate change impacts, identifying strategies, and implementing adaptation. While farmers are less aware about the global phenomenon of climate change impacts for water security, their knowledge of the local conditions and their close interaction with the State Government Agriculture Department provides them opportunities. Although important steps are being initiated through the Sikkim State Action Plan on Climate Change it is yet to deliver effective means of adaptation implementation and hence, strengthening the networks of close coordination between the various implementing agencies will pay dividends. Knowledge gaps and the need for capacity building identified in this research, based on the understandings of key stakeholders are highly relevant to both the research community and for informing policy.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Mudança Climática , Qualidade da Água , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Siquim
10.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(2): 234-238, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649854

RESUMO

This study compared eight major ginsenosides (Rg1, Rg2, Rf, Re, Rd, Rc, Rb1 and Rb2) between Panax sokpayensis and Panax bipinnatifidus collected from Sikkim Himalaya, India. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that all major ginsenosides were present in the rhizomes of P. sokpayensis except ginsenoside Rc, whereas ginsenoside Rf, Rc and Rb2 were not detected in P. bipinnatifidus.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/análise , Panax/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Índia , Rizoma/química , Siquim , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 21(5): 1127-1134, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27306925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and pattern of musculosketetal abnormalities in school-going children living in the hilly and foothill regions of the Eastern Himalayas using the pediatric Gait, Arms, Legs, Spine (pGALS) screening tool. METHODS: Total of 3608 children, aged 3-12 years were enrolled from 16 schools (5 in the hills) in the eastern Himalayan region. After the three screening questions, the pGALS maneuvers were administered. Subjects were shown a video on pGALS before the actual testing. Those detected to have abnormality were probed in greater detail and referred for treatment as necessary. RESULTS: The pGALS examination was completed in 3463 children with a median time of 3 min (range 1.9-5.4 min). The abnormality pattern was in the order: growing pains (38.86%), hypermobility (25.54%), mechanical pains (24.46%) and others (11.14%). Among mechanical pain, back and neck problems occurred with a similar overall frequency of 7.61%. Similar order was observed considering only children from the pains. However, in hill children, the proportion of mechanical problems (32.28%) exceeded proportion of hypermobility (23.62%). Asymptomatic hypermobility was more common than symptomatic hypermobility. Maximum prevalence of hypermobility was in 6-9 year age group. Of the 94 children with hypermobility, 55.32% had some kind of joint pain. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric Gait, Arms, Legs, Spine is an acceptable screening tool for musculoskeletal abnormalities in apparently healthy children. Growing pain is the commonest musculoskeletal complaint while hypermobility is the commonest physical abnormality in school-going children in the Eastern Himalayas. Asymptomatic hypermobility is more common than symptomatic hypermobility.


Assuntos
Braço/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Marcha , Perna (Membro)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Coluna Vertebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores Etários , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/epidemiologia , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Instabilidade Articular/diagnóstico , Instabilidade Articular/epidemiologia , Instabilidade Articular/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Siquim/epidemiologia
12.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 16(63): 216-219, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719309

RESUMO

Background Hepatitis E virus is a significant public health menace in developing countries and is being reported from newer geographical regions. It is enterically transmitted and causes acute hepatitis. Objective The objective of this study is to correlate the patient details from outbreak of Hepatitis E in 2012 with the water culture done during that period. Method Records of the patients with Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in 2012 were analysed. Their serum samples were tested for Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Hepatitis E virus by rapid immunochormatography (ICT) and further confirmed by Immunoglobulin M Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA) in National Centre for Disease Control, New Delhi. Water was tested by the Multiple Tube test method using double strength Mc Conkey broth with neutral red and H2 S test method. Result Patients with febrile jaundice (n-62) were screened for Hepatitis E virus and 32 were positive by rapid Immunochromatography test and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The overall attack rate was 0.03%. Drinking water from ten different localities in Gangtok were tested and 83% of the water were found to be unsatisfactory for drinking during that period. Conclusion Regular testing of water quality and public education and awareness is important to curb such outbreaks in future.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite E/etiologia , Hepatite E/transmissão , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/patogenicidade , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Icterícia/etiologia , Masculino , Siquim
13.
14.
Acta Trop ; 176: 402-411, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935556

RESUMO

Culicoides orientalis was first recorded from Sikkim, in the year 1963, but no evidence based disease outbreak were available. In the last 50 years, 260 Bluetongue disease outbreaks caused by Culicoides species have been evidenced from India. Moreover, in recent years with increase of average temperature worldwide and increase in longevity of arthropod vectors like Culicoides along with a geographical range shift to new suitable warmer regions has increased the potentiality of vector borne disease outbreak throughout the world. The Himalayan range of Sikkim in India is a biodiversity hotspot and is extremely sensitive to such global climate changes. An attempt has been made to evaluate the altitude, climate and environmental data on selected study sites of Sikkim for a period of two years (2014-2015) for discerning potential distribution of C.orientalis in this region. The altitude, temperature, precipitation and potential distribution range maps of C. orientalis showed the areas of highest species abundance within the altitudinal range of 550-1830m, with some species extending its range up to 3750m, with average precipitation of 2010-2590mm and mean temperature of 11-18°C. The Maximum Entropy Modelling (MaxEnt) and the Jackknife test of the MaxEnt model further revealed that the major contributing factors governing C. orientalis distribution are annual precipitation (78.8%), followed by precipitation of driest quarter (8.3%) and mean temperature of the warmest quarter (3.3%). Accuracy of the study was evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC=0.860). The Biplot on F1-F2 axes (N=16, α=0.05) in the PCA showed the linear depiction of all the variables considered in our study, major contributors were annual precipitation, precipitation of driest quarter and mean temperature of warmest quarter being the primary factors governing species distribution, as analogous to results of the MaxEnt model. This study would help in developing strategies for monitoring and managing surveillance programmes to control the chances of disease spread to livestock animals and also validate the predictions on the eventual spread of the vector midges to higher altitudes of Sikkim.


Assuntos
Altitude , Ceratopogonidae , Insetos Vetores , Chuva , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Bluetongue/transmissão , Vírus Bluetongue , Geografia , Siquim
15.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 13(1): 21, 2017 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28356115

RESUMO

Biocultural knowledge provides valuable insight into ecological processes, and can guide conservation practitioners in local contexts. In many regions, however, such knowledge is underutilized due to its often-fragmented record in disparate sources. In this article, we review and apply ethnobiological knowledge to biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas. Using Sikkim, India as a case study, we: (i) traced the history and trends of ethnobiological documentation; (ii) identified priority species and habitat types; and, (iii) analyzed within and among community differences pertaining to species use and management. Our results revealed that Sikkim is a biocultural hotspot, where six ethnic communities and 1128 species engage in biocultural relationships. Since the mid-1800s, the number of ethnobiological publications from Sikkim has exponentially increased; however, our results also indicate that much of this knowledge is both unwritten and partitioned within an aging, gendered, and caste or ethnic group-specific stratum of society. Reviewed species were primarily wild or wild cultivated, native to subtropical and temperate forests, and pend IUCN Red List of Threatened Species assessment. Our results demonstrate the value of engaging local knowledge holders as active participants in conservation, and suggest the need for further ethnobiological research in the Eastern Himalayas. Our interdisciplinary approach, which included rank indices and geospatial modelling, can help integrate diverse datasets into evidence-based policy.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Etnobotânica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Cultura , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Siquim
16.
Acta Trop ; 169: 62-68, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28040481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Educational initiatives targeting at-risk populations have long been recognized as a mainstay of ongoing rabies control efforts. Cluster-based studies are often utilized to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices of a population in response to education campaigns. The design of cluster-based studies requires estimates of intra-cluster correlation coefficients obtained from previous studies. This study estimates the school-level intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) for rabies knowledge change following an educational intervention program. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 226 students from 7 schools in Sikkim, India, using cluster sampling. In order to assess knowledge uptake, rabies education sessions with pre- and post-session questionnaires were administered. Paired differences of proportions were estimated for questions answered correctly. A mixed effects logistic regression model was developed to estimate school-level and student-level ICCs and to test for associations between gender, age, school location and educational level. RESULTS: The school- and student-level ICCs for rabies knowledge and awareness were 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.19) and 0.05 (95% CI: 0.2, 0.09), respectively. These ICCs suggest design effect multipliers of 5.45 schools and 1.05 students per school, will be required when estimating sample sizes and designing future cluster randomized trials. There was a good baseline level of rabies knowledge (mean pre-session score 71%), however, key knowledge gaps were identified in understanding appropriate behavior around scared dogs, potential sources of rabies and how to correctly order post rabies exposure precaution steps. After adjusting for the effect of gender, age, school location and education level, school and individual post-session test scores improved by 19%, with similar performance amongst boys and girls attending schools in urban and rural regions. The proportion of participants that were able to correctly order post-exposure precautionary steps following educational intervention increased by 87%. CONCLUSION: The ICC estimates presented in this study will aid in designing cluster-based studies evaluating educational interventions as part of disease control programs. This study demonstrates the likely benefits of educational intervention incorporating bite prevention and rabies education.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Adolescente , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Raiva/epidemiologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , Siquim/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 106: 55-60, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27640954

RESUMO

Asian pika species are morphologically ∼similar and have overlapping ranges. This leads to uncertainty and species misidentification in the field. Phylogenetic analyses of such misidentified samples leads to taxonomic ambiguity. The ecology of many pika species remains understudied, particularly in the Himalaya, where sympatric species could be separated by elevation and/or substrate. We sampled, measured, and acquired genetic data from pikas in the Sikkim Himalaya. Our analyses revealed a cryptic lineage, Ochotona sikimaria, previously reported as a subspecies of O. thibetana. The results support the elevation of this lineage to the species level, as it is genetically divergent from O. thibetana, as well as sister species, O. cansus (endemic to central China) and O. curzoniae (endemic to the Tibetan plateau). The Sikkim lineage diverged from its sister species' about 1.7-0.8myrago, coincident with uplift events in the Himalaya. Our results add to the recent spate of cryptic diversity identified from the eastern Himalaya and highlight the need for further study within the Ochotonidae.


Assuntos
Lagomorpha/classificação , Animais , Citocromos b/classificação , Citocromos b/genética , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/metabolismo , Lagomorpha/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Siquim
18.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 60(4): 541-545, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323069

RESUMO

Changing pattern of dermatophytic infection among people of Sikkim over the past few years and its recurrence rate has brought a need to do a study on clinical pattern and its recurrence from this part of the country. The objectives of this study are to discern the clinical patterns of dermatophytosis, identification of the isolated fungi to its species level and to see the pattern of its recurrence. The study was carried out from January 2015 to May 2016. A total of 192 samples were collected from the patients with clinical findings of dermatophytic infection. Required history of the patients was taken, followed by clinical examination of the lesions and sample collection. The samples were processed for mycological study till species identification and a follow up of patients were done to assess its recurrence pattern. The age distribution of the patients was from 2 to 80 years. The mean and median age was 30.33 and 33 years respectively. The male female ratio was 1.8:1. Dermatophytosis was noted more commonly in students (n = 64, 33.33%) and jawans (n = 44, 22.92%). Maximum occurrence was noted from April to July (n = 106, 55.20%) and was seen mainly in young Hindu males. Tinea corporis (n = 104, 54.16%) was the most common clinical manifestation followed by tinea unguium (n = 30, 15.63%). T. mentagrophyte (40%) was the most common species followed by T. schoenleinii (33.3%), T. tonsurans (16.6%) and T. rubrum (6.6%). The recurrence rate was seen most commonly in clinical cases of tinea faciei 100%, followed by tinea pedis 80% and tinea unguium 46.6%. Overall clinical cure rate was 58.3% and recurrence rate was 34.3%. In the isolated species of dermatophytes, the recurrence rate was 73.68% and that of non-dermatophytes it was 28.07%. Dermatophytosis is an important health problem with high recurrence in Sikkim with difference in the etiological agent from other parts of India.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais , Siquim/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 188(10): 596, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27687183

RESUMO

Forests in the mountains are a treasure trove; harbour a large biodiversity; and provide fodder, firewood, timber and non-timber forest products; all of these are essential for human survival in the highest mountains on earth. The present paper attempts a spatiotemporal assessment of forest fragmentation and changes in land use land cover (LULC) pattern using multitemporal satellite data over a time span of around a decade (2000-2009), within the third highest protected area (PA) in the world. The fragmentation analysis using Landscape Fragmentation Tool (LFT) depicts a decrease in large core, edge and patches areas by 5.93, 3.64 and 0.66 %, respectively, while an increase in non-forest and perforated areas by 6.59 and 4.01 %, respectively. The land cover dynamics shows a decrease in open forest, alpine scrub, alpine meadows, snow and hill shadow areas by 2.81, 0.39, 8.18, 3.46 and 0.60 %, respectively, and there is an increase in dense forest and glacier area by 4.79 and 10.65 %, respectively. The change analysis shows a major transformation in areas from open forest to dense forest and from alpine meadows to alpine scrub. In order to quantify changes induced by forest fragmentation and to characterize composition and configuration of LULC mosaics, fragmentation indices were computed using Fragstats at class level, showing the signs of accelerated fragmentation. The outcome of the analysis revealed the effectiveness of geospatial tools coupled with landscape ecology in characterization and quantification of forest fragmentation and land cover changes. The present study provides a baseline database for sustainable conservation planning that will benefit the subsistence livelihoods in the region. Recommendations made based on the present analysis will help to recover forest and halt the pessimistic effects of fragmentation and land cover changes on biodiversity and ecosystem services in the region.


Assuntos
Altitude , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Plantas , Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Pradaria , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Gelo , Índia , Siquim , Neve , Árvores
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 188(10): 578, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27650439

RESUMO

Sikkim, a tiny Himalayan state situated in the north-eastern region of India, records limited research on the climate change. Understanding the changes in climate based on the perceptions of local communities can provide important insights for the preparedness against the unprecedented consequences of climate change. A total of 228 households in 12 different villages of Sikkim, India, were interviewed using eight climate change indicators. The results from the public opinions showed a significant increase in temperature compared to a decade earlier, winters are getting warmer, water springs are drying up, change in concept of spring-water recharge (locally known as Mul Phutnu), changes in spring season, low crop yields, incidences of mosquitoes during winter, and decrease in rainfall in last 10 years. In addition, study also showed significant positive correlations of increase in temperature with other climate change indicators viz. spring-water recharge concept (R (2) = 0.893), warmer winter (R (2) = 0.839), drying up of water springs (R (2) = 0.76), changes in spring season (R (2) = 0.68), low crop yields (R (2) = 0.68), decrease in rainfall (R (2) = 0.63), and incidences of mosquitoes in winter (R (2) = 0.50). The air temperature for two meteorological stations of Sikkim indicated statistically significant increasing trend in mean minimum temperature and mean minimum winter temperature (DJF). The observed climate change is consistent with the people perceptions. This information can help in planning specific adaptation strategies to cope with the impacts of climate change by framing village-level action plan.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Percepção , Clima , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nascentes Naturais , Estações do Ano , Siquim , Temperatura Ambiente
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