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1.
Life Sci ; 295: 120405, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181311

RESUMO

AIMS: The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is the main sympathetic output of the central nervous system to control blood pressure. Reportedly, reactive oxygen species (ROS) can increase arterial pressure, leading to hypertension. As ROS increase the sympathetic tone in RVLM and obese animals present grater oxidative stress, it would be important to note this relationship. MAIN METHODS: Therefore, we evaluated the systemic and central effects (in the RVLM) of vitamin C (vit C, an antioxidant) on the redox balance and cardiovascular and autonomic profiles in hyperadipose male rats. We also evaluated the neurotransmission by L-glutamate (L-glu) and vit C in the RVLM of awake hyperadipose rats. KEY FINDINGS: Our study confirmed that hyperadipose rats were hypertensive and tachycardic, presented increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic modulation of the heart, and had increased plasma lipoperoxidation compared with the control rats (CTR). Oral vitamin C treatment reverted cardiovascular, autonomic, and plasma redox dysfunction. Hyperadipose rats presented a higher blood pressure increase after L-glu microinjection and a lower response to vit C in the RVLM compared with the CTR group. Biochemical analysis of redox balance in RVLM punches showed that hyperadipose rats have increased NBT and T-BARS, and after treatment with vit C, the oxidative profile decreased. The antioxidative activity of vit C reduced the amount of ROS in the RVLM area that might have resulted in lowered blood pressure and sympathetic modulation. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest central and peripheral benefits of vit C treatment on cardiovascular, autonomic, and oxidative dysfunctions in hyperadipose animals.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Bulbo/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Bulbo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/metabolismo
2.
J Clin Invest ; 132(3)2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104800

RESUMO

The reality of life in modern times is that our internal circadian rhythms are often out of alignment with the light/dark cycle of the external environment. This is known as circadian disruption, and a wealth of epidemiological evidence shows that it is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease remains the top cause of death in the United States, and kidney disease in particular is a tremendous public health burden that contributes to cardiovascular deaths. There is an urgent need for new treatments for kidney disease; circadian rhythm-based therapies may be of potential benefit. The goal of this Review is to summarize the existing data that demonstrate a connection between circadian rhythm disruption and renal impairment in humans. Specifically, we will focus on chronic kidney disease, lupus nephritis, hypertension, and aging. Importantly, the relationship between circadian dysfunction and pathophysiology is thought to be bidirectional. Here we discuss the gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying circadian dysfunction in diseases of the kidney. Finally, we provide a brief overview of potential circadian rhythm-based interventions that could provide benefit in renal disease.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Nefrite Lúpica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Animais , Humanos
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 841, 2022 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039584

RESUMO

Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) may present ischemic chest pain in the absence of classical obstructive coronary disease. Among the possible causes, the direct hemodynamic effect exerted by the irregular arrhythmia has not been studied in detail. We performed a computational fluid dynamics analysis by means of a 1D-0D multiscale model of the entire human cardiovascular system, enriched by a detailed mathematical modeling of the coronary arteries and their downstream distal microcirculatory districts (subepicardial, midwall and subendocardial layers). Three mean ventricular rates were simulated (75, 100, 125 bpm) in both sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial fibrillation, and an inter-layer and inter-frequency analysis was conducted focusing on the ratio between mean beat-to-beat blood flow in AF compared to SR. Our results show that AF exerts direct hemodynamic consequences on the coronary microcirculation, causing a reduction in microvascular coronary flow particularly at higher ventricular rates; the most prominent reduction was seen in the subendocardial layers perfused by left coronary arteries (left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries).


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Circulação Coronária , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Microcirculação , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Modelos Teóricos
4.
Diabetes Care ; 45(3): 585-593, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rapid loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) within its normal range has been proposed as a strong predictor of future kidney disease. We investigated this association of eGFR slope early in the course of type 1 diabetes with long-term incidence of kidney and cardiovascular complications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The annual percentage change in eGFR (slope) was calculated during the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) for each of 1,441 participants over a mean of 6.5 years and dichotomized by the presence or absence of early rapid eGFR loss (slope ≤-3% per year) as the exposure of interest. Outcomes were incident reduced eGFR (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2), composite cardiovascular events, or major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) during the subsequent 24 years post-DCCT closeout follow-up. RESULTS: At DCCT closeout (the baseline for this analysis), diabetes duration was 12 ± 4.8 years, most participants (85.9%) had normoalbuminuria, mean eGFR was 117.0 ± 13.4 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 149 (10.4%) had experienced early rapid eGFR loss over the preceding trial phase. Over the 24-year subsequent follow-up, there were 187 reduced eGFR (6.3 per 1,000 person-years) and 113 MACE (3.6 per 1,000 person-years) events. Early rapid eGFR loss was associated with risk of reduced eGFR (hazard ratio [HR] 1.81, 95% CI 1.18-2.79, P = 0.0064), but not after adjustment for baseline eGFR level (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.53-1.66, P = 0.84). There was no association with composite cardiovascular events or MACE. CONCLUSIONS: In people with type 1 diabetes primarily with normal eGFR and normoalbuminuria, the preceding slope of eGFR confers no additional association with kidney or cardiovascular outcomes beyond knowledge of an individual's current level.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Albuminúria/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações
5.
Metabolism ; 127: 154937, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808144

RESUMO

Despite remarkable advances in diabetes care, patients with type 2 diabetes are still burdened by higher morbidity and mortality than non-diabetic individuals. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease represent the most relevant causes of morbidity and mortality and sustain each other in a vicious circle. Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease, and, in turn, chronic kidney disease is a significant contributor to the risk of major cardiovascular events and hospitalization for heart failure. Cardiovascular outcome trials with SGLT-2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes yielded unprecedented results on prevention of worsening heart failure and renal disease progression and mortality, further confirmed by randomized controlled trials in patients with baseline heart failure and chronic kidney disease, with or without diabetes, and observations from the real-world setting. However, the evidence regarding SGLT-2 inhibitors benefit on atherosclerotic cardiovascular events is conflicting. Hence, SGLT-2 inhibitors represent a remarkably valuable weapon in diabetes management, to be used in the context of a multi-targeted treatment strategy to address the many issues of this multifaceted disease.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/patologia , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
6.
Cardiovasc Res ; 118(2): 399-412, 2022 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537709

RESUMO

The discovery that gut-microbiota plays a profound role in human health has opened a new avenue of basic and clinical research. Application of ecological approaches where the bacterial 16S rRNA gene is queried has provided a number of candidate bacteria associated with coronary artery disease and hypertension. We examine the associations between gut microbiota and a variety of cardiovascular disease (CVD) including atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and blood pressure. These approaches are associative in nature and there is now increasing interest in identifying the mechanisms underlying these associations. We discuss three potential mechanisms including: gut permeability and endotoxemia, increased immune system activation, and microbial derived metabolites. In addition to discussing these potential mechanisms we highlight current studies manipulating the gut microbiota or microbial metabolites to move beyond sequence-based association studies. The goal of these mechanistic studies is to determine the mode of action by which the gut microbiota may affect disease susceptibility and severity. Importantly, the gut microbiota appears to have a significant effect on host metabolism and CVD by producing metabolites entering the host circulatory system such as short-chain fatty acids and trimethylamine N-Oxide. Therefore, the intersection of metabolomics and microbiota research may yield novel targets to reduce disease susceptibility. Finally, we discuss approaches to demonstrate causality such as specific diet changes, inhibition of microbial pathways, and fecal microbiota transplant.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Metaboloma , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Dieta Saudável , Disbiose , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Metabolômica , Boca/microbiologia , Prognóstico , Ribotipagem , Medição de Risco
7.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 13(1): 128-134, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736726

RESUMO

Adults who were born preterm are at increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in later life. Infants born late preterm are the majority of preterm births; however, the effect of late preterm on risk of cardiovascular disease is unclear. The objective of this study was to assess whether vascular health and cardiac autonomic control differ in a group of late preterm newborn infants compared to a group of term-born infants.A total of 35 healthy late preterm newborn infants, with normal growth (34-36 completed weeks' gestation) and 139 term-born infants (37-42 weeks' gestation) were compared in this study. Aortic wall thickening, assessed as aortic intima-media thickness (IMT) by high-resolution ultrasound, and cardiac autonomic control, assessed by heart rate variability, were measured during the first week of life. Postnatal age of full-term and late preterm infants at the time of the study was 5 days (standard deviation [SD] 5) and 4 days (SD 3), respectively.Infants born late preterm show reduced aortic IMT (574 µm [SD 51] vs. 612 µm [SD 73]) and reduced heart rate variability [log total power 622.3 (606.5) ms2 vs. 1180. 6 (1114.3) ms2], compared to term infants. These associations remained even after adjustment for sex and birth weight.Infants born late preterm show selective differences in markers of cardiovascular risk, with potentially beneficial differences in aortic wall thickness in contrast to potentially detrimental differences in autonomic control, when compared with term-born control infants. These findings provide pathophysiologic evidence to support an increased risk of hypertension and sudden cardiac death in individuals born late preterm.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nível de Saúde , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Doenças Vasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , New South Wales
8.
Addict Biol ; 27(1): e12958, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783345

RESUMO

Much research seeks to articulate the brain structures and pathways implicated in addiction and addiction recovery. Prominent neurobiological models emphasize the interplay between cortical and limbic brain regions as a main driver of addictive processes, but largely do not take into consideration sensory and visceral information streams that link context and state to the brain and behavior. Yet these brain-body information streams would seem to be necessary elements of a comprehensive model of addiction. As a starting point, we describe the overlap between one current model of addiction circuitry and the neural network that not only regulates cardiovascular system activity but also receives feedback from peripheral cardiovascular processes through the baroreflex loop. We highlight the need for neurobiological, molecular, and behavioral studies of neural and peripheral cardiovascular signal integration during the experience of internal states and environmental contexts that drive alcohol and other drug use behaviors. We end with a call for systematic, mechanistic research on the promising, yet largely unexamined benefits to addiction treatment of neuroscience-informed, adjunctive interventions that target the malleability of the cardiovascular system to alter brain processes.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Neurobiologia , Sensação/fisiologia
10.
Pediatrics ; 149(1 Suppl 1): S39-S47, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970677

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cardiovascular dysfunction is associated with poor outcomes in critically ill children. OBJECTIVE: We aim to derive an evidence-informed, consensus-based definition of cardiovascular dysfunction in critically ill children. DATA SOURCES: Electronic searches of PubMed and Embase were conducted from January 1992 to January 2020 using medical subject heading terms and text words to define concepts of cardiovascular dysfunction, pediatric critical illness, and outcomes of interest. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were included if they evaluated critically ill children with cardiovascular dysfunction and assessment and/or scoring tools to screen for cardiovascular dysfunction and assessed mortality, functional status, organ-specific, or other patient-centered outcomes. Studies of adults, premature infants (≤36 weeks gestational age), animals, reviews and/or commentaries, case series (sample size ≤10), and non-English-language studies were excluded. Studies of children with cyanotic congenital heart disease or cardiovascular dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were abstracted from each eligible study into a standard data extraction form, along with risk-of-bias assessment by a task force member. RESULTS: Cardiovascular dysfunction was defined by 9 elements, including 4 which indicate severe cardiovascular dysfunction. Cardiopulmonary arrest (>5 minutes) or mechanical circulatory support independently define severe cardiovascular dysfunction, whereas tachycardia, hypotension, vasoactive-inotropic score, lactate, troponin I, central venous oxygen saturation, and echocardiographic estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction were included in any combination. There was expert agreement (>80%) on the definition. LIMITATIONS: All included studies were observational and many were retrospective. CONCLUSIONS: The Pediatric Organ Dysfunction Information Update Mandate panel propose this evidence-informed definition of cardiovascular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Criança , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica
12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 3960773, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804365

RESUMO

Maintenance of normal function of mitochondria is vital to the fate and health of cardiomyocytes. Mitochondrial quality control (MQC) mechanisms are essential in governing mitochondrial integrity and function. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), mitochondrial dynamics, and mitophagy are three major components of MQC. With the progress of research, our understanding of MQC mechanisms continues to deepen. Gradually, we realize that the three MQC mechanisms are not independent of each other. To the contrary, there are crosstalk among the mechanisms, which can make them interact with each other and cooperate well, forming a triangle interplay. Briefly, the UPS system can regulate the level of mitochondrial dynamic proteins and mitophagy receptors. In the process of Parkin-dependent mitophagy, the UPS is also widely activated, performing critical roles. Mitochondrial dynamics have a profound influence on mitophagy. In this review, we provide new processes of the three major MQC mechanisms in the background of cardiomyocytes and delve into the relationship between them.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Homeostase , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Mitofagia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2132602, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735014

RESUMO

Importance: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been widely used for treatment of infertility and has brought millions of births worldwide. The health of offspring conceived by ART has been of much concern, and adverse cardiovascular health outcomes have been reported by previous studies. Objective: To assess the cardiovascular health of children conceived by ART. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among participants recruited from November 2017 to February 2019. Participants were 382 children conceived by ART who were selected from a single reproductive center and 382 children who were naturally conceived, randomly selected from a primary school, and matched by sex, age, and maternal age at the child's birth (2 years older or younger). Data were analyzed from March 2019 through December 2019. Exposures: Conception by ART. Main Outcomes and Measures: Blood pressure was measured, and echocardiography was performed to determine left ventricular structural and functional parameters. Adjusted relative wall thickness (aRWT) was found for age, with high RWT defined as an aRWT of 0.375 or more. Results: Among 764 children aged 6 to 10 years, 382 children were conceived by ART (mean [SD] age, 7.20 [1.21] years; 201 [52.6%] boys) and 382 children were naturally conceived (mean [SD] age, 7.20 [1.21] years; 201 [52.6%] boys). Children conceived by ART had statistically significantly increased mean (SD) height (130.2 [9.5] cm vs 128.5 [8.1] cm; P = .007) and body mass index (17.6 [3.6] vs 17.1 [2.7]; P = .03). Those conceived by ART, compared with children in the matched control group, had statistically significantly increased blood pressure (mean [SD] systolic blood pressure, 105.5 [6.9] mm Hg vs 103.5 [8.4] mm Hg; adjusted P < .001; mean [SD] diastolic blood pressure, 67.2 [5.6] mm Hg vs 62.2 [6.3] mm Hg ; adjusted P < .001), left ventricular systolic dysfunction (mean [SD] left ventricular ejection fraction, 64.61% [3.20%] vs 66.70% [3.89%]; adjusted P < .001), and diastolic dysfunction (mean [SD] early/late mitral/tricuspid diastolic velocities ratio, 1.66 [0.28] vs 2.21 [0.36]; adjusted P < .001). They also had statistically significantly increased parameters of left ventricular structure, including mean (SD) left ventricular mass index (31.97 [5.04] g/m2.7 vs 28.28 [3.54] g/m2.7; adjusted P < .001) and RWT (3.30 [0.41] mm vs 2.98 [0.14] mm; adjusted P < .001). Additionally, children conceived by ART had statistically significantly increased prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (9 children [2.4%] vs 2 children [0.5%]; P = .03), high RWT (61 children [16.0%] vs 0 children; P < .001), and left ventricle remodeling patterns, including concentric remodeling (60 children [15.7%] vs 0 children), eccentric hypertrophy (8 children [2.1%] vs 2 children [0.5%]), and concentric hypertrophy (1 child [0.3%] vs 0 children) (P for left ventricle remodeling < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that children conceived by ART had increased blood pressure and unfavorable changes in left ventricular structure and function compared with children who were naturally conceived. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanisms and long-term outcomes associated with these differences.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/estatística & dados numéricos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Adulto , Sistema Cardiovascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Idade Materna , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 321(6): E782-E794, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693756

RESUMO

Exercise is a treatment in rheumatoid arthritis, but participation in moderate-to-vigorous exercise is challenging for some patients. Light-intensity breaks in sitting could be a promising alternative. We compared the acute effects of active breaks in sitting with those of moderate-to-vigorous exercise on cardiometabolic risk markers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In a crossover fashion, 15 women with rheumatoid arthritis underwent three 8-h experimental conditions: prolonged sitting (SIT), 30-min bout of moderate-to-vigorous exercise followed by prolonged sitting (EX), and 3-min bouts of light-intensity walking every 30 min of sitting (BR). Postprandial glucose, insulin, c-peptide, triglycerides, cytokines, lipid classes/subclasses (lipidomics), and blood pressure responses were assessed. Muscle biopsies were collected following each session to assess targeted proteins/genes. Glucose [-28% in area under the curve (AUC), P = 0.036], insulin (-28% in AUC, P = 0.016), and c-peptide (-27% in AUC, P = 0.006) postprandial responses were attenuated in BR versus SIT, whereas only c-peptide was lower in EX versus SIT (-20% in AUC, P = 0.002). IL-1ß decreased during BR, but increased during EX and SIT (P = 0.027 and P = 0.085, respectively). IL-1ra was increased during EX versus BR (P = 0.002). TNF-α concentrations decreased during BR versus EX (P = 0.022). EX, but not BR, reduced systolic blood pressure (P = 0.013). Lipidomic analysis showed that 7 of 36 lipid classes/subclasses were significantly different between conditions, with greater changes being observed in EX. No differences were observed for protein/gene expression. Brief active breaks in sitting can offset markers of cardiometabolic disturbance, which may be particularly useful for patients who may find it difficult to adhere to exercise.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise is a treatment in rheumatoid arthritis but is challenging for some patients. Light-intensity breaks in sitting could be a promising alternative. Our findings show beneficial, but differential, cardiometabolic effects of active breaks in sitting and exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Breaks in sitting mainly improved glycemic and inflammatory markers, whereas exercise improved lipidomic and hypotensive responses. Breaks in sitting show promise in offsetting aspects of cardiometabolic disturbance associated with prolonged sitting in rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Artrite Reumatoide/terapia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial , Caminhada/fisiologia
18.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684419

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption has been shown to have complex, and sometimes paradoxical, associations with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Several hundred epidemiological studies on this topic have been published in recent decades. In this narrative review, the epidemiological evidence will be examined for the associations between alcohol consumption, including average alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, and alcohol use disorders, and CVDs, including ischaemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Methodological shortcomings, such as exposure classification and measurement, reference groups, and confounding variables (measured or unmeasured) are discussed. Based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses, the evidence seems to indicate non-linear relationships with many CVDs. Large-scale longitudinal epidemiological studies with multiple detailed exposure and outcome measurements, and the extensive assessment of genetic and confounding variables, are necessary to elucidate these associations further. Conflicting associations depending on the exposure measurement and CVD outcome are hard to reconcile, and make clinical and public health recommendations difficult. Furthermore, the impact of alcohol on other health outcomes needs to be taken into account. For people who drink alcohol, the less alcohol consumed the better.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Etanol/farmacologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Life Sci ; 286: 120033, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627775

RESUMO

AIMS: Sepsis is a potentially fatal systemic inflammatory response and its underlying pathophysiology is still poorly understood. Studies suggest that obesity, a component of metabolic syndrome (MS), is associated with sepsis survival. Therefore, this study focused on investigating the influence of MS on mortality and cardiovascular dysfunction induced by sublethal cecal ligation and puncture (SL-CLP). MAIN METHODS: Newborn Swiss mice received monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg kg-1 day-1, s.c.) during the first 5 d of life for MS induction, while the control pups received equimolar saline solution. On the 75th day, SL-CLP was used to induce mild sepsis (M-CLP) in the MS (MS-M-CLP) and control (SAL-M-CLP) mice. The effect of MS on sepsis in mice was assessed by determining the survival rate and quantification of nitric oxide (NO) in the plasma, and associating this data with hematological and cardiovascular parameters. KEY FINDINGS: MS improved the survival of septic mice, preventing impairment to hematological and cardiovascular parameters. In addition, MS attenuated plasmatic NO increase, which is a typical feature of sepsis. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide new insights into the relationship between obesity and mild sepsis in mice, thus revealing an approach in favor of the "obesity paradox."


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Ceco/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Punções , Sepse/etiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ligadura , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639053

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element that is necessary for various metabolic processes, including protection against oxidative stress, and proper cardiovascular function. The role of Se in cardiovascular health is generally agreed upon to be essential yet not much has been defined in terms of specific functions. Se deficiency was first associated with Keshan's Disease, an endemic disease characterized by cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Since then, Se deficiency has been associated with multiple cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and atherosclerosis. Se, through its incorporation into selenoproteins, is vital to maintain optimal cardiovascular health, as selenoproteins are involved in numerous crucial processes, including oxidative stress, redox regulation, thyroid hormone metabolism, and calcium flux, and inadequate Se may disrupt these processes. The present review aims to highlight the importance of Se in cardiovascular health, provide updated information on specific selenoproteins that are prominent for proper cardiovascular function, including how these proteins interact with microRNAs, and discuss the possibility of Se as a potential complemental therapy for prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Selênio/deficiência , Animais , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo
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