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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24722, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607814

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Excessive iron accumulation provokes toxic effects, especially in the cardiovascular system. Under iron overload, labile free non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) can induce cardiovascular damage with increased oxidative stress. However, the significance of NTBI in individuals without iron overload and overt cardiovascular disease has not been investigated. We aimed to examine the distribution of serum NTBI and its relationship with oxidative stress and cardiac load under physiological conditions in the general population.We enrolled individuals undergoing an annual health check-up and measured serum NTBI and derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM), an oxidative stress marker. In addition, we evaluated serum levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) to examine cardiac load. We excluded patients with anemia, renal dysfunction, cancer, active inflammatory disease, or a history of cardiovascular disease.A total of 1244 individuals (57.8 ±â€Š11.8 years) were enrolled, all of whom had detectable serum NTBI. d-ROM and BNP showed significant trends across NTBI quartiles. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that serum iron and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were positively associated with NTBI but that age, d-ROM, and BNP showed an inverse association with this measure. In logistic regression analysis, NTBI was independently associated with a combination of higher levels of both d-ROM and BNP than the upper quartiles after adjustment for possible confounding factors.Serum NTBI concentration is detectable in the general population and shows significant inverse associations with oxidative stress and cardiac load. These findings indicate that serum NTBI in physiological conditions does not necessarily reflect increased oxidative stress, in contrast to the implications of higher levels in states of iron overload or pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sobrecarga de Ferro/complicações , Ferro/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Idoso , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Transferrina/análise
2.
Life Sci ; 267: 118972, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383052

RESUMO

Cisplatin treatment induces an autonomic dysfunction and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular disorders. Physical exercise as well as pyridostigmine treatment induces improves in the autonomic nervous system. In the current study, we investigated the effect of physical exercise and pyridostigmine treatment on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular changes in cisplatin-treated rats. Rats were divided into groups: Saline (S), Cisplatin (Cis), Exercise (Ex), Cisplatin+Exercise (Cis+Ex), Pyridostigmine (Pyr), and Cisplatin+Pyridostigmine (Cis+Pyr). We induced gastrointestinal dysmotility by administering 3 mg kg-1 of cisplatin once week for 5 weeks. The Ex was swimming (1 h per day/5 days per week for 5 weeks with 5% b.w.). GE was evaluated through the colorimetric method of fractional red phenol recovery 10 min after feeding. Pyr groups received 1.5 mg kg-1, p.o. or concomitant Cis treatment. Moreover, gastric contraction in vitro and hemodynamic parameters such as MAP, HR, and evoked baroreflex sensitivity were assessed, as well as sympathetic and parasympathetic tone and intrinsic heart rate (IHR). Cis decrease GE vs. saline (p<0.05). Cis+Ex or Cis+Pyr prevented (p<0.05) decrease in GE vs. Cis rats. Cis decreased (p<0.05) gastric responsiveness in vitro vs. saline. Cis+Ex or Cis+Pyr prevented this phenomenon. Cis treatment increase MAP and decrease in HR (p<0.05) vs saline. Cis+Ex or Cis+Pyr attenuated (p<0.05) both alterations. Cis increased sympathetic tone and decreased vagal tone and IHR (p<0.05) vs. the saline. Cis+Ex or Cis+Pyr prevented those effects vs. the Cis group. In conclusion, physical exercise and pyridostigmine treatment improves autonomic dysfunction and prevented GE delay and changes in hemodynamic parameters, baroreflex sensitivity, and cardiac autonomic control in cisplatin-treated rats.


Assuntos
Barorreflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Brometo de Piridostigmina/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Esvaziamento Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Esvaziamento Gástrico/fisiologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Nervo Vago/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 115(4): 660-666, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 causes severe pulmonary involvement, but the cardiovascular system can also be affected by myocarditis, heart failure and shock. The increase in cardiac biomarkers has been associated with a worse prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prognostic value of Troponin-T (TNT) and natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients hospitalized for Covid-19. METHODS: This was a convenience sample of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Data were collected from medical records to assess the association of TnT and BNP measured in the first 24 hours of hospital admission with the combined outcome (CO) of death or need for mechanical ventilation. Univariate analysis was used to compare the groups with and without the CO. Cox's multivariate model was used to determine independent predictors of the CO. RESULTS: We evaluated 183 patients (age = 66.8±17 years, 65.6% of which were males). The time of follow-up was 7 days (range 1 to 39 days). The CO occurred in 24% of the patients. The median troponin-T and BNP levels were 0.011 and 0.041ng/dL (p <0.001); 64 and 198 pg/dL (p <0.001), respectively, for the groups without and with the CO. In the univariate analysis, in addition to TnT and BNP, age, presence of coronary disease, oxygen saturation, lymphocytes, D-dimer, t-CRP and creatinine, were different between groups with and without outcomes. In the bootstrap multivariate analysis, only TnT (1.12 [95% CI 1.03-1.47]) and t-CRP (1.04 [95% CI 1.00-1.10]) were independent predictors of the CO. CONCLUSION: In the first 24h of admission, TnT, but not BNP, was an independent marker of mortality or need for invasive mechanical ventilation. This finding further reinforces the clinical importance of cardiac involvement in COVID-19. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(4):660-666).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prognóstico
5.
Herz ; 45(7): 659-662, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025029

RESUMO

The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are mainly respiratory symptoms, but some patients present with cardiovascular system disease such as palpitations and shortness of breath as the first or secondary symptoms. In this paper, we describe the characteristics of SARS-CoV­2 and its functional receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Furthermore, we explore the impact of virus-induced myocardial damage, decreased ACE2 activity, immune imbalance, hypoxemia, and heart damage caused by antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22575, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019471

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Giant intra-abdominal liposarcomas weighing over 20 kg often increase the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), which has severe effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Abdominal compartment syndrome is defined typically as the combination of a raised IAP of 20 mm Hg or higher and new onset of organ dysfunction or failure. The anesthetic management and perioperative management are very challenging. PATIENTS CONCERNS: We presented 2 patients with rare giant growing liposarcoma of the abdomen, weighing 21 kg and over 35 kg, respectively. Circulatory management was particularly difficult in the first case, while respiratory management and massive blood loss was very challenging in the second one. DIAGNOSIS: With a computed tomography scan and peritoneal-to-abdominal height ratio measurement, preoperatively the risk of developing intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome was recognized early in each patient. The inferior vena cava and right atrium of the first patient was compressed and malformed due to the uplifted diaphragm, while there was severe decreased lung volume and increased airway resistance, because of rare giant retroperitoneal liposarcomas in the second case. Histologic examination revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma in both cases. INTERVENTIONS: Both of the patients underwent resection surgery with multiple monitoring; transesophageal echocardiography monitoring in the first case and pressure-controlled ventilation volume guaranteed mechanical ventilation mode in both cases. OUTCOMES: Intraoperatively and postoperatively no cardiopulmonary complications in both patients. The first patient was discharged without any complications on postoperative day 10, and the second patient underwent another surgery because of anastomotic leakage resulting from bowel resection. LESSONS: Multiple monitorings, in particular transesophageal echocardiography should be considered in patients with increased IAP due to a giant mass, while an appropriate lung protection ventilation strategy is crucial in these patients.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Lipossarcoma/complicações , Lipossarcoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/complicações , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/cirurgia , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias/fisiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/cirurgia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Lipossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Lipossarcoma/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 660-666, out. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1131337

RESUMO

Resumo Fundamento: A COVID-19 causa grave acometimento pulmonar, porém o sistema cardiovascular também pode ser afetado por miocardite, insuficiência cardíaca e choque. A elevação de biomarcadores cardíacos tem sido associada a um pior prognóstico. Objetivos: Avaliar o valor prognóstico da Troponina T (TnT) e do peptídeo natriurético tipo B (BNP) em pacientes internados por Covid-19. Métodos: Amostra de conveniência de pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19. Foram coletados dados dos prontuários com o objetivo de avaliar a relação da TnT e o BNP medidos nas primeiras 24h de admissão com o desfecho combinado (DC) óbito ou necessidade de ventilação mecânica. Análise univariada comparou os grupos com e sem DC. Modelo multivariado de Cox foi utilizada para determinar preditores independentes do DC. Resultados: Avaliamos 183 pacientes (idade=66,8±17 anos, sendo 65,6% do sexo masculino). Tempo de acompanhamento foi de 7 dias (1 a 39 dias). O DC ocorreu em 24% dos pacientes. As medianas de TnT e BNP foram 0,011 e 0,041 ng/dl (p<0,001); 64 e 198 pg/dl (p<0,001) respectivamente para os grupos sem e com DC. Na análise univariada, além de TnT e BNP, idade, presença de doença coronariana, saturação de oxigênio, linfócitos, dímero-D, proteína C reativa titulada (PCR-t) e creatinina, foram diferentes entre os grupos com e sem desfechos. Na análise multivariada boostraped apenas TnT (1,12[IC95%1,03-1,47]) e PCR-t (1,04[IC95%1,00-1,10]) foram preditores independentes do DC. Conclusão: Nas primeiras 24h de admissão, TnT, mas não o BNP, foi marcador independente de mortalidade ou necessidade de ventilação mecânica invasiva. Este dado reforça ainda mais a importância clínica do acometimento cardíaco da COVID-19. (AArq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(4):660-666)


Abstract Background: COVID-19 causes severe pulmonary involvement, but the cardiovascular system can also be affected by myocarditis, heart failure and shock. The increase in cardiac biomarkers has been associated with a worse prognosis. Objectives: To evaluate the prognostic value of Troponin-T (TNT) and natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients hospitalized for Covid-19. Methods: This was a convenience sample of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Data were collected from medical records to assess the association of TnT and BNP measured in the first 24 hours of hospital admission with the combined outcome (CO) of death or need for mechanical ventilation. Univariate analysis was used to compare the groups with and without the CO. Cox's multivariate model was used to determine independent predictors of the CO. Results: We evaluated 183 patients (age = 66.8±17 years, 65.6% of which were males). The time of follow-up was 7 days (range 1 to 39 days). The CO occurred in 24% of the patients. The median troponin-T and BNP levels were 0.011 and 0.041ng/dL (p <0.001); 64 and 198 pg/dL (p <0.001), respectively, for the groups without and with the CO. In the univariate analysis, in addition to TnT and BNP, age, presence of coronary disease, oxygen saturation, lymphocytes, D-dimer, t-CRP and creatinine, were different between groups with and without outcomes. In the bootstrap multivariate analysis, only TnT (1.12 [95% CI 1.03-1.47]) and t-CRP (1.04 [95% CI 1.00-1.10]) were independent predictors of the CO. Conclusion: In the first 24h of admission, TnT, but not BNP, was an independent marker of mortality or need for invasive mechanical ventilation. This finding further reinforces the clinical importance of cardiac involvement in COVID-19. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(4):660-666)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Troponina/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus
8.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 35(4): 530-538, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864934

RESUMO

In December 2019, a striking appearance of new cases of viral pneumonia in Wuhan led to the detection of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). By analyzing patients with severe manifestations, it became apparent that 20 to 35% of patients who died had preexisting cardiovascular disease. This finding warrants the important need to discuss the influence of SARS-CoV2 infection on the cardiovascular system and hemodynamics in the context of clinical management, particularly during mechanical ventilation. The SARS-CoV2 enters human cells through the spike protein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is important to cardiovascular modulation and endothelial signaling. As ACE2 is highly expressed in lung tissue, patients have been progressing to acute respiratory injury at an alarming frequency during the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Moreover, COVID-19 leads to high D-dimer levels and prothrombin time, which indicates a substantial coagulation disorder. It seems that an overwhelming inflammatory and thrombogenic condition is responsible for a mismatching of ventilation and perfusion, with a somewhat near-normal static lung compliance, which describes two types of pulmonary conditions. As such, positive pressure during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) must be applied with caution. The authors of this review appeal to the necessity of paying closer attention to assess microhemodynamic repercussion, by monitoring central venous oxygen saturation during strategies of IMV. It is well known that a severe respiratory infection and a scattered inflammatory process can cause non-ischemic myocardial injury, including progression to myocarditis. Early strategies that guide clinical decisions can be lifesaving and prevent extended myocardial damage. Moreover, cardiopulmonary failure refractory to standard treatment may necessitate the use of extreme therapeutic strategies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hemodinâmica , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Miocárdio/patologia , Pandemias , Respiração Artificial
10.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(4): F612-F617, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893662

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying hypertension are multifaceted and incompletely understood. New evidence suggests that G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) mediates protective actions within the cardiovascular and renal systems. This mini-review focuses on recent advancements in our understanding of the vascular, renal, and cardiac GPER1-mediated mechanisms that influence blood pressure regulation. We emphasize clinical and basic evidence that suggests GPER1 as a novel target to aid therapeutic strategies for hypertension. Furthermore, we discuss current controversies and challenges facing GPER1-related research.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Animais , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Life Sci ; 259: 118259, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795538

RESUMO

AIMS: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder caused by environmental and genetic factors, characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), leading to a decrease of dopamine in the striatum. In addition to motor symptoms, PD has several abnormalities, among which are cardiovascular changes, such as orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, and blood pressure lability. Studies demonstrate gender differences in PD pathogenesis, indicating that female hormones have a protective role against disease development. However, no studies examining cardiovascular changes in a female rat model of parkinsonism exist. MAIN METHODS: Wistar female rats were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery. After seven days, these animals were subjected to bilateral infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or vehicle solution in their SNpc. On the 14th experimental day, a femoral artery catheterization was performed to record cardiovascular parameters after 24 h in conscious state. Analyses of cardiovascular variability and spontaneous baroreflex were performed. The nitrite (NO) concentration in the heart, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, and plasma was measured. KEY FINDINGS: The sham-6-OHDA group had no decrease in the mean arterial pressure compared to sham-saline group, whereas the OVX-6-OHDA group presented a baseline decrease in comparison to sham-6-OHDA. The OVX-6-OHDA group showed an NO increase in the heart and abdominal aorta, whereas the sham-6-OHDA group did not. The very low frequency variability component decreased in the sham-6-OHDA but not in the OVX-6-OHDA group. SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest a cardiovascular protection by ovarian hormones in PD with a possible NO involvement.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/fisiopatologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Neostriado/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Oxidopamina/efeitos adversos , Oxidopamina/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Substância Negra/fisiopatologia
13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629583

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the occupational health examination of graphene workers in a certain enterprise and provide evidence for occupational disease prevention and treatment. Methods: In September 2019, the physical examination data of 54 workers exposed to graphene dust in an occupational health examination of a graphene enterprise from January to August 2019 were collected, and the differences of various physical examination indexes of each group were examined by χ(2) test. Results: The company had a total of 54 graphene workers, and 15 cases of occupational health examination abnormalities, and the abnormal rate was 27.8%. 7 of which had abnormal central functions, and 11 cases of abnormal pulmonary function. 3 of them had abnormal heart function and abnormal lung function. With the increase of age and working age, the abnormal rates of cardiac and pulmonary functions were increased (χ(2)=0.042, P<0.05) . Conclusion: With the development and mass production of graphene, the opportunities for workers to expose to graphene are increasing, and the health of workers is also threatened. Therefore, the occupational disease prevention work of staff should be emphasized.


Assuntos
Grafite , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Poeira , Humanos , Exame Físico
14.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(2): R211-R222, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609532

RESUMO

Although severe intermittent hypoxia (IH) is well known to induce deleterious cardiometabolic consequences, moderate IH may induce positive effects in obese individuals. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of two hypoxic conditioning programs on cardiovascular and metabolic health status of overweight or obese individuals. In this randomized single-blind controlled study, 35 subjects (54 ± 9.3 yr, 31.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2) were randomized into three 8-wk interventions (three 1-h sessions per week): sustained hypoxia (SH), arterial oxygen saturation ([Formula: see text]) = 75%; IH, 5 min [Formula: see text] = 75% - 3 min normoxia; normoxia. Ventilation, heart rate, blood pressure, and tissue oxygenation were measured during the first and last hypoxic conditioning sessions. Vascular function, blood glucose and insulin, lipid profile, nitric oxide metabolites, and oxidative stress were evaluated before and after the interventions. Both SH and IH increased ventilation in hypoxia (+1.8 ± 2.1 and +2.3 ± 3.6 L/min, respectively; P < 0.05) and reduced normoxic diastolic blood pressure (-12 ± 15 and -13 ± 10 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05), whereas changes in normoxic systolic blood pressure were not significant (+3 ± 9 and -6 ± 13 mmHg, respectively; P > 0.05). IH only reduced heart rate variability (e.g., root-mean-square difference of successive normal R-R intervals in normoxia -21 ± 35%; P < 0.05). Both SH and IH induced no significant change in body mass index, vascular function, blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile, nitric oxide metabolites, or oxidative stress, except for an increase in superoxide dismutase activity following SH. This study indicates that passive hypoxic conditioning in obese individuals induces some positive cardiovascular and respiratory improvements despite no change in anthropometric data and even a reduction in heart rate variability during IH exposure.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Método Simples-Cego , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(3): R288-R295, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697654

RESUMO

Prior longitudinal work suggests that blood pressure (BP) reactivity to the cold pressor test (CPT) helps predict hypertension; yet the impact of age and sex on hemodynamic and neural responsiveness to CPT remains equivocal. Forty-three young (21 ± 1yr, means ± SE) men (YM, n = 20) and women (YW, n = 23) and 16 older (60 ± 1yr) men (OM, n = 9) and women (OW, n = 7) participated in an experimental visit where continuous BP (finger plethysmography) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography) were recorded during a 3- to 5-min baseline and 2-min CPT. Baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP) was greater in OM than in YM (92 ± 4 vs. 77 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.01), but similar in women (P = 0.12). Baseline MSNA incidence was greater in OM [69 ± 6 bursts/100 heartbeats (hb)] than in OW (44 ± 7 bursts/100 hb, P = 0.02) and lower in young adults (YM: 17 ± 3 vs. YW: 16 ± 2 bursts/100 hb, P < 0.01), but similar across the sexes (P = 0.83). However, when exposed to the CPT, MSNA increased more rapidly in OW (Δ43 ± 6 bursts/100 hb; group × time, P = 0.01) compared with OM (Δ15 ± 3 bursts/100 hb) but was not different between YW (Δ30 ± 3 bursts/100 hb) and YM (Δ33 ± 4 bursts/100 hb, P = 1.0). There were no differences in MAP with CPT between groups (group × time, P = 0.33). These findings suggest that OW demonstrate a more rapid initial rise in MSNA responsiveness to a CPT compared with OM. This greater sympathetic reactivity in OW may be a contributing mechanism to the increased hypertension risk in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Envelhecimento , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(2): 225-240, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706211

RESUMO

In spite of medical advances, cardiovascular disease remains a significant concern, imposing a great burden upon the economy and public health of nations by causing the highest morbidity and mortality cases globally. Moreover, it is well established that inflammation is closely linked to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Hence, targeting inflammation seems to be a promising strategy in reducing cardiovascular risks. Currently, the importance of natural products in modern medicine is well recognised and continues to be of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Phenolic acids are a class of phytochemical compounds that are well-known for their health benefits. They consists of various phytochemical constituents and have been widely studied in various disease models. Research involving both animals and humans has proven that phenolic acids possess cardioprotective properties such as anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-fibrotic and anti-hypertrophy activity. Furthermore, numerous studies have proven that phenolic acids in phytochemical constituents such as gallic acid, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid are promising anti-inflammatory agents. Hence, in this review, we outline and review recent evidence on the role of phenolic acids and their anti-inflammatory significance in studies published during the last 5 years. We also discuss their possible mechanisms of action in modulating inflammation related to cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Hidroxibenzoatos/administração & dosagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(2): 253-261, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706213

RESUMO

It is known that functional defects of GATA binding protein 5 (GATA5), an important member of GATA transcription factor family, could cause multiple congenital defects. However, the mechanisms of this transcription factor in cardiovascular diseases are still little known. Finding a genetic approach should help with understanding the possible roles of GATA5 in different cardiovascular diseases and purpose it as a possible therapeutic agent. Hence, this review is divided into three chapters to summarize the roles and main regulatory mechanisms of GATA5 in hypertension, arrhythmia and congenital heart disease, respectively. In each chapter, this review firstly introduces the roles of GATA5 mutations, and then discusses the main regulatory mechanisms of GATA5 in the corresponding diseases (Such as the endothelial dysfunction signaling pathway in the chapter of hypertension, GATA5-NaV1.5 signaling pathway in the chapter of arrhythmia, GATA5-HEY2 and GATA5-Nodal signaling pathway in the chapter of congenital heart disease). Additionally, based on these regulatory networks, it is also speculated that abnormal methylation of the GATA5 gene promoter may lead to cardiovascular diseases such as congenital heart disease. This conjecture is proposed to enrich the regulatory networks of GATA5 and provide a theoretical basis for diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição GATA5/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Fator de Transcrição GATA5/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.5/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.5/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(8-9): 564-571, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680738

RESUMO

The mitochondria produce specific peptides-mitochondrial-derived peptides-that mediate the transcriptional stress response by their translocation into the nucleus and interaction with deoxyribonucleic acid. Mitochondrial-derived peptides are regulators of metabolism. This class of peptides comprises humanin, mitochondrial open reading frame of the 12S ribosomal ribonucleic acid type c (MOTS-c) and small humanin-like peptides (SHLPs). Humanin inhibits mitochondrial complex 1 activity and limits the level of oxidative stress in the cell. Data show that mitochondrial-derived peptides have a role in improving metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Perhaps humanin can be used as a marker for mitochondrial function in cardiovascular disease or as a pharmacological strategy in patients with endothelial dysfunction. The goal of this review is to discuss the newly emerging functions of humanin, and its biological role in cardiovascular disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
20.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 98, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590982

RESUMO

Sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a new type of glucose-lowering drug that can reduce blood glucose by inhibiting its reabsorption in proximal tubules and by promoting urinary glucose excretion. SGLT2i are widely used in the clinical treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In recent studies, SGLT2i were found to not only reduce blood glucose but also protect the heart and kidney, which can significantly reduce cardiovascular events, delay the progression of renal failure, greatly improve the quality of life of patients, and reduce medical expenses for families and society. As adverse cardiac and renal events are the most common and serious complications of T2DM, it is very important to understand the cardio- and renoprotective mechanisms of SGLT2i. This article reviews the historical development, pharmacological mechanism, heart and kidney protection and safety of SGLT2i. The information presented provides a theoretical basis for the clinical prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications and for the development of new glucose-lowering drugs.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Renal/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
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