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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575985

RESUMO

An increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) controls virtually all endothelial cell functions and is, therefore, crucial to maintain cardiovascular homeostasis. An aberrant elevation in endothelial can indeed lead to severe cardiovascular disorders. Likewise, moderate amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce intracellular Ca2+ signals to regulate vascular functions, while excessive ROS production may exploit dysregulated Ca2+ dynamics to induce endothelial injury. Herein, we survey how ROS induce endothelial Ca2+ signals to regulate vascular functions and, vice versa, how aberrant ROS generation may exploit the Ca2+ handling machinery to promote endothelial dysfunction. ROS elicit endothelial Ca2+ signals by regulating inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2B, two-pore channels, store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and multiple isoforms of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. ROS-induced endothelial Ca2+ signals regulate endothelial permeability, angiogenesis, and generation of vasorelaxing mediators and can be exploited to induce therapeutic angiogenesis, rescue neurovascular coupling, and induce cancer regression. However, an increase in endothelial [Ca2+]i induced by aberrant ROS formation may result in endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, and pulmonary artery hypertension. This information could pave the way to design alternative treatments to interfere with the life-threatening interconnection between endothelial ROS and Ca2+ signaling under multiple pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/genética , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Acoplamento Neurovascular/genética
2.
Life Sci ; 284: 119919, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480931

RESUMO

The renin-angiotensin (Ang) system (RAS) is a complex hormonal system present locally in several tissues such as cardiovascular organs. RAS deregulation through overactivation of the classical arm [Ang-converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang-II/Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R)] has been linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases and activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways. The ER stress is a condition that, if unresolved, might lead to heart failure, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and endothelial dysfunction. Accumulated evidence has shown that the RAS modulates the UPR activation. Several studies reported increased ER stress markers in response to Ang-II treatment, in both in vivo and in vitro models. Evidence has also pointed that targeting the RAS classical arm through RAS blockers, gene silencing or genetic models leads to lower levels of ER stress markers. Few studies demonstrated protective effects of the counter-regulatory arm (ACE-2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor) over ER stress. However, the crosstalk mechanisms between the arms of the RAS and ER stress remain unclear. In this review, we sought to explore the classical arm of the RAS as a key mechanism in UPR activation and to suggest a possible protective role of the counter-regulatory arm in mitigating ER stress.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/patologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Animais , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5613, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556649

RESUMO

Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are increasingly used, however little is known about the long-term health of ART-conceived offspring. Weak selection of comparison groups and poorly characterized mechanisms impede current understanding. In a prospective cohort (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes; GUSTO; Clinical Trials ID: NCT01174875) including 83 ART-conceived and 1095 spontaneously-conceived singletons, we estimate effects of ART on anthropometry, blood pressure, serum metabolic biomarkers, and cord tissue DNA methylation by emulating a pragmatic trial supported by machine learning-based estimators. We find ART-conceived children to be shorter (-0.5 SD [95% CI: -0.7, -0.2]), lighter (-0.6 SD [-0.9, -0.3]) and have lower skinfold thicknesses (e.g. -14% [-24%, -3%] suprailiac), and blood pressure (-3 mmHg [-6, -0.5] systolic) at 6-6.5 years, with no strong differences in metabolic biomarkers. Differences are not explained by parental anthropometry or comorbidities, polygenic risk score, breastfeeding, or illnesses. Our simulations demonstrate ART is strongly associated with lower NECAB3 DNA methylation, with negative control analyses suggesting these estimates are unbiased. However, methylation changes do not appear to mediate observed differences in child phenotype.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/estatística & dados numéricos , Pregas Cutâneas , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Criança , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Singapura
4.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361685

RESUMO

Nitric Oxide (NO) is a potent signaling molecule involved in the regulation of various cellular mechanisms and pathways under normal and pathological conditions. NO production, its effects, and its efficacy, are extremely sensitive to aging-related changes in the cells. Herein, we review the mechanisms of NO signaling in the cardiovascular system, central nervous system (CNS), reproduction system, as well as its effects on skin, kidneys, thyroid, muscles, and on the immune system during aging. The aging-related decline in NO levels and bioavailability is also discussed in this review. The decreased NO production by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was revealed in the aged cardiovascular system. In the CNS, the decline of the neuronal (n)NOS production of NO was related to the impairment of memory, sleep, and cognition. NO played an important role in the aging of oocytes and aged-induced erectile dysfunction. Aging downregulated NO signaling pathways in endothelial cells resulting in skin, kidney, thyroid, and muscle disorders. Putative therapeutic agents (natural/synthetic) affecting NO signaling mechanisms in the aging process are discussed in the present study. In summary, all of the studies reviewed demonstrate that NO plays a crucial role in the cellular aging processes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Senescência Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Feminino , Genitália/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1156031, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423030

RESUMO

Here, we report the participation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor in the mediation of cardiovascular and circulating vasopressin responses evoked by a hemorrhagic stimulus. In addition, once NMDA receptor activation is a prominent mechanism involved in nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the brain, we investigated whether control of hemorrhagic shock by NMDA glutamate receptor was followed by changes in NO synthesis in brain supramedullary structures involved in cardiovascular and neuroendocrine control. Thus, we observed that intraperitoneal administration of the selective NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist dizocilpine maleate (MK801, 0.3 mg/kg) delayed and reduced the magnitude of hemorrhage-induced hypotension. Besides, hemorrhage induced a tachycardia response in the posthemorrhage period (i.e., recovery period) in control animals, and systemic treatment with MK801 caused a bradycardia response during hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic stimulus increased plasma vasopressin levels during the recovery period and NMDA receptor antagonism increased concentration of this hormone during both the hemorrhage and postbleeding periods in relation to control animals. Moreover, hemorrhagic shock caused a decrease in NOx levels in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and ventral periaqueductal gray matter (vPAG). Nevertheless, treatment with MK801 did not affect these effects. Taken together, these results indicate that the NMDA glutamate receptor is involved in the hemorrhagic shock by inhibiting circulating vasopressin release. Our data also suggest a role of the NMDA receptor in tachycardia, but not in the decreased NO synthesis in the brain evoked by hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Maleato de Dizocilpina/administração & dosagem , Choque Hemorrágico/metabolismo , Vasopressinas/sangue , Animais , Bradicardia/sangue , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Maleato de Dizocilpina/efeitos adversos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Sistemas Neurossecretores/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas Neurossecretores/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445418

RESUMO

Central pattern generators produce rhythmic behaviors independently of sensory input; however, their outputs can be modulated by neuropeptides, thereby allowing for functional flexibility. We investigated the effects of C-type allatostatins (AST-C) on the cardiac ganglion (CG), which is the central pattern generator that controls the heart of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, to identify the biological mechanism underlying the significant variability in individual responses to AST-C. We proposed that the presence of multiple receptors, and thus differential receptor distribution, was at least partly responsible for this observed variability. Using transcriptome mining and PCR-based cloning, we identified four AST-C receptors (ASTCRs) in the CG; we then characterized their cellular localization, binding potential, and functional activation. Only two of the four receptors, ASTCR1 and ASTCR2, were fully functional GPCRs that targeted to the cell surface and were activated by AST-C peptides in our insect cell expression system. All four, however, were amplified from CG cDNAs. Following the confirmation of ASTCR expression, we used physiological and bioinformatic techniques to correlate receptor expression with cardiac responses to AST-C across individuals. Expression of ASTCR1 in the CG showed a negative correlation with increasing contraction amplitude in response to AST-C perfusion through the lobster heart, suggesting that the differential expression of ASTCRs within the CG is partly responsible for the specific physiological response to AST-C exhibited by a given individual lobster.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Nephropidae/genética , Neuropeptídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Mineração de Dados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Nephropidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Nephropidae/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Células Sf9 , Distribuição Tecidual
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445487

RESUMO

Mechanosensitive ion channels are widely expressed in the cardiovascular system. They translate mechanical forces including shear stress and stretch into biological signals. The most prominent biological signal through which the cardiovascular physiological activity is initiated or maintained are intracellular calcium ions (Ca2+). Growing evidence show that the Ca2+ entry mediated by mechanosensitive ion channels is also precisely regulated by a variety of key proteins which are distributed in the cell membrane or endoplasmic reticulum. Recent studies have revealed that mechanosensitive ion channels can even physically interact with Ca2+ regulatory proteins and these interactions have wide implications for physiology and pathophysiology. Therefore, this paper reviews the cross-talk between mechanosensitive ion channels and some key Ca2+ regulatory proteins in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis and its relevance to cardiovascular health and disease.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Animais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Humanos
8.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol ; 363: 203-269, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392930

RESUMO

An increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) regulates a plethora of functions in the cardiovascular (CV) system, including contraction in cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells and endothelial colony forming cells. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) represents the largest endogenous Ca2+ store, which releases Ca2+ through ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and/or inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) upon extracellular stimulation. The acidic vesicles of the endolysosomal (EL) compartment represent an additional endogenous Ca2+ store, which is targeted by several second messengers, including nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2], and may release intraluminal Ca2+ through multiple Ca2+ permeable channels, including two-pore channels 1 and 2 (TPC1-2) and Transient Receptor Potential Mucolipin 1 (TRPML1). Herein, we discuss the emerging, pathophysiological role of EL Ca2+ signaling in the CV system. We describe the role of cardiac TPCs in ß-adrenoceptor stimulation, arrhythmia, hypertrophy, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. We then illustrate the role of EL Ca2+ signaling in VSMCs, where TPCs promote vasoconstriction and contribute to pulmonary artery hypertension and atherosclerosis, whereas TRPML1 sustains vasodilation and is also involved in atherosclerosis. Subsequently, we describe the mechanisms whereby endothelial TPCs promote vasodilation, contribute to neurovascular coupling in the brain and stimulate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Finally, we discuss about the possibility to target TPCs, which are likely to mediate CV cell infection by the Severe Acute Respiratory Disease-Coronavirus-2, with Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs to alleviate the detrimental effects of Coronavirus Disease-19 on the CV system.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , NADP/análogos & derivados , NADP/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/metabolismo
9.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(16): 5903-5923, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240226

RESUMO

Lymphatic vasculature is an integral part of the cardiovascular system where it maintains interstitial fluid balance. Additionally, lymphatic vasculature regulates lipid assimilation and inflammatory response. Lymphatic vasculature is composed of lymphatic capillaries, collecting lymphatic vessels and valves that function in synergy to absorb and transport fluid against gravitational and pressure gradients. Defects in lymphatic vessels or valves leads to fluid accumulation in tissues (lymphedema), chylous ascites, chylothorax, metabolic disorders and inflammation. The past three decades of research has identified numerous molecules that are necessary for the stepwise development of lymphatic vasculature. However, approaches to treat lymphatic disorders are still limited to massages and compression bandages. Hence, better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lymphatic vascular development and function is urgently needed to develop efficient therapies. Recent research has linked mechanical signals such as shear stress and matrix stiffness with biochemical pathways that regulate lymphatic vessel growth, patterning and maturation and valve formation. The goal of this review article is to highlight these innovative developments and speculate on unanswered questions.


Assuntos
Vasos Linfáticos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfedema/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico
10.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(3): R377-R384, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318705

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate if the cardiovascular system is important for ammonia excretion in the early life stages of zebrafish. Morpholino knockdowns of cardiac troponin T (TNNT2) or vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) provided morphants with nonfunctional circulation. At the embryonic stage [30-36 h postfertilization (hpf)], ammonia excretion was not constrained by a lack of cardiovascular function. At 2 days postfertilization (dpf) and 4 dpf, morpholino knockdowns of TNNT2 or VEGFA significantly reduced ammonia excretion in all morphants. Expression of rhag, rhbg, and rhcgb showed no significant changes but the mRNA levels of the urea transporter (ut) were upregulated in the 4 dpf morphants. Taken together, rhag, rhbg, rhcgb, and ut gene expression and an unchanged tissue ammonia concentration but an increased tissue urea concentration, suggest that impaired ammonia excretion led to increased urea synthesis. However, in larvae anesthetized with tricaine or clove oil, ammonia excretion was not reduced in the 4 dpf morphants compared with controls. Furthermore, oxygen consumption was reduced in morphants regardless of anesthesia. These results suggest that cardiovascular function is not directly involved in ammonia excretion, but rather reduced activity and external convection may explain reduced ammonia excretion and compensatory urea accumulation in morphants with reduced cardiovascular function.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Brânquias/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
11.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 321(3): E325-E337, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250814

RESUMO

The number of older obese adults is increasing worldwide. Whether obese adults show similar health benefits in response to lifestyle interventions at different ages is unknown. The study enrolled 25 obese men (body mass index: 31-39 kg/m2) in two arms according to age (30-40 and 60-70 yr old). Participants underwent an 8-wk intervention with moderate calorie restriction (∼20% below individual energy requirements) and supervised endurance training resulting in ∼5% weight loss. Body composition was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Insulin sensitivity was assessed during a hypersinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Cardiometabolic profile was derived from blood parameters. Subcutaneous fat and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were used for ex vivo analyses. Two-way repeated-measure ANOVA and linear mixed models were used to evaluate the response to lifestyle intervention and comparison between the two groups. Fat mass was decreased and bone mass was preserved in the two groups after intervention. Muscle mass decreased significantly in older obese men. Cardiovascular risk (Framingham risk score, plasma triglyceride, and cholesterol) and insulin sensitivity were greatly improved to a similar extent in the two age groups after intervention. Changes in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle transcriptomes were marginal. Analysis of the differential response to the lifestyle intervention showed tenuous differences between age groups. These data suggest that lifestyle intervention combining calorie restriction and exercise shows similar beneficial effects on cardiometabolic risk and insulin sensitivity in younger and older obese men. However, attention must be paid to potential loss of muscle mass in response to weight loss in older obese men.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Rise in obesity and aging worldwide are major trends of critical importance in public health. This study addresses a current challenge in obesity management. Do older obese adults respond differently to a lifestyle intervention composed of moderate calorie restriction and supervised physical activity than younger ones? The main conclusion of the study is that older and younger obese men similarly benefit from the intervention in terms of cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/metabolismo , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198706

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases are the top cause of mortality in the United States, and ischemic heart disease accounts for 16% of all deaths around the world. Modifiable risk factors such as diet and exercise have often been primary targets in addressing these conditions. However, mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors that disrupt physiological rhythms might contribute to the development of these diseases, as well as contribute to increasing other risk factors that are typically associated with cardiovascular disease. Exposure to light at night, transmeridian travel, and social jetlag disrupt endogenous circadian rhythms, which, in turn, alter carefully orchestrated bodily functioning, and elevate the risk of disease and injury. Research into how disrupted circadian rhythms affect physiology and behavior has begun to reveal the intricacies of how seemingly innocuous environmental and social factors have dramatic consequences on mammalian physiology and behavior. Despite the new focus on the importance of circadian rhythms, and how disrupted circadian rhythms contribute to cardiovascular diseases, many questions in this field remain unanswered. Further, neither time-of-day nor sex as a biological variable have been consistently and thoroughly taken into account in previous studies of circadian rhythm disruption and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we will first discuss biological rhythms and the master temporal regulator that controls these rhythms, focusing on the cardiovascular system, its rhythms, and the pathology associated with its disruption, while emphasizing the importance of the time-of-day as a variable that directly affects outcomes in controlled studies, and how temporal data will inform clinical practice and influence personalized medicine. Finally, we will discuss evidence supporting the existence of sex differences in cardiovascular function and outcomes following an injury, and highlight the need for consistent inclusion of both sexes in studies that aim to understand cardiovascular function and improve cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Relógios Circadianos , Ritmo Circadiano , Coração/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): 2454-2468, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261327

RESUMO

Objective: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) facilitate molecular transport across extracellular space, allowing local and systemic signaling during homeostasis and in disease. Extensive studies have described functional roles for EV populations, including during cardiovascular disease, but the in vivo characterization of endogenously produced EVs is still in its infancy. Because of their genetic tractability and live imaging amenability, zebrafish represent an ideal but under-used model to investigate endogenous EVs. We aimed to establish a transgenic zebrafish model to allow the in vivo identification, tracking, and extraction of endogenous EVs produced by different cell types. Approach and Results: Using a membrane-tethered fluorophore reporter system, we show that EVs can be fluorescently labeled in larval and adult zebrafish and demonstrate that multiple cell types including endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes actively produce EVs in vivo. Cell-type specific EVs can be tracked by high spatiotemporal resolution light-sheet live imaging and modified flow cytometry methods allow these EVs to be further evaluated. Additionally, cryo electron microscopy reveals the full morphological diversity of larval and adult EVs. Importantly, we demonstrate the utility of this model by showing that different cell types exchange EVs in the adult heart and that ischemic injury models dynamically alter EV production. Conclusions: We describe a powerful in vivo zebrafish model for the investigation of endogenous EVs in all aspects of cardiovascular biology and pathology. A cell membrane fluorophore labeling approach allows cell-type specific tracing of EV origin without bias toward the expression of individual protein markers and will allow detailed future examination of their function.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Sistema Cardiovascular/embriologia , Separação Celular , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/ultraestrutura , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/ultraestrutura , Citometria de Fluxo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
14.
Life Sci ; 283: 119841, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298036

RESUMO

Sympathetic vasomotor overactivity is a major feature leading to the cardiovascular dysfunction related to obesity. Considering that the retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rWAT) is an important fat visceral depot and receives intense sympathetic and afferent innervations, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects evoked by bilateral rWAT denervation in obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HFD for 8 consecutive weeks and rWAT denervation was performed at the 6th week. Arterial pressure, splanchnic and renal sympathetic vasomotor nerve activities were assessed and inflammation and the components of the renin -angiotensin system were evaluated in different white adipose tissue depots. HFD animals presented higher serum levels of leptin and glucose, an increase in arterial pressure and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity; rWAT denervation, normalized these parameters. Pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were significantly increased, as well as RAAS gene expression in WAT of HFD animals; rWAT denervation significantly attenuated these changes. In conclusion, HFD promotes vasomotor sympathetic overactivation and inflammation with repercussions on the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, the neural communication between WAT and the brain is fundamental to trigger sympathetic vasomotor activation and this pathway is a possible new therapeutic target to treat obesity-associated cardiovascular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Denervação , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Obesidade , Nervos Esplâncnicos , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/inervação , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Nervos Esplâncnicos/metabolismo , Nervos Esplâncnicos/patologia , Nervos Esplâncnicos/fisiopatologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203038

RESUMO

Heavy metals are toxic environmental pollutants associated with severe ecological and human health risks. Among them is mercury (Hg), widespread in air, soil, and water, due to its peculiar geo-biochemical cycle. The clinical consequences of Hg exposure include neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, increased risk for cardiovascular diseases is also reported due to a direct effect on cardiovascular tissues, including endothelial cells, recently identified as important targets for the harmful action of heavy metals. In this review, we will discuss the rationale for the potential use of erythrocytes as a surrogate model to study Hg-related toxicity on the cardiovascular system. The toxic effects of Hg on erythrocytes have been amply investigated in the last few years. Among the observed alterations, phosphatidylserine exposure has been proposed as an underlying mechanism responsible for Hg-induced increased proatherogenic and prothrombotic activity of these cells. Furthermore, following Hg-exposure, a decrease in NOS activity has also been reported, with consequent lowering of NO bioavailability, thus impairing endothelial function. An additional mechanism that may induce a decrease in NO availability is the generation of an oxidative microenvironment. Finally, considering that chronic Hg exposure mainly occurs through contaminated foods, the protective effect of dietary components is also discussed.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiopatologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Endotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202781

RESUMO

Breastfeeding protects against adverse cardiovascular outcomes in the long term. Melatonin is an active molecule that is present in the breast milk produced at night beginning in the first stages of lactation. This indoleamine appears to be a relevant contributor to the benefits of breast milk because it can affect infant health in several ways. The melatonin concentration in breast milk varies in a circadian pattern, making breast milk a chrononutrient. The consumption of melatonin can induce the first circadian stimulation in the infant's body at an age when his/her own circadian machinery is not functioning yet. This molecule is also a powerful antioxidant with the ability to act on infant cells directly as a scavenger and indirectly by lowering oxidant molecule production and enhancing the antioxidant capacity of the body. Melatonin also participates in regulating inflammation. Furthermore, melatonin can participate in shaping the gut microbiota composition, richness, and variation over time, also modulating which molecules are absorbed by the host. In all these ways, melatonin from breast milk influences weight gain in infants, limiting the development of obesity and comorbidities in the long term, and it can help shape the ideal cellular environment for the development of the infant's cardiovascular system.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Animais , Aleitamento Materno , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Melatonina/farmacologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207151

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of debilitation and mortality worldwide, with a need for cost-effective therapeutics. Autophagy is a highly conserved catabolic recycling pathway triggered by various intra- or extracellular stimuli to play an essential role in development and pathologies, including CVDs. Accordingly, there is great interest in identifying mechanisms that govern autophagic regulation. Autophagic regulation is very complex and multifactorial that includes epigenetic pathways, such as histone modifications to regulate autophagy-related gene expression, decapping-associated mRNA degradation, microRNAs, and long non-coding RNAs; pathways are also known to play roles in CVDs. Molecular understanding of epigenetic-based pathways involved in autophagy and CVDs not only will enhance the understanding of CVDs, but may also provide novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers for CVDs.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Animais , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1315: 181-203, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302693

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), known as a gas signal molecule, plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) through mechanisms such as angiogenesis, vasodilation, and anti-vascular endothelial cell senescence. Current studies have shown that H2S can regulate cardiac function through epigenetic regulation. The regulation has opened up a new avenue for the study of CVD development mechanism and H2S related drug discoveries.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Vasodilatação
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252267, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097699

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: There are no cardiovascular (CV) risk prediction models for Sri Lankans. Different risk prediction models not validated for Sri Lankans are being used to predict CV risk of Sri Lankans. We validated the WHO/ISH (SEAR-B) risk prediction charts prospectively in a population-based cohort of Sri Lankans. METHOD: We selected 40-64 year-old participants from the Ragama Medical Officer of Health (MOH) area in 2007 by stratified random sampling and followed them up for 10 years. Ten-year risk predictions of a fatal/non-fatal cardiovascular event (CVE) in 2007 were calculated using WHO/ISH (SEAR-B) charts with and without cholesterol. The CVEs that occurred from 2007-2017 were ascertained. Risk predictions in 2007 were validated against observed CVEs in 2017. RESULTS: Of 2517 participants, the mean age was 53.7 year (SD: 6.7) and 1132 (45%) were males. Using WHO/ISH chart with cholesterol, the percentages of subjects with a 10-year CV risk <10%, 10-19%, 20%-29%, 30-39%, ≥40% were 80.7%, 9.9%, 3.8%, 2.5% and 3.1%, respectively. 142 non-fatal and 73 fatal CVEs were observed during follow-up. Among the cohort, 9.4% were predicted of having a CV risk ≥20% and 8.6% CVEs were observed in the risk category. CVEs were within the predictions of WHO/ISH charts with and without cholesterol in both high (≥20%) and low(<20%) risk males, but only in low(<20%) risk females. The predictions of WHO/ISH charts, with-and without-cholesterol were in agreement in 81% of subjects (ĸ = 0.429; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: WHO/ISH (SEAR B) risk prediction charts with-and without-cholesterol may be used in Sri Lanka. Risk charts are more predictive in males than in females and for lower-risk categories. The predictions when stratifying into 2 categories, low risk (<20%) and high risk (≥20%), are more appropriate in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/patologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/patologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Anamnese/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
Physiology (Bethesda) ; 36(4): 220-234, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159807

RESUMO

Much excitement exists over the cardioprotective and life-extending effects of caloric restriction (CR). This review integrates population studies with experimental animal research to address the positive and negative impact of mild and severe CR on cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology, with a particular focus on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We also highlight the gaps in knowledge and areas ripe for future physiological research.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Restrição Calórica , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Animais , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Humanos
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