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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 168: 104622, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711762

RESUMO

Resistance to phosphine fumigation has been frequently reported in insect pests of stored products and remains one of the obstacles in controlling these pests, including Tribolium castaneum. In this study, six field populations of T. castaneum were collected from different localities in China. Bioassay data showed that SZ population was strongly resistant to phosphine, followed by moderate-resistance populations WL and SF and three susceptible populations JX, YN, and ML. In addition, synergism assays showed that piperonyl butoxide significantly increased the toxicity of phosphine in resistant population SZ. Furthermore, CYP346B subfamily genes, CYP346B1, CYP346B2, and CYP346B3, were significantly overexpressed in resistant populations. Expression of CYP346B1, CYP346B2, and CYP346B3 were significantly upregulated following exposure to phosphine. RNAi assays showed that depletions on the expression levels of CYP346B1, CYP346B2, and CYP346B3 resulted in an increase of susceptibility to phosphine in T. castaneum, respectively. Our data demonstrated that CYP346B subfamily genes in T. castaneum were associated with the resistance of phosphine. Moreover, the study also increased our understanding of the molecular basis of phosphine resistance in stored pest insects.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , China , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfinas
2.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126802, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660694

RESUMO

As the predominant predator of pests in rice fields, spiders have been exposed to cadmium (Cd) pollution for a long time. The livability of spiders during the overwintering period is closely related to population growth in spring, but the effects of Cd on spider's survival of cold hardness and the underlining mechanism remain unclear. In the present study, we found that some growth parameters (body length, width, mass and livability) in the wolf spider Pirata subpiraticus were altered distinctively under Cd stress. To investigate the effects of Cd toxicity on the spider at molecular levels, RNA-sequencing was performed on the spiderlings undergoing ambient temperature alterations. Transcriptome data showed that a total of 807 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were yielded in the comparison. The obtained DEGs were mainly linked with metabolism-related process, including oxidoreductase activity and lipid transport, and 25 DEGs were associated with the reported cryoprotectants, including glycerol, arginine, cysteine, heat shock protein, glucose and mannose. Growth factors (insulin growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor) and cytochrome P450 encoding genes were dramatically expressed in the spider. Furthermore, transcriptional factors (TFs) family were characterized according to the transcriptomic profile, and ZBTB TFs were represented the most distinctive alterations in the characterized genes. Collectively, our study illustrated that Cd poses disadvantageous effects on the growth of P. subpiraticus at cold ambient temperature, and the spiders are capable of responding to the adverse Cd stress by expressing the genes involved in the metabolism of energy substances, cryoprotectants and immune-related components.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Resposta ao Choque Frio/efeitos dos fármacos , Aranhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aranhas/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Aranhas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 311: 123538, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485602

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 OleT is a fatty acid decarboxylase that uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to catalyze the production of terminal alkenes, which are industrially important chemicals with biofuel and synthetic applications. Despite its requirement for large turnover levels, high concentrations of H2O2 may cause heme group degradation, diminishing enzymatic activity and limiting broad application for synthesis. Here, we report an artificial enzyme cascade composed of glucose oxidase (GOx) and OleTSA from Staphylococcus aureus for efficient terminal alkene production. By adjusting the ratio of GOx to OleTSA, the GOx-based tandem catalysis shows significantly improved product yield compared to the H2O2 injection method. Moreover, the co-assembly of the GOx/OleTSA enzymes with a polymer, forming polymer-dual enzymes nanoparticles, displays improved activity compared to the free enzyme. This dual strategy provides a simple and efficient system to transform a naturally abundant feedstock to industrially important chemicals.


Assuntos
Carboxiliases , Glucose Oxidase , Biocombustíveis , Catálise , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Glucose , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 225: 105540, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569997

RESUMO

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo has increasingly been used as an alternative model in human and environmental toxicology. Since the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system is of fundamental importance for the understanding and correct interpretation of the outcome of toxicological studies, constitutive and xenobiotic-induced 7-methoxycoumarin-O-demethylase (MCOD), i.e. 'mammalian CYP2-like', activities were monitored in vivo in zebrafish embryos via confocal laser scanning microscopy. In order to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the MCOD induction, dose-dependent effects of the prototypical CYP inducers ß-naphthoflavone (aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist), rifampicin (pregnane X receptor (PXR) agonist), carbamazepine and phenobarbital (constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) agonists) were analyzed in zebrafish embryos of varying age. Starting from 36 h of age, all embryonic stages of zebrafish could be shown to have constitutive MCOD activity, albeit with spatial variation and at distinct levels. Whereas carbamazepine, phenobarbital and rifampicin had no effect on in vivo MCOD activity in 96 h old zebrafish embryos, the model aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist ß-naphthoflavone significantly induced MCOD activity in 96 h old zebrafish embryos at 46-734 nM, however, without a clear concentration-effect relationship. Induction of MCOD activity by ß-naphthoflavone gradually decreased with progression of embryonic development. By in vivo characterization of constitutive and xenobiotic-induced MCOD activity patterns in 36, 60, 84 and 108 h old zebrafish embryos, this decrease could primarily be attributed to an age-related decline in the induction of MCOD activity in the cardiovascular system. Results of this study provide novel insights into the mechanism and extent, by which specific CYP activities in early life-stages of zebrafish can be influenced by exposure to xenobiotics. The study thus lends further support to the view that zebrafish embryos- at least from an age of 36 h - have an elaborate and inducible biotransformation system.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/biossíntese , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredutases O-Desmetilantes/biossíntese , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Biotransformação , Indutores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/enzimologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Xenobióticos/toxicidade , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , beta-Naftoflavona/toxicidade
5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 167: 104601, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527429

RESUMO

Dinotefuran, the third-generation neonicotinoid, has been applied against melon/cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover in China. The risk of resistance development, cross-resistance pattern and potential resistance mechanism of dinotefuran in A. gossypii were investigated. A dinotefuran-resistant strain of A. gossypii (DinR) with 74.7-fold resistance was established by continuous selection using dinotefuran. The DinR strain showed a medium level of cross resistance to thiamethoxam (15.2-fold), but no cross resistance to imidacloprid. The synergism assay indicated that piperonyl butoxide and triphenyl phosphate showed synergistic effects on dinotefuran toxicity to the DinR strain with a synergistic ratio of 8.3 and 2.5, respectively, while diethyl maleate showed no synergistic effect. The activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and carboxylesterase were significantly higher in DinR strain than in susceptible strain (SS). Moreover, the gene expression results showed that CYP6CY14, CYP6CY22 and CYP6UN1 were significantly overexpressed in DinR strain compared with SS strain. The expression of CYP6CY14 was 5.8-fold higher in DinR strain than in SS strain. Additionally, the transcription of CYP6CY14, CYP6CY22 and CYP6UN1 in A. gossypii showed dose- and time-dependent responses to dinotefuran exposure. Furthermore, knockdown of CYP6CY14, CYP6CY22 and CYP6UN1 via RNA interference (RNAi) significantly increased mortality of A. gossypii, when A. gossypii was treated with dinotefuran. These results demonstrated the overexpression of CYP6CY14, CYP6CY22 and CYP6UN1 contributed to dinotefuran resistance in A. gossypii.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Cucurbitaceae , Inseticidas , Animais , China , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Guanidinas , Resistência a Inseticidas , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos
6.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 167: 104602, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527436

RESUMO

The ecdysteroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), a critical hormone in arthropods, plays an essential role in insect growth, molting and reproduction. A previous study showed that 20E is actually regulated by six P450 genes (five P450 genes belonging to the Halloween family and a CYP18A1 gene) in model insects. However, the role of the six P450 genes in Bemisia tabaci Q (also call Mediterranean, MED), an important pest of field crops, remains unclear. Here, six P450 genes were cloned by RT-PCR, and the phylogenetic tree indicated a close orthologous relationship of these P450 genes between MED and other insects. Spatiotemporal expression profiling revealed that five P450 genes (CYP18A1, CYP306A1, CYP307A2, CYP314A1 and CYP315A1) were expressed at significantly higher levels in the head than in the abdomen and thorax. Four P450 genes (CYP302A1, CYP307A2, CYP314A1 and CYP315A1) were expressed at the highest levels in males, and CYP18A1 was expressed at the highest levels in the 4th nymph stage. The molting process was delayed by approximately 1-3 days after knockdown of these genes at the 4th nymph stage, and the mean proportion of shriveled or dead insects reached 8.3% (CYP18A1), 20.8% (CYP302A1), 7.0% (CYP307A2), 31.8% (CYP306A1), 28.6% (CYP314A1) and 24.1% (CYP315A1). In addition, 20E rescued the negative effect of ds-CYP306A1, ds-CYP314A1 and ds-CYP315A1 on the eclosion rate. We concluded that these Halloween genes and CYP18A1 likely participate in the development of MED, and in particular, CYP306A1 could be used as a putative insecticide target for controlling this piercing-sucking insect.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Proteínas de Insetos , Insetos , Filogenia
7.
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231980, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357188

RESUMO

Triterpenoids are high-value plant metabolites with numerous applications in medicine, agriculture, food, and home and personal care products. However, plants produce triterpenoids in low abundance, and their complex structures make their chemical synthesis prohibitively expensive and often impossible. As such, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been explored as an alternative means of production. An important triterpenoid is oleanolic acid because it is the precursor to many bioactive triterpenoids of commercial interest, such as QS-21 which is being evaluated as a vaccine adjuvant in clinical trials against HIV and malaria. Oleanolic acid is derived from 2,3-oxidosqualene (natively produced by yeast) via a cyclisation and a multi-step oxidation reaction, catalysed by a ß-amyrin synthase and a cytochrome P450 of the CYP716A subfamily, respectively. Although many homologues have been characterised, previous studies have used arbitrarily chosen ß-amyrin synthases and CYP716As to produce oleanolic acid and its derivatives in yeast. This study presents the first comprehensive comparison of ß-amyrin synthase and CYP716A enzyme activities in yeast. Strains expressing different homologues are compared for production, revealing 6.3- and 4.5-fold differences in ß-amyrin and oleanolic acid productivities and varying CYP716A product profiles, which are important to consider when engineering strains for the production of bioactive oleanolic acid derivatives.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Transferases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/biossíntese , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Transferases Intramoleculares/química , Transferases Intramoleculares/genética , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/análise , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(20): 25404-25414, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350838

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to explore the cardio-, immuno-, and nephrotoxic effects of the antipsychotic agent clozapine (CLZ) and the alleviative potency of sulpiride (SPD) on these impairments in rats. For this purpose, 40 male rats were divided into four groups and were orally treated with saline (control), CLZ (0.5 mg/kg bw), SPD (28 mg/kg bw), or a combination of CLZ and SPD (CLZ+SPD), daily for 30 consecutive days. At necropsy, blood samples and specimens from the heart, kidneys, and spleen were collected for biochemical, molecular, and histopathological investigations. The results showed that CLZ administration was associated with significantly lower immune status indices and increased serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, cardiac, and renal tissues injury markers. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (Kim-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms were markedly upregulated in CLZ-treated rats, compared to the control group. On the other hand, rats treated with SPD alone showed non-significant differences in terms of immune response indices, tissue injury markers, and mRNA expression levels of Kim-1, TIMP-1, and CYP isoforms. Finally, CLZ+SPD co-treatment significantly modulated almost all biochemical indices. Besides, Kim-1, TIMP-1, and CYP2C19 mRNA expression levels were significantly downregulated, while other CYP isoforms showed no modulation, compared with CLZ-treated group. Histopathologically, CLZ-treated rats showed severe lesions in renal, splenic, and cardiac tissues, compared with control rats, which were restored in CLZ+SPD-co-treated rats. Overall, these findings demonstrate that CLZ treatment induces significant cardiac, immune, and nephropathic alterations, which were reduced with CLZ+SPD co-treatment.


Assuntos
Clozapina , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Masculino , Isoformas de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos , Sulpirida , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 724: 138187, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408447

RESUMO

Chlorophenols (CPs) are important pollutants detected frequently in the environment. This study intended to detect the inhibitory effects of fourteen CPs (2-CP, 3-CP, 4-CP, 4C2AP, 4C3MP, 2.4-DCP, 2.3.4-TCP, 2.4.5-TCP, 2.4.6-TCP, 3.4.5-TCP, 2.3.4.5-TECP, 2.3.4.6-TECP, 2.3.5.6-TECP and PCP) towards human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Throughout the tests, testosterone was used as the probe substrate and CPs were used as inhibitors. A series of experiments (enzyme activity assays, preliminary screening tests, inhibition kinetics determination) were conducted to determine the inhibition of CPs towards human liver CYP3A4. CPs with the inhibitory effect >80% were selected for the inhibition evaluation in liver microsomes from different animal species (monkey, rat, dog, pig). The results showed that 2.3.4-TCP, 3.4.5-TCP, and 2.3.4.5-TECP inhibited the activities of CYP3A4 by 80.3%, 93.4%, 91.6%, respectively. Inhibition kinetics type were non-competitive and inhibition kinetics constant (Ki) values were 26.4 µM, 13.5 µM, and 8.8 µM for the inhibition of 2.3.4-TCP, 3.4.5-TCP, and 2.3.4.5-TECP towards human CYP3A4, respectively. Inhibition kinetics type was competitive and Ki value was 4.9 µM for the inhibition of 2.3.4-TCP towards CYP3A4 in Monkey liver microsomes (MyLMs). Inhibition kinetic types were non-competitive and Ki values were 8.1 µM and 28.7 µM for the inhibition of 3.4.5-TCP and 2.3.4.5-TECP towards CYP3A4 in MyLMs. Inhibition kinetic types were non-competitive and Ki values were 13.8 µM, 0.6 µM, and 6.1 µM for the inhibition of 2.3.4-TCP, 3.4.5-TCP, and 2.3.4.5-TECP towards CYP3A4 in Dog liver microsomes (DLMs), respectively. By comparing Ki values and inhibition kinetic types, the dog was the most suitable model to assess the inhibition of 2.3.4-TCP and 2.3.4.5-TECP towards CYP3A4, and monkey was the most suitable model to assess the inhibition of 3.4.5-TCP towards CYP3A4. In conclusion, our recent study on the inhibition of CPs towards CYP3A4 and species differences was important for further toxicological studies of CPs in human bodies.


Assuntos
Clorofenóis , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450 , Animais , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Cães , Humanos , Microssomos Hepáticos , Ratos , Suínos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233054, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433651

RESUMO

Smoking, which is highly prevalent in HIV-infected populations, has been shown to exacerbate HIV replication, in part via the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-induced oxidative stress pathway. Recently, we have shown that extracellular vesicles (EVs), derived from tobacco- and/or HIV-exposed macrophages, alter HIV replication in macrophages by cell-cell interactions. We hypothesize that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and/or HIV-exposed macrophage-derived EVs carry relatively high levels of pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory cargos and/or low levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory cargos, which are key mediators for HIV pathogenesis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated differential packaging of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and pro- and anti-oxidant contents in EVs after CSC exposure to myeloid cells (uninfected U937 and HIV-infected U1 cells). Our results showed that relatively long to short exposures with CSC increased the expression of cytokines in EVs isolated from HIV-infected U1 macrophages. Importantly, pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6, were highly packaged in EVs isolated from HIV-infected U1 macrophages upon both long and short-term CSC exposures. In general, anti-inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-10, had a lower packaging in EVs, while packaging of chemokines was mostly increased in EVs upon CSC exposure in both HIV-infected U1 and uninfected U937 macrophages. Moreover, we observed higher expression of CYPs (1A1 and 1B1) and lower expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1 and catalase) in EVs from HIV-infected U1 macrophages than in uninfected U937 macrophages. Together, they are expected to increase oxidative stress factors in EVs derived from HIV-infected U1 cells. Taken together, our results suggest packaging of increased level of oxidative stress and inflammatory elements in the EVs upon exposure to tobacco constituents and/or HIV to myeloid cells, which would ultimately enhance HIV replication in macrophages via cell-cell interactions.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Linhagem Celular , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco
13.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1927): 20200838, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453986

RESUMO

The putative synergistic action of target-site mutations and enhanced detoxification in pyrethroid resistance in insects has been hypothesized as a major evolutionary mechanism responsible for dramatic consequences in malaria incidence and crop production. Combining genetic transformation and CRISPR/Cas9 genome modification, we generated transgenic Drosophila lines expressing pyrethroid metabolizing P450 enzymes in a genetic background along with engineered mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (para) known to confer target-site resistance. Genotypes expressing the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti Cyp9J28 while also bearing the paraV1016G mutation displayed substantially greater resistance ratio (RR) against deltamethrin than the product of each individual mechanism (RRcombined: 19.85 > RRCyp9J28: 1.77 × RRV1016G: 3.00). Genotypes expressing Brassicogethes aeneus pollen beetle Cyp6BQ23 and also bearing the paraL1014F (kdr) mutation, displayed an almost multiplicative RR (RRcombined: 75.19 ≥ RRCyp6BQ23: 5.74 × RRL1014F: 12.74). Reduced pyrethroid affinity at the target site, delaying saturation while simultaneously extending the duration of P450-driven detoxification, is proposed as a possible underlying mechanism. Combinations of target site and P450 resistance loci might be unfavourable in field populations in the absence of insecticide selection, as they exert some fitness disadvantage in development time and fecundity. These are major considerations from the insecticide resistance management viewpoint in both public health and agriculture.


Assuntos
Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/química , Aedes , Animais , Besouros , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Mosquitos Vetores , Piretrinas
14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 160, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (termed CYPs or P450s) are hemoproteins ubiquitously found across all kingdoms, playing a central role in intracellular metabolism, especially in metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. The explosive growth of genome sequencing brings a new set of challenges and issues for researchers, such as a systematic investigation of CYPs across all kingdoms in terms of identification, classification, and pan-CYPome analyses. Such investigation requires an automated tool that can handle an enormous amount of sequencing data in a timely manner. RESULTS: CYPminer was developed in the Python language to facilitate rapid, comprehensive analysis of CYPs from genomes of all kingdoms. CYPminer consists of two procedures i) to generate the Genome-CYP Matrix (GCM) that lists all occurrences of CYPs across the genomes, and ii) to perform analyses and visualization of the GCM, including pan-CYPomes (pan- and core-CYPome), CYP co-occurrence networks, CYP clouds, and genome clustering data. The performance of CYPminer was evaluated with three datasets from fungal and bacterial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: CYPminer completes CYP analyses for large-scale genomes from all kingdoms, which allows systematic genome annotation and comparative insights for CYPs. CYPminer also can be extended and adapted easily for broader usage.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/análise , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Análise de Dados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma , Filogenia , Automação , Análise por Conglomerados , Fungos/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Software , Interface Usuário-Computador
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232626, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374762

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to determine the involvement of the flavonol-anthocyanin pathway on plant adaptation to biotic stress using the B.amyloliquefaciens QV15 to trigger blackberry metabolism and identify target genes to improve plant fitness and fruit quality. To achieve this goal, field-grown blackberries were root-inoculated with QV15 along its growth cycle. At fruiting, a transcriptomic analysis by RNA-Seq was performed on leaves and fruits of treated and non-treated field-grown blackberries after a sustained mildew outbreak; expression of the regulating and core genes of the Flavonol-Anthocyanin pathway were analysed by qPCR and metabolomic profiles by UHPLC/ESI-qTOF-MS; plant protection was found to be up to 88%. Overexpression of step-controlling genes in leaves and fruits, associated to lower concentration of flavonols and anthocyanins in QV15-treated plants, together with a higher protection suggest a phytoanticipin role for flavonols in blackberry; kempferol-3-O-rutinoside concentration was strikingly high. Overexpression of RuF3H (Flavonol-3-hidroxylase) suggests a pivotal role in the coordination of committing steps in this pathway, controlling carbon flux towards the different sinks. Furthermore, this C demand is supported by an activation of the photosynthetic machinery, and boosted by a coordinated control of ROS into a sub-lethal range, and associated to enhanced protection to biotic stress.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/fisiologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/fisiologia , Rubus/enzimologia , Rubus/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Rubus/genética
16.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 165: 104550, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359548

RESUMO

The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a polyphagous pest feeding on over 1100 plant species, including numerous highly valued economic crops. The control of T. urticae largely depends on the use of acaricides, which leads to pervasive development of acaricide resistance. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic detoxification is one of the major mechanisms of acaricide resistance in T. urticae. NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) plays as a crucial co-factor protein that donates electron(s) to microsomal cytochrome P450s to complete their catalytic cycle. This study seeks to understand the involvement of CPR/P450 in acaricide resistance in T. urticae. The full-length cDNA sequence of T. urticae's CPR (TuCPR) was cloned and characterized. TuCPR was ubiquitously transcribed in different life stages of T. urticae and the highest transcription was observed in the nymph and adult stages. TuCPR was constitutively over-expressed in six acaricide resistant populations compared to a susceptible one. TuCPR transcriptional expression was also induced by multiple acaricides in a time-dependent manner. Down-regulation of TuCPR via RNA interference (RNAi) in T. urticae led to reduced enzymatic activities of TuCPR and cytochrome P450s, as well as a reduction of resistance to multiple acaricides, abamectin, bifenthrin, and fenpyroximate. The outcome of this study highlights CPR as a potential novel target for eco-friendly control of T. urticae and other related plant-feeding pests.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Tetranychidae , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , NADPH-Ferri-Hemoproteína Redutase , Interferência de RNA
17.
Phytochemistry ; 175: 112375, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305685

RESUMO

Shikonin is a natural naphthoquinone derivative that specifically occurs in boraginaceous plants, and the major active ingredient of the medicinal plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Previously, a cytochrome P450 oxygenase (CYP) CYP76B74 catalyzing 3″-hydroxylation of geranylhydroquinone (GHQ) - a key intermediate of shikonin biosynthesis, was identified from cultured cells of Arnebia euchroma. However, the enzymes catalyzing oxidation of the geranyl side-chain of GHQ from L. erythrorhizon remain unknown. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of different tissues (red roots and green leaves/stems) from L. erythrorhizon using RNA sequencing technology. Highly expressed CYP genes found in the roots were then heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and functionally screened with GHQ as the substrate. As the result, two CYPs of CYP76B subfamily catalyzing the oxidation of GHQ were characterized. CYP76B100 catalyzed the hydroxylation of the geranyl side-chain of GHQ at the C-3″ position to form 3″-hydroxyl geranylhydroquinone (GHQ-3″-OH). The enzyme CYP76B101 carried out oxidation reaction of GHQ at the C-3″ position to produce a 3″-carboxylic acid derivative of GHQ (GHQ-3″-COOH) as well as GHQ-3″-OH. This enzyme-catalyzed oxidation reaction with GHQ as the substrate is reported for the first time. This study implicates CYP76B100 and CYP76B101 as having a potential role in shikonin biosynthesis in L. erythrorhizon.


Assuntos
Lithospermum , Naftoquinonas , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Terpenos
18.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(6): 1533-1542, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clopidogrel is a commonly used P2Y12 inhibitor to treat and prevent arterial thrombotic events. Clopidogrel is a prodrug that requires bioactivation by CYP (cytochrome P450) enzymes to exert antiplatelet activity. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of ischemic events, and impaired ability to generate the active metabolite (AM) from clopidogrel. The objective of this study is to identify the mechanism of clopidogrel resistance in a murine model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Approach and Results: C57BL/6J mice and IL-1R-/- mice were given high-fat diet for 10 weeks to generate a murine model of diet-induced obesity. Platelet aggregation and carotid arterial thrombosis were assessed in response to clopidogrel treatment. Wild-type DIO mice exhibited resistance to antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of clopidogrel that was associated with reduced hepatic expression of CYP genes and reduced generation of the AM. IL (Interleukin)-1 receptor-deficient DIO (IL1R-/- DIO) mice showed no resistance to clopidogrel. Lack of resistance was accompanied by increased exposure of the clopidogrel AM. This resistance was also absent when wild-type DIO mice were treated with the conjugate of the clopidogrel AM, DT-678. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel may be impaired in the setting of diabetes mellitus due to reduced prodrug bioactivation related to IL-1 receptor signaling. Therapeutic targeting of P2Y12 in patients with diabetes mellitus using the conjugate of clopidogrel AM may lead to improved outcomes.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/farmacocinética , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Obesidade/complicações , Receptores de Interleucina-1/fisiologia , Animais , Trombose das Artérias Carótidas/prevenção & controle , Clopidogrel/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Diabetes Mellitus , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrinolíticos , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microssomos Hepáticos/enzimologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas , Pró-Fármacos/farmacocinética , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Interleucina-1/deficiência
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231451, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282855

RESUMO

Insect molting hormone (ecdysteroids) and juvenile hormone regulate molting and metamorphic events in a variety of insect species. Mealybugs undergo sexually dimorphic metamorphosis: males develop into winged adults through non-feeding, pupa-like stages called prepupa and pupa, while females emerge as neotenic wingless adults. We previously demonstrated, in the Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana), that the juvenile hormone titer is higher in males than in females at the end of the juvenile stage, which suggests that juvenile hormone may regulate male-specific adult morphogenesis. Here, we examined the involvement of ecdysteroids in sexually dimorphic metamorphosis. To estimate ecdysteroid titers, quantitative RT-PCR analyses of four Halloween genes encoding for cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in ecdysteroid biosynthesis, i.e., spook, disembodied, shadow and shade, were performed. Overall, their expression levels peaked before each nymphal molt. Transcript levels of spook, disembodied and shadow, genes that catalyze the steps in ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the prothoracic gland, were higher in males from the middle of the second nymphal instar to adult emergence. In contrast, the expression of shade, which was reported to be involved in the conversion of ecdysone into 20-hydroxyecdysone in peripheral tissues, was similar between males and females. These results suggest that ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the prothoracic gland is more active in males than in females, although the final conversion into 20-hydroxyecdysone occurs at similar levels in both sexes. Moreover, expression profiles of ecdysone response genes, ecdysone receptor and ecdysone-induced protein 75B, were also analyzed. Based on these expression profiles, we propose that the changes in ecdysteroid titer differ between males and females, and that high ecdysteroid titer is essential for directing male adult development.


Assuntos
Ecdisona/genética , Ecdisteroides/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Insetos/genética , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Ecdisterona/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hormônios Juvenis/genética , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Metamorfose Biológica/genética , Morfogênese/genética , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caracteres Sexuais , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(19): 10246-10253, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327610

RESUMO

The evolution of insect resistance to pesticides poses a continuing threat to agriculture and human health. While much is known about the proximate molecular and biochemical mechanisms that confer resistance, far less is known about the regulation of the specific genes/gene families involved, particularly by trans-acting factors such as signal-regulated transcription factors. Here we resolve in fine detail the trans-regulation of CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 that confers resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-directed activation of the transcription factor cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). Reporter gene assays were used to identify the putative promoter of CYP6CM1, but no consistent polymorphisms were observed in the promoter of a resistant strain of B. tabaci (imidacloprid-resistant, IMR), which overexpresses this gene, compared to a susceptible strain (imidacloprid-susceptible, IMS). Investigation of potential trans-acting factors using in vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that the bZIP transcription factor CREB directly regulates CYP6CM1 expression by binding to a cAMP-response element (CRE)-like site in the promoter of this gene. CREB is overexpressed in the IMR strain, and inhibitor, luciferase, and RNA interference assays revealed that a signaling pathway of MAPKs mediates the activation of CREB, and thus the increased expression of CYP6CM1, by phosphorylation-mediated signal transduction. Collectively, these results provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of xenobiotic responses in insects and implicate both the MAPK-signaling pathway and a transcription factor in the development of pesticide resistance.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Animais , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemípteros/genética , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Mutação , Fosforilação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
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