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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 2059-2064, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prolonged use of glucocorticoids (GC) in glioma treatment can lead to adrenal insufficiency (AI) and subsequent steroid dependence due to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This is challenging to diagnose due to its nonspecific clinical symptoms erroneously ascribed to treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors predisposing patients with gliomas to develop AI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Charts in the neuro-oncology clinic from July 2018 to March 2019 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria included >18 y/o with WHO Grade II-IV gliomas, and secondary AI. Demographic profile, tumor characteristics, and treatment profile were compared. RESULTS: The majority of patients were started on high dose dexamethasone at >8 mg daily, and were on dexamethasone for 4-8 months. The minimum dose needed to prevent symptoms was 0.5 mg to 2 mg daily. The majority received standard radiation doses ranging from 54-60 Gy. Most patients had radiation exposure to the HPA axis within the prescription isodose levels. CONCLUSION: Prolonged steroid dependency can result from chronic GC use in patients with glioma. Dose and duration of GC are risk factors for its development. Radiation exposure to the HPA axis may also be a contributing factor.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Adrenal/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Adrenal/patologia , Adulto , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glioma/complicações , Glioma/patologia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/patologia
2.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(2): 102454, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have introduced a new and heterogeneous class of immune-related adverse effects, with the endocrine system being a predominant target for autoimmunity. Autoimmune hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) diseases induced by checkpoint inhibitors are being increasingly recognized. We aimed to characterize the spectrum of checkpoint associated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis endocrinopathies. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of a tertiary cancer center. METHODS: Patients were characterized for HPA axis abnormalities based on clinical and pituitary axes evaluation. The risk for developing HPA endocrinopathies was compared by log- rank test, by the time since checkpoint inhibitors initiation. Additionally, the risk for developing HPA endocrinopathies after adjusting for covariates was assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 1615 patients, fourteen (0.87%) patients developed isolated adrecocorticotrophic hormone deficiency (IAD), six (0.37%) - hypophysitis and no case of adrenalitis was identified. IAD presented with mild and non-specific symptoms, mainly asthenia. In multivariable analysis, exposure to both PD-1/PD-L1 and Ipilimumab and female gender were associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) for developing IAD (6.98 [95% CI 2.38-20.47, p < .001] and 3.67 [95% CI 1.13-11.84, p = .03]), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: IAD, a rare disease before the immunotherapy era, has become a predominant checkpoint related HPA axis autoimmune injury. Despite its life threatening potential, IAD may be missed due to its subtle presentation. Patients exposed to Ipilimumab and PD-1/PD-L1 in combination or sequentially and women have an increased risk for developing IAD.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/induzido quimicamente , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Insuficiência Adrenal/patologia , Insuficiência Adrenal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/patologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/patologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Doenças Raras/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Raras/patologia , Doenças Raras/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 68-79, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400786

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos is a pesticide frequently detected in food and has been reported to disturb endocrine and gut health, which was regulated by gut microbiota and enteroendocrine cells. In this study, newly weaned (3 week) and adult (8 week) male rats fed a normal- or high- fat diet were chronically exposed to 0.3 mg chlorpyrifos/kg bodyweight/day. The effects of chlorpyrifos exposure on serum hormone levels, proinflammatory cytokines and gut microbiota were evaluated. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos significantly decreased the concentrations of luteinizing hormone, follicule stimulating hormone and testosterone, which was found only in the normal-fat diet. The counteracted effect of high-fat diet was also found in gut hormones and proinflammatory cytokines. Significantly higher concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), ghrelin, gastric inhibitory poly-peptide, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-α were found in rats exposed to chlorpyrifos beginning at newly weaned, whereas only the PYY, ghrelin and IL-6 concentrations increased significantly in rats exposed in adulthood. Furthermore, a decrease in epinephrine induced by chlorpyrifos exposure was found in rats exposed to chlorpyrifos beginning at newly weaned, regardless of their diet. Chlorpyrifos-induced disturbances in the microbiome community structure were more apparent in rats fed a high-fat diet and exposed beginning at newly weaned. The affected bacteria included short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria (Romboutsia, Turicibacter, Clostridium sensu stricto 1, norank_f_Coriobacteriaceae, Faecalibaculum, Parasutterella and norank_f__Erysipelotrichaceae), testosterone-related genus (Turicibacter, Brevibacterium), pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus), and inflammation-related bacteria (unclassified_f__Ruminococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-009, Parasutterella, Oscillibacter), which regulated the endocrine system via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, as well as the immune response and gut barrier. Early exposure accelerated the endocrine-disturbing effect and immune responses of chlorpyrifos, although these effects can be eased or recovered by a high-fat diet. This study helped clarify the relationship between disrupted endocrine function and gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by food contaminants such as pesticides.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Animais , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
6.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 91-97, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400790

RESUMO

The organophosphorus pesticide, triazophos (TAP) was banned to use in agriculture in several countries due to its high toxicity. However, TAP was still widely used and frequently detected in foods. Recently, many studies reported the endocrine-disrupting effect of pesticides, especially the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In this study, adult male Wistar rats were exposed to TAP at the dose of 0.164 and 1.64 mg/kg bodyweight (~1/500th and 1/50th of LD50) for 24 weeks and serum contents of hormones were measured. TAP exposure significantly reduced serum contents of adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and epinephrine in rats (p < .05), leading to the delay in glucose homeostasis during the insulin tolerance test and decrease in serum contents of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein. Molecular docking results suggested TAP may be an antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor which decreased significantly in the liver of rats, resulting in the decreased expression of 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and PEPCK1. This study revealed that TAP is a potential endocrine disruptor, especially in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system and may disturb the metabolism by affecting glucocorticoid receptor. This study provided new evidence about the toxicity of TAP and it was necessary to strictly control the usage of TAP in food.


Assuntos
Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Organotiofosfatos/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/farmacologia , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
7.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 92(5): 445-458, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365306

RESUMO

Hormones such as glucocorticoids (colloquially referred to as "stress hormones") have important effects on animal behavior and life-history traits, yet most of this understanding has come through correlative studies. While experimental studies offer the ability to assign causality, there are important methodological concerns that are often not considered when manipulating hormones, including glucocorticoids, in wild animals. In this study, we examined how experimental elevations of cortisol concentrations in wild North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) affected their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity and life-history traits, including body mass, litter survival, and adult survival. The effects of exogenous cortisol on plasma cortisol concentrations depended on the time between treatment consumption and blood sampling. In the first 9 h after consumption of exogenous cortisol, individuals had significantly higher true baseline plasma cortisol concentrations, but adrenal gland function was impaired as indicated by their dampened response to capture and handling and to injections of adrenocorticotropic hormone compared to controls. Approximately 24 h after consumption of exogenous cortisol, individuals had much lower plasma cortisol concentrations than controls, but adrenal function was restored. Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) concentrations were also significantly reduced in squirrels treated with cortisol. Despite these profound shifts in the functionality of the HPA axis, squirrel body mass, offspring survival, and adult survival were unaffected by experimental increases in cortisol concentrations. Our results highlight that even short-term experimental increases in glucocorticoids can affect adrenal gland functioning and CBG concentrations but without other side effects.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sciuridae/sangue , Animais , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Hidrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Sciuridae/fisiologia
8.
Georgian Med News ; (290): 127-131, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322529

RESUMO

Corticoliberin (CRF) isn't only regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, but also functions as a neurotransmitter in extrahypothalamic brain regions like amygdala, implicated in the emotional responses to stress. The CRF system provides an input to orexin neurons and can modulate the activity of orexinergic neurons in stress response. Some data showed the role of orexin-A in extinction of aversive memory. The orexin system was shown to participate in stress-induced behavior connected with the extended amygdala structures, like central nucleus of the amygdala. The objective was to study the effects of orexin-A antagonist SB-408124 in rats after predator-induced stress using behavioral tests and its effects on CRF level in amygdala. In this study 30 male Wistar rats were used. The animals received an intranasally selective antagonist of Orexin receptor 1 type SB-408124. Posttraumatic stress disorder was modelled by single predator exposure. A group of 10-12 rats were placed in a terrarium with an indian python. 7 days after exposure to the predator, the behavior of animals was tested in the Open Field and Elevated Cross-Maze tests. Free motor activity of animals was studied in the "open field" test. To assess stress, we used the "elevated cross-maze " test. CRF concentrations in brain structures were measured by solid-phase ELISA using the Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) test system. In the group of stressed rats receiving intranasally SB-408124, the time of stay in the light arm was restored, but did not reach the control values, the number of runs was restored to the control level, and the number of grooming acts increased in comparison with both the control group and the stressed animals. In the "open field" in the group of stressed rats receiving saline solution, the number of sniffs and rearing were decreased, but the number of peeks into holes was increased. In the group of stressed rats receiving SB-408124 20 µg intranasally, the number of sniffs was increased and the number of hole peeking decreased in comparison with the stressed rats receiving saline solution. The CRF level in the homogenates of amygdala in stressed rats was lower (0.44±0.07 ng/mg protein vs. 0.61±0.01 ng/mg in the control group). In the intranasal administration of SB408124 group this decrease was not recorded and the CRF level in the amygdala was 0.57±0.01 pg/mg protein. Orexin A antagonist SB-408124 reduced anxiety after psychotraumatic exposure. Predator induced acute psychotraumatic exposure decrease CRF level in the rat's amygdala. Intranasal administration of selective orexin 1 receptor antagonist SB408124 restored it closely to normal and has an anxiolytic effect on animal behaviour.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/farmacologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Orexina , Compostos de Fenilureia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Animais , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/induzido quimicamente
9.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4533-4545, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264676

RESUMO

Gardenia blue pigments derived from genipin reacting with amino acids have been used as natural food colorants for nearly 30 years in East Asia. However, their pharmacological effects, especially antidepressant-like effects, have not been reported so far. In this study, one of the gardenia blue pigments, was obtained from the reaction of genipin with tyrosine (genipin-tyrosine derivant (GTD)), and its antidepressant-like effects were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) models. The results showed that GTD could attenuate depressive-like behaviors in both animal models. GTD reversed the LPS-induced cytokine increase of TNF-α, IL-6, and corticosterone (CORT) in mice plasma and hippocampus. In CUMS rats, GTD treatment significantly reduced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related stress hormone levels in plasma including those of CORT, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Besides, GTD increased plasma testosterone and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in CUMS rats. GTD increased serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) in rat hippocampus and corpus striatum. Consistently, hippocampal metabolomic analysis demonstrated that GTD restored monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism, mitochondrial oxidative function, and membrane structural integrity. Our data suggested that GTD produced antidepressant-like activity through the restoration of the HPA axis hormone balance and the regulation of neurotransmitter release.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Gardenia/química , Iridoides/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Tirosina/química , Animais , Antidepressivos/química , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Depressão/genética , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/psicologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serotonina/metabolismo
10.
Endocrinology ; 160(7): 1719-1730, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166572

RESUMO

The control of steroidogenesis in the neonatal adrenal gland is of great clinical interest. We have previously demonstrated that the postnatal day (PD) 2 rat exhibits a large plasma corticosterone response to hypoxia in the absence of an increase in plasma ACTH measured by RIA, whereas the corticosterone response to exogenous ACTH is intact. By PD8, the corticosterone response to hypoxia is clearly ACTH-dependent. We hypothesized that this apparently ACTH-independent response to hypoxia in the newborn rat is due to an increase in a bioactive, nonimmunoassayable form of ACTH. To evaluate this phenomenon, we pretreated neonatal rats with a novel, specific, neutralizing anti-ACTH antibody (ALD1611) (20 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg IP) on the morning of PD1, PD7, and PD14. Twenty-four hours later, we measured hypoxia- or ACTH-stimulated plasma ACTH and corticosterone. For long-term effects, ALD1611 was given on PD1 and pups were studied on PD8 and PD15. Pretreatment with ALD1611 significantly decreased baseline corticosterone and completely blocked the corticosterone response to hypoxia and exogenous ACTH stimulation at all ages. The effect of 1 mg/kg ALD1611 on PD1 had dissipated by PD15. The decrease in corticosterone in ALD1611-treated pups was associated with decreases in baseline and hypoxia- and ACTH-stimulated adrenal Ldlr, Mrap, and Star mRNA expression at all ages. The adrenal response to hypoxia in the newborn rat is ACTH-dependent, suggesting the release of nonimmunoassayable, biologically active forms of ACTH. ALD1611 is useful as a tool to attenuate stress-induced, ACTH-dependent adrenal steroidogenesis in vivo.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo
11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 158, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164628

RESUMO

A particular challenge in the development of a bipolar disorder (BD) model in animals is the complicated clinical course of the condition, characterized by manic, depressive and mixed mood episodes. Ouabain (OUA) is an inhibitor of Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of this drug in rats has been regarded a proper model to study BD by mimic specific manic symptoms, which are reversed by lithium (Li), an important mood stabilizer drug. However, further validation of this experimental approach is required to characterize it as an animal model of BD, including depressive-like behaviors. The present study aimed to assess manic- and depressive-like behaviors, potential alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system and oxidative stress parameters after a single OUA ICV administration in adult male Wistar rats. Moreover, we evaluated Li effects in this experimental setting. Data show that OUA ICV administration could constitute a suitable model for BD since the injection of the drug triggered manic- and depressive-like behaviors in the same animal. Additionally, the OUA model mimics significant physiological and neurochemical alterations detected in BD patients, including an increase in oxidative stress and change in HPA axis. Our findings suggest that decreased Na+/K+-ATPase activity detected in bipolar patients may be linked to increased secretion of glucocorticoid hormones and oxidative damage, leading to the marked behavioral swings. The Li administration mitigated these pathological changes in the rats. The proposed OUA model is regarded as suitable to simulate BD by complying with all validities required to a proper animal model of the psychiatric disorder.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Bipolar/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ouabaína/farmacologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antimaníacos/farmacologia , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Injeções Intraventriculares , Compostos de Lítio/farmacologia , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Ratos Wistar
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109077, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal stress (PS) leads to a wide variety of behavioral and emotional aberration observed in later life, particularly in the impairment of spatial learning and memory in offspring. Icariin (ICA) is a naturally occurring furanocoumarin and exhibits many pharmacological properties, including potent improvement on learning and memory. PURPOSE: We pretend to investigate the improvement of ICA on learning and memory impairment in PS. METHODS: Female PS offspring rats were used to explore the effects of ICA on learning and memory impairment. After 28 days of ICA (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg/day) treatment, we measured Morris water maze and 8-Arm Maze, the HPA axis and the related pathway in the hippocampus. RESULTS: We reported that ICA ameliorated the spatial learning and memory and working memory impairment in the female offspring rats. Correspondingly, ICA prevented adverse changes in the dendritic morphology of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. ICA significantly decreased the serum adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin-releasing hormone and corticosterone levels in offspring rats exposed to PS, associated with increased GR expression. Additionally, ICA treatment significantly increased the neurogranin (Ng) and c-fos protein expression of hippocampus in the offspring rats. Furthermore, the protein of relative content of p-EKR/ERK, p-CaMKIIα/CaMKIIα, p-CREB/CREB were remarkably increased after ICA treatment in the offspring rats. CONCLUSION: Taken together, ICA may be an effective therapeutic for learning and memory dysfunction in female offspring exposed to PS, its neuroprotective effect was mediated in part by normalizing the HPA axis and up-regulating of ERK/CaMKIIα/CREB signaling, Ng and c-fos protein.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Quinase da Proteína Quinase Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(50): 13790-13808, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148444

RESUMO

Essential oils are usually used in aromatherapy to alleviate anxiety symptoms. In comparison to traditional drugs, essential oils have fewer side effects and more diversified application ways, including inhalation. This review provides a comprehensive overview of studies on anxiolytic effects of essential oils in preclinical and clinical trials. Most of the essential oils used in clinical studies have been proven to be anxiolytic in animal models. Inhalation and oral administration were two common methods for essential oil administration in preclinical and clinical trials. Massage was only used in the clinical trials, while intraperitoneal injection was only used in the preclinical trails. In addition to essential oils that are commonly used in aromatherapy, essential oils from many folk medicinal plants have also been reported to be anxiolytic. More than 20 compounds derived from essential oils have shown an anxiolytic effect in rodents, while two-thirds of them are alcohols and terpenes. Monoamine neurotransmitters, amino acid neurotransmitters, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are thought to play important roles in the anxiolytic effects of essential oils.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Animais , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Aromaterapia , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia
14.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(6): 563, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251549

RESUMO

Clascoterone (cortexolone 17α-propionate, CB-03-01) 1% cream, a topical, androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor under investigation for the treatment of acne vulgaris, is rapidly metabolized to cortexolone in human plasma. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and adrenal suppression potential of clascoterone topical cream, 1% in subjects with acne vulgaris. Study Design: This study was an open-label, multicenter study in 42 subjects ≥12 years of age with moderate-to-severe acne (Grade 3-4 on the Investigator's Global Assessment [IGA]), on the face, chest and/or back. Cohort 1(>18 years of age) and Cohort 2 (12-18 years of age) applied clascoterone topical cream, 1% twice daily (BID) for 14 days. Primary safety endpoints included hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to cosyntropin via a Cosyntropin Stimulation Test (CST) upon screening (day 1) and at day 14 (HPA axis suppression was defined as a post-stimulation serum cortisol level <18 µg/dL at day 14); and PK evaluation including concentration-time profiles of clascoterone and cortexolone in plasma­PK parameters were determined using "non-compartmental" analysis. Secondary safety endpoints included clinical laboratory testing, local and systemic adverse events (AEs), physical examination/vital signs, and electrocardiogram (ECG). Results: 42 subjects (Cohort 1=20, Cohort 2= 22) enrolled. Cohort 1 was comprised of 15 females (15/20, 75%) and 5 males (5/20, 25%), non-Hispanic/Latino (20/20, 100%), mean age is 24.4 years. Cohort 2 was comprised of 12 females (12/22, 54.5%) and 10 males (10/22, 45.5%), non-Hispanic/Latino (21/22, 95.5%), and mean age is 15.6 years. Three subjects (3/42,7%), 1 adult and 2 adolescents, demonstrated an abnormal HPA axis response with post-stimulation serum cortisol levels ranging from 14.9 to 17.7 µg/dL at day 14. All returned to normal HPA axis function, four weeks after day 14. None showed clinical evidence of adrenal suppression. Clascoterone plasma concentrations achieved PK steady-state by day 5. Clascoterone systemic exposure was similar between both cohorts. At steady-state, plasma concentrations increased ~1.8 to 2.1 fold versus first dose with mean (coefficient of variation [CV] %) maximum plasma concentrations of 4.4 ng/mL (67%) and 4.6 ng/mL (103%) in Cohort 1 and Cohort 2, respectively. Cortexolone plasma concentrations trended below the lower limit of quantitation (0.5 ng/mL) in both cohorts. Local skin reactions (LSRs) were mostly mild, with only one moderate case of pruritus. There were nine AEs categorized as follows: definitely related (N=2), probably related (N=4), unlikely/not related (N=3), to clascoterone. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the safety and tolerability of clascoterone topical cream, 1% in adolescents and adults with acne vulgaris treated BID for 14 consecutive days. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(6):563-568.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacocinética , Cortodoxona/análogos & derivados , Propionatos/farmacocinética , Creme para a Pele/farmacocinética , Acne Vulgar/sangue , Acne Vulgar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Cortodoxona/administração & dosagem , Cortodoxona/efeitos adversos , Cortodoxona/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionatos/administração & dosagem , Propionatos/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Creme para a Pele/administração & dosagem , Creme para a Pele/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
S Afr Med J ; 109(5): 306-309, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131795

RESUMO

A recently published approach to paediatric asthma management neither recommended screening for nor suggested any management of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression in asthmatic children treated with corticosteroids. The existing literature on this topic was therefore reviewed and the quality of the evidence assessed. Recommendations for diagnosis, screening and management are made utilising the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Criança , Humanos
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 115: 108978, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102911

RESUMO

Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental illness that affected numerous people. The anti-PTSD-like effects of puerarin is unknown, although the antidepressant- and anxiolytic- like effects of puerarin have been reported. The PTSD behavioral deficits in rats were induced by single prolonged stress (SPS), mainly including the reduced time/entries in the open arms and the elevated time/entries in the closed arms in elevated plus maze test, increased freezing duration in contextual fear paradigm and lowered time/entries in the central zone in open field test. However, the behavioral deficits were attenuated by puerarin (50 and 100 mg/kg) without affecting the locomotor activity. For the evaluation of mechanism, the decreased levels of progesterone, allopregnanolone, and the increased levels of corticosterone, corticotropin releasing hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone in the brain or serum were induced by SPS, which is blocked by puerarin. In summary, the anti-PTSD-like effects of puerarin were associated with biosynthesis of neurosteroids and normalized levels of stress hormones in HPA axis.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo
17.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2940-2951, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081510

RESUMO

The present study used Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to investigate whether maternal immune challenge during late gestation altered programming of the offspring hypothalamus and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). In addition, interactions of maternal diet, supplementation with fish oil (FO) or microalgae (AL), and complex vs. simple weaning diets were investigated. Briefly, Landrace × Yorkshire sows (N = 48) were randomly assigned to diets supplemented with FO, AL, or a standard gestation control diet (CON) from day 75 of gestation (gd 75) until parturition. On gd 112, half the sows from each dietary treatment were immune challenged with LPS (10 µg/kg BW) or saline as a control. At 21 d postpartum, the offspring were weaned, and half the animals from each maternal treatment were allocated to either a complex or simple weaning diet. At 28 d postpartum, the offspring's hourly fever and 2-h cortisol responses to LPS immune challenge (40 µg/kg BW) were measured to assess hypothalamus and HPAA function. Results indicated that the maternal temperature of sows on the FO diet returned to baseline levels faster than sows on the AL and CON diets after LPS immune challenge (P < 0.05). In contrast, there was no difference in the maternal cortisol response across the dietary treatments (P > 0.10). Regardless of the dietary treatments, the maternal LPS immune challenge induced a greater cortisol response in male offspring (P = 0.05) and a greater fever response in female offspring (P = 0.03) when they were LPS immune challenged post-weaning. Male offspring from LPS-immune-challenged sows fed the FO and AL diets had a greater fever response than male offspring from the maternal CON diet group (P ≤ 0.05). Last, no effect of the complex or simple weaning diets was observed for the nursery pig cortisol or fever responses to LPS immune challenge. In conclusion, LPS immune challenge during late pregnancy altered responsiveness of the offspring hypothalamus and HPAA to this same microbial stressor, and a sex-specific response was influenced by maternal dietary supplementation with FO and AL.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Microalgas , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Óleo de Milho/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Escherichia coli/química , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores Sexuais , Suínos/imunologia , Desmame
18.
Biofactors ; 45(4): 495-506, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937979

RESUMO

Environmental noise is a well-recognized health risk and part of the external exposome-the World Health Organization estimates that 1 million healthy life years are lost annually in Western Europe alone due to noise-related complications, including increased incidence of hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Previous data suggest that noise works through two paired pathways in a proposed reaction model for noise exposure. As a nonspecific stressor, chronic low-level noise exposure can cause a disruption of sleep and communication leading to annoyance and subsequent sympathetic and endocrine stress responses leading to increased blood pressure, heart rate, stress hormone levels, and in particular more oxidative stress, being responsible for vascular dysfunction and representing changes of the internal exposome. Chronic stress generates cardiovascular risk factors on its own such as increased blood pressure, blood viscosity, blood glucose, and activation of blood coagulation. To this end, persistent chronic noise exposure increases cardiometabolic diseases, including arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, diabetes mellitus type 2, and stroke. The present review discusses the mechanisms of the nonauditory noise-induced cardiovascular and metabolic consequences, focusing on mental stress signaling pathways, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and sympathetic nervous system, the association of these activations with inflammation, and the subsequent onset of oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction. © 2019 BioFactors, 45 (4):495-506, 2019.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Viscosidade Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia
19.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 199: 101-105, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of glucocorticoid receptors has been implicated in addiction and stress-related disorders. FKBP5 is a co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor and regulates receptor sensitivity. While FKBP5 is known to be involved in mood- and stress-related disorders, less is known regarding FKBP5 and cocaine abuse. This study investigated the regulation of FKBP5 expression in the extended amygdala and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, regions important in the control of stress-responses and HPA axis function, following chronic and acute cocaine administration. METHODS: Adult male and female rats received saline or cocaine three times per day for 1 or 14 days. Brain tissue was collected 30 min, 24 h, 48 h, 7 days or 14 days following the final injection. FKBP5 mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). RESULTS: FKBP5 mRNA levels were significantly elevated as a result of chronic cocaine administration in both males and females in the PVN and BNST 30 min and 24 h after the final injection. In females, FKBP5 was also elevated in the CeA. Following acute cocaine, FKBP5 gene expression was unaltered except for elevated levels in the BNST of females 24 h later. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that FKBP5 mRNA is regulated by cocaine administration. Increased FKBP5 expression may play a role in the dysregulation of the stress axis following chronic cocaine exposure, contributing to the negative affective symptoms of cocaine withdrawal.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/metabolismo , Feminino , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Ratos , Núcleos Septais/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleos Septais/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017871

RESUMO

Background Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae) is used locally in the management of depressive illnesses, and its antidepressant-like effect has been previously reported. The present study was aimed at determining the effect of the methanol extract of the stem bark of A. digitata (MEAD) on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and the possible mechanism responsible for its antidepressant activity. Methods Acute toxicity of MEAD was determined using the OECD guideline 420. The CUMS model was used to induce depression, and behavioral tests such as sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), novel-object recognition test (NORT), and tail suspension test (TST) were carried out in mice. The concentrations of plasma cortisol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein in the brain were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed using colorimetric methods. Results The LD50 was established to be ≥5000 mg/kg. On CUMS-induced depression, MEAD significantly (p ≤ 0.05) and dose dependently reversed the weight loss, increased the line-crossing activity in OFT, increased sucrose consumption in SPT, decreased the duration of immobility in TST, and increased the novelty exploration time in NORT. The MEAD extract significantly (p ≤ 0.05) and dose dependently increased the levels of BDNF, decreased the levels of plasma cortisol, increased the levels of total SOD activity, and decreased the levels of plasma MDA. Conclusion Our findings show that MEAD ameliorates CUMS-induced depressive-like behavior and its effect is possibly mediated via the neuroendocrine, neurotrophic, and oxidative stress pathways.


Assuntos
Adansonia/química , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antidepressivos/isolamento & purificação , Antidepressivos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Doença Crônica , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Metanol , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Caules de Planta/química
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