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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 158-163, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some behaviors or psychiatric conditions seem to be inherited from parents or explain by family environment. We hypothesized interactions between epigenetic processes, inflammatory response and gut microbiota with family surroundings or environmental characteristics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We searched in literature interactions between epigenetic processes and psychiatric disorders with a special interest for environmental factors such as traumatic or stress events, family relationships and also gut microbiota. We searched on Pubmed, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Sciencedirect articles with the keywords psychiatric disorders, epigenome, microbiome and family relationships. RESULTS: Some gene polymorphisms interact with negative environment and lead to psychiatric disorders. Negative environment is correlated with different epigenetic modifications in genes implicated in mental health. Gut microbiota diversity affect host epigenetic. Animal studies showed evidences for a transgenerational transmission of epigenetic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that epigenetic mediate gene-environment interactions and psychiatric disorders. Several environmental characteristics such as traumatic life events, family adversity, psychological stress or internal environment such as gut microbiota diversity and diet showed an impact on epigenetic. These epigenetic modifications are also correlated with neurophysiological, inflammatory or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulations.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transtornos Mentais , Animais , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/microbiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
2.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(8): 799-802, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869585

RESUMO

The effect of acupuncture-moxibustion on respiratory system and systemic immune inflammatory response were reviewed to explore the possible role of neuroimmunomodulation in the control of inflammatory response and the effect mechanism of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Acupuncture-moxibustion could produce the local and systemic anti-inflammatory effect on COVID-19 through the activation of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Compared with humoral anti-inflammatory pathway, the neuronal anti-inflammatory pathway has earlier initiation, rapider action, and more localization, which play a more important role in the initial stage of inflammatory response. This may be an important basis for acupuncture-moxibustion intervention in the early stage of COVID-19. In addition to cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, acupuncture-moxibustion may also play an anti-inflammatory role in activating sympathetic nerve, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and other neural anti-inflammatory pathways. How acupuncture-moxibustion play its role in stimulating the vagus nerve and sympathetic nerve in different periods of inflammatory response, and whether the effect is based on the selection of acupoints and the methods of stimulation, will be the research direction of the transformation from basic research to clinical research for acupuncture-moxibustion.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Moxibustão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
3.
Int J Surg ; 81: 47-54, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738546

RESUMO

Globally, a staggering 310 million major surgeries are performed each year; around 40 to 50 million in USA and 20 million in Europe. It is estimated that 1-4% of these patients will die, up to 15% will have serious postoperative morbidity, and 5-15% will be readmitted within 30 days. An annual global mortality of around 8 million patients places major surgery comparable with the leading causes of death from cardiovascular disease and stroke, cancer and injury. If surgical complications were classified as a pandemic, like HIV/AIDS or coronavirus (COVID-19), developed countries would work together and devise an immediate action plan and allocate resources to address it. Seeking to reduce preventable deaths and post-surgical complications would save billions of dollars in healthcare costs. Part of the global problem resides in differences in institutional practice patterns in high- and low-income countries, and part from a lack of effective perioperative drug therapies to protect the patient from surgical stress. We briefly review the history of surgical stress and provide a path forward from a systems-based approach. Key to progress is recognizing that the anesthetized brain is still physiologically 'awake' and responsive to the sterile stressors of surgery. New intravenous drug therapies are urgently required after anesthesia and before the first incision to prevent the brain from switching to sympathetic overdrive and activating secondary injury progression such as hyperinflammation, coagulopathy, immune activation and metabolic dysfunction. A systems-based approach targeting central nervous system-mitochondrial coupling may help drive research to improve outcomes following major surgery in civilian and military medicine.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Saúde Global , Glicocálix/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estresse Fisiológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos
4.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842188

RESUMO

Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of pulmicort respulas immerse with nasopore as nasal packing after nasal endoscopic surgery on patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Method:This single-blind, randomized study recruit 33 patients diagnosed as chronic rhinosinusitis with polyposis. All of them underwent bilateral endoscopic sinus surgery and randomized to receive pulmicort respulas immersed nasopore in one nasal cavity and saline immersed nasopore contralaterally. Both groups were followed up at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 weeks after operation. Subjective (VAS score) and objective (Lund-Kennedy score) scores are collected at each time point from both sides of nasal cavity. Result:There are 30 enrolled patients in the study completed the 24-week trial. Both the subjective and objective scores of two groups shows a significant reduction after the ESS operation. The VAS score of the two groups remains roughly unchanged during week 2 to week 24. A statistically significant difference of the Lund-Kennedy score can be detected between the groups from week 2 to week 24. Though the serum cortisol reduced (5.97±4.10) mmol/L vs (12.48±4.33) mmol/L after the surgery, neither group shows any clinical symptoms related with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression. Conclusion:This study demonstrated a significant improvement in postoperative healing in nasal cavities receiving pulmicort respulas immersed nasopore as nasal packing following ESS. This method of using budesonide is generally safe for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with polyposis.


Assuntos
Pólipos Nasais , Seios Paranasais , Rinite , Bandagens , Budesonida , Doença Crônica , Endoscopia , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(7): 552-6, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effect of Tongdu Tiaoshen needling in the treatment of chronic insomnia and its mechanism based on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with chronic insomnia were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 30 patients in each group. In addition to the health education on sleep, the patients in the treatment group were given Tongdu Tiaoshen needling, i.e., electroacupuncture at Baihui (GV20), Shenting (GV24), Yintang (EX-HN3), bilateral Shenmen (HT7), and bilateral Sanyinjiao (SP6), and those in the control group were given superficial acupuncture at Shousanli (LI10), Futu (ST32), and Feiyang (BL58) at both sides, once every other day and three times a week for 4 consecutive weeks. Before and after treatment, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess the quality and efficiency of sleep, and ELISA was used to measure the serum levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and corticosterone (CORT). RESULTS: After treatment, the treatment group had significant reductions in the total PSQI score and the score of each component of PSQI (P<0.01), and the control group had significant reductions in the total PSQI score (P<0.01) and the scores of all components except sleep duration (P<0.05); compared with the control group, the treatment group had significantly lower total PSQI score and the score of each component (P<0.01). After treatment, the treatment group had significant reductions in the serum levels of CRH, ACTH and CORT (P<0.05,P <0.01), and compared with the control group, the treatment group had significant reductions in the serum levels of CRH, ACTH and CORT (P<0.01,P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Tongdu Tiaoshen needling has a good clinical effect in the treatment of chronic insomnia and can significantly improve the sleep condition of patients with chronic insomnia, possibly by reducing the hormones associated with the HPA axis.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify an effect of the neurohumoral response on the severity and orientation of Fas-ligand-initiated processes in the acute period of IS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 155 patients with IS in the territory of the left and right middle cerebral arteries, the control group consisted of 28 people. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Daily Life Stress scale were used. Concentrations of sFas, sFasL, cortisol (K), adrenaline (A), norepinephrine (NE), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the blood plasma of patients with IS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on days 1, 7 and 21 and once in the control group. CD3CD95+ lymphocytes phenotyping was performed using flow cytometry. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dominance is associated with the activation of the apoptosis-inducing properties of peripheral blood in the first week after the IS onset and their decrease towards the end of the acute period, which is clinically represented by the increased levels of anxiety and depression, an unfavorable outcome of the acute period of IS.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Apoptose , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
7.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(13): 1868-1870, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605374

RESUMO

Cytokine storm in COVID-19 is characterized by an excessive inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 that is caused by a dysregulated immune system of the host. We are proposing a new hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 mediated inflammation of nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) may be responsible for the cytokine storm in COVID 19. The inflamed NTS may result in a dysregulated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Núcleo Solitário/metabolismo , Axônios/imunologia , Axônios/metabolismo , Axônios/virologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Nervos Cranianos/imunologia , Nervos Cranianos/metabolismo , Nervos Cranianos/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/imunologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/virologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pandemias , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/imunologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Núcleo Solitário/imunologia , Núcleo Solitário/virologia
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1929): 20200744, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546088

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are metabolic hormones that promote catabolic processes, which release stored energy and support high metabolic demands such as during prolonged flights of migrating birds. Dietary antioxidants (e.g. anthocyanins) support metabolism by quenching excess reactive oxygen species produced during aerobic metabolism and also by activating specific metabolic pathways. For example, similar to GCs' function, anthocyanins promote the release of stored energy, although the extent of complementarity between GCs and dietary antioxidants is not well known. If anthocyanins complement GCs functions, birds consuming anthocyanin-rich food can be expected to limit the secretion of GCs when coping with a metabolically challenging activity, avoiding the exposure to potential hormonal detrimental effects. We tested this hypothesis in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) flying in a wind tunnel. We compared levels of corticosterone, the main avian GC, immediately after a sustained flight and at rest for birds that were fed diets with or without an anthocyanin supplement. As predicted, we found (i) higher corticosterone after flight than at rest in both diet groups and (ii) anthocyanin-supplemented birds had less elevated corticosterone after flight than unsupplemented control birds. This provides novel evidence that dietary antioxidants attenuate the activation of the HPA axis (i.e. increased secretion of corticosterone) during long-duration flight.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Estorninhos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Dieta , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(28): 35341-35348, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592061

RESUMO

Previous studies have indicated that particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) exposure stimulates systemic inflammation and activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, both of which are associated with stroke incidence and mortality. However, whether filtered air (FA) intervention modulates inflammation and HPA axis activation is still largely unknown. For FA group and PM2.5 group, adult Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were exposed to FA or PM2.5 for 6 months, respectively. For PM2.5 + 15 days FA group, the rats were achieved by receiving 15 days FA after PM2.5 exposure for 6 months. The immune cells and inflammatory biomarker levels in the blood and brain were analyzed by flow cytometry, ELISA, and qRT-PCR. To assess HPA axis activation, the levels of hormones in the blood were also analyzed by ELISA. FA intervention increased the percentage of CD4 T cells and T cells in the blood, which had decreased after PM2.5 exposure in both male and female rats. The ELISA and qRT-PCR results showed that FA intervention significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory biomarkers in the peripheral blood, and alleviated neuroinflammation in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. In addition, FA intervention also inhibited the inflammation in the hypothalamus and pituitary and adrenal glands, and decreased the levels of HPA axis hormones. Our results indicate that FA intervention exerts a protective effect on the brain by decreasing inflammation and HPA axis activation after PM2.5 exposure in both male and female rats.


Assuntos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Animais , Feminino , Hipotálamo , Inflamação , Masculino , Material Particulado , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139964, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534317

RESUMO

Taizhou is one of the three largest electronic waste (e-waste) recycling locations in China. At present, to prevent the environmental problems stem from e-waste dismantling, the local government shut down all the industries in 2015. However, little is known to the sustaining effects of e-waste exposure on human health after the e-waste recycling factories were closed. In this study, we collected blood samples in the residents living near e-waste dismantling factories (exposed group) and a chosen reference area (reference group) for comparison in Taizhou in December 2017.17 metals were quantitatively determined in all blood samples. Among them, the concentrations of altogether 9 metals, including chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), silver (Ag), stannum (Sn), mercury (Hg), lanthanum (La) and cerium (Ce) were significant higher in the individuals in exposed group than in reference group. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is critical endocrine system in regulating many physical functions. We found that the concentrations of hormones in HPA axis, including corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, were higher in exposed group than in reference group. Moreover, we also observed significantly higher concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress (OS), including malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-isoprostane (8-I), in exposed group compared with reference group even though the e-waste industries have been shut down for over 2 years. Meanwhile, the hormones in the HPA axis and the biomarkers of OS showed sinificantly positive correlation. The results of Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression showed that blood Cr and Ni positively correlated with the 3 hormones and 2 biomarkers of OS. Considering the relationship between Ni and Cr, HPA axis, OS, we speculated that high concentrations of Cr and Ni exposure could induce oxidative damage in e-waste exposure persons, and the regulations of HPA axis could play the important role during the process.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , China , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Metais , Estresse Oxidativo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Person and environment-related childhood adverse events have been demonstrated to increase the risk of impaired mental health in later life differently for boys and girls. Altered hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning has been suggested as a key mechanism underlying this association. Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are both output hormones of the HPA-axis. DHEA may have a protective function against long-term exposure to increased levels of cortisol, but has been little investigated in relation to childhood adversity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the associations between person-, and environment-related childhood adversity and levels of cortisol, DHEA and cortisol/DHEA ratio in adolescent boys and girls. METHODS: A total of 215 Dutch adolescents participated in the study and filled out the 27-item Adverse Life Events Questionnaire for the assessment of childhood adversity, which was split up in separate scores for person-related and environment-related events. Cortisol and DHEA concentrations and cortisol/DHEA ratio were determined in proximal 3 cm long hair segments. Additionally, saliva samples were collected immediately and 30 minutes after waking up, at noon and at 8 pm. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to test associations between childhood adversity and cortisol and DHEA concentrations, for boys and girls separately, with age, BMI and pubertal development as covariates. RESULTS: Data were available for 74 boys and 116 girls with a mean age of 15.7 years (SD = 2.0). Higher levels of person-related childhood adversity were associated with higher hair DHEA levels in girls and with higher hair cortisol levels in boys. A trend towards a significant association was observed between higher levels of environment-related childhood adversity and higher DHEA levels in boys. Neither person- nor environment related childhood adversity was associated with cortisol/DHEA ratio. A trend was observed for environment-related childhood adversity and lower daily cortisol output in boys. CONCLUSION: We found differential associations between childhood adversity and cortisol and DHEA levels in girls and boys, for respectively person-related and environment-related childhood adversity. Our findings suggest that different types of childhood adversity are not only linked to levels of cortisol, but also to DHEA concentrations, in a sex-specific manner, with possible future implications for mental health.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Desidroepiandrosterona/análise , Hidrocortisona/análise , Adolescente , Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
12.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 27(9): R281-R292, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508311

RESUMO

The current pandemic (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health challenge with active development of antiviral drugs and vaccines seeking to reduce its significant disease burden. Early reports have confirmed that transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are critical targets of SARS-CoV-2 that facilitate viral entry into host cells. TMPRSS2 and ACE2 are expressed in multiple human tissues beyond the lung including the testes where predisposition to SARS-CoV-2 infection may exist. TMPRSS2 is an androgen-responsive gene and its fusion represents one of the most frequent alterations in prostate cancer. Androgen suppression by androgen deprivation therapy and androgen receptor signaling inhibitors form the foundation of prostate cancer treatment. In this review, we highlight the growing evidence in support of androgen regulation of TMPRSS2 and ACE2 and the potential clinical implications of using androgen suppression to downregulate TMPRSS2 to target SARS-CoV-2. We also discuss the future directions and controversies that need to be addressed in order to establish the viability of targeting TMPRSS2 and/or ACE2 through androgen signaling regulation for COVID-19 treatment, particularly its relevance in the context of prostate cancer management.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Androgênios/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Serina Endopeptidases/fisiologia
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1195: 59-71, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468460

RESUMO

Herein, we deploy an in silico pipeline of structural bioinformatics, thermodynamics, and molecular dynamics to investigate the role of cortisol in circadian rhythms, biorhythms, stress response, and even sleep disorders. Our study shows that high concentrations of cortisol intercalate in the minor groove of DNA. This phenomenon widens the adjacent major grooves and provides the Clock/Bmal1 complex with more space to dock and interact with DNA. Then, the strong charges of cortisol pull the alpha helices of the Clock/Bmal1 complex and bend it inward, thus establishing stronger interactions and prolonged signaling. Our results indicate that elevated cortisol levels play an important role in stress, inflammation, and sleep disorders as a result of prolonged and stronger dsDNA - Clock/Bmal1 interactions.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Proteínas CLOCK/metabolismo , DNA/química , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/química , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Substâncias Intercalantes/química , Substâncias Intercalantes/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
14.
Toxicol Lett ; 331: 33-41, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445661

RESUMO

This study was intended to demonstrate that prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) can induce low basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) in male offspring rats and explore the underlying mechanism. Pregnant rats were subcutaneously administered 0.2 mg/kg/d dexamethasone from gestational day (GD) 9 to GD20. Male GD20 fetuses and postnatal day 85 adult male offspring rats were sacrificed under anesthesia. Hypothalamic cells were from GD20∼postnatal day (PD) 7 fetal male rats, treated with different concentrations of dexamethasone and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone for 5 days. The results suggested that dexamethasone enhanced the expression of hypothalamic L-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 by activating GR, further stimulating the conversion of glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and inducing an imbalance in glutamatergic/GABAergic afferents in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). This imbalance change was maintained postnatally, leading to the inhibition of parvocellular neurons, and mediating the low basal activity of the HPAA in PDE offspring rats, which was manifested by decreased levels of blood adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone as well as reduced expression levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the hypothalamus. Programming of a developmental imbalance in glutamatergic/GABAergic afferents in the PVN is a potential mechanism responsible for low basal activity of the HPAA in male PDE rats.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/toxicidade , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Aferentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Arginina Vasopressina/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/embriologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Neurônios Aferentes/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/embriologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/embriologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Ratos
15.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 114832, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454362

RESUMO

Perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), an aquatic pollutant of emerging concern, is found to disturb the neural signaling along gut-brain axis, whereas probiotic additives have been applied to improve neuroendocrine function of teleosts. Both PFBS and probiotics can commonly target nervous system. However, whether and how probiotic bacteria can modulate the neurotoxicities of PFBS remain not explored. It is thus necessary to elucidate the probiotic modulation of PFBS neurotoxicity, which can provide implications to the application of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture industry. In the present study, adult zebrafish were exposed to 0, 10 and 100 µg/L PFBS with or without dietary administration of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Interaction between PFBS and probiotic along gut-brain axis was examined, covering three dominant pathways (i.e., neurotransmission, immune response and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis). The results showed that, compared to the single effects, PFBS and probiotic coexposure significantly altered the acetylcholinesterase activity and neurotransmitter profiles in gut and brain of zebrafish, with mild effects on neuronal integrity. Neurotransmitters closely correlated reciprocally in intestines, which, however, was distinct from the correlation profile in brains. In addition, PFBS and probiotic were combined to impact brain health through absorption of bacterial lipopolysaccharides and production of inflammatory cytokines. Relative to neurotransmission and immune signaling, HPA axis was not involved in the neurotoxicological interaction between PFBS and probiotic. Furthermore, it needs to point out that interactive modes between PFBS and probiotic varied a lot, depending on exposure concentrations, sex and toxic indices. Overall, the present study provided the first evidence that probiotic supplement could dynamically modulate the neurotoxicities of PFBS in teleost.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Probióticos , Animais , Encéfalo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Peixe-Zebra
16.
Endocrine ; 68(2): 251-252, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133478
20.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 2059-2064, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prolonged use of glucocorticoids (GC) in glioma treatment can lead to adrenal insufficiency (AI) and subsequent steroid dependence due to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This is challenging to diagnose due to its nonspecific clinical symptoms erroneously ascribed to treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors predisposing patients with gliomas to develop AI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Charts in the neuro-oncology clinic from July 2018 to March 2019 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria included >18 y/o with WHO Grade II-IV gliomas, and secondary AI. Demographic profile, tumor characteristics, and treatment profile were compared. RESULTS: The majority of patients were started on high dose dexamethasone at >8 mg daily, and were on dexamethasone for 4-8 months. The minimum dose needed to prevent symptoms was 0.5 mg to 2 mg daily. The majority received standard radiation doses ranging from 54-60 Gy. Most patients had radiation exposure to the HPA axis within the prescription isodose levels. CONCLUSION: Prolonged steroid dependency can result from chronic GC use in patients with glioma. Dose and duration of GC are risk factors for its development. Radiation exposure to the HPA axis may also be a contributing factor.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Adrenal/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Adrenal/patologia , Adulto , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glioma/complicações , Glioma/patologia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/patologia
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