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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(42): e383, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140593

RESUMO

Multiple neurological complications have been associated with the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. This is a narrative review to gather information on all aspects of COVID-19 in elderly patients with cognitive impairment. First, the following three mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the neurological complications associated with COVID-19: 1) direct invasion, 2) immune and inflammatory reaction, and 3) hypoxic brain damage by COVID-19. Next, because the elderly dementia patient population is particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, we discussed risk factors and difficulties associated with cognitive disorders in this vulnerable population. We also reviewed the effects of the patient living environment in COVID-19 cases that required intensive care unit (ICU) care. Furthermore, we analyzed the impact of stringent social restrictions and COVID-19 pandemic-mediated policies on dementia patients and care providers. Finally, we provided the following strategies for working with elderly dementia patients: general preventive methods; dementia care at home and nursing facilities according to the activities of daily living and dementia characteristics; ICU care after COVID-19 infection; and public health care system and government response. We propose that longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to fully examine COVID-19 associated neurological complications, such as dementia, and the efficacy of telemedicine/telehealth care programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Demência/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cuidadores , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Cuidados Críticos , Demência/complicações , Humanos , Hipóxia , Sistema Imunitário , Inflamação , Casas de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Medicina Preventiva , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Isolamento Social , Telemedicina
2.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207753

RESUMO

Low levels of micronutrients have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes during viral infections. Therefore, to maximize the nutritional defense against infections, a daily allowance of vitamins and trace elements for malnourished patients at risk of or diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be beneficial. Recent studies on COVID-19 patients have shown that vitamin D and selenium deficiencies are evident in patients with acute respiratory tract infections. Vitamin D improves the physical barrier against viruses and stimulates the production of antimicrobial peptides. It may prevent cytokine storms by decreasing the production of inflammatory cytokines. Selenium enhances the function of cytotoxic effector cells. Furthermore, selenium is important for maintaining T cell maturation and functions, as well as for T cell-dependent antibody production. Vitamin C is considered an antiviral agent as it increases immunity. Administration of vitamin C increased the survival rate of COVID-19 patients by attenuating excessive activation of the immune response. Vitamin C increases antiviral cytokines and free radical formation, decreasing viral yield. It also attenuates excessive inflammatory responses and hyperactivation of immune cells. In this mini-review, the roles of vitamin C, vitamin D, and selenium in the immune system are discussed in relation to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/dietoterapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/biossíntese , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/virologia
4.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 32(6): 805-815, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105275

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Childhood obesity, with persistent chronic inflammation, is a worldwide epidemic. Obesity causes dysregulation throughout the immune system, affecting the balance and levels of cytokines, adipokines, and innate and adaptive immune cells. The present review focuses on the impact of obesity on immune function in children: altering the baseline activation state of immune cells and affecting the ability of the host to combat pathogens and malignancy and respond appropriately to vaccination. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity causes dysregulation of the immune system. Single-cell RNA-sequencing of adipose tissue and resident immune cells is quantifying the impact of obesity on the frequency of immune cell subsets and their states. The system-wide alterations in immune function in obesity are most evident upon perturbation, including the response to infection (e.g. increased risk of severe COVID-19 in the ongoing pandemic), vaccination, and malignancy. However, mechanistic research in pediatric obesity is limited and this impacts our ability to care for these children. SUMMARY: We must better understand baseline and perturbed immune health in obese children to determine how to account for altered frequency and function of humoral and cellular immune components in acute infection, during vaccine design and when considering therapeutic options for this complex, medically vulnerable group.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/imunologia , Adipocinas/imunologia , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Criança , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Infecções/imunologia , Vacinação
5.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(5): 5326-5340, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120555

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose a new within-host model which describes the interactions between SARS-CoV-2, host pulmonary epithelial cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) cells. Furthermore, the proposed model takes into account the lytic and nonlytic immune responses and also incorporates both modes of transmission that are the virus-to-cell infection through extracellular environment and the cell-to-cell transmission via virological synapses. The well-posedness of the model as well as the existence of equilibria are established rigorously. Moreover, the dynamical behaviour of the model is further examined by two threshold parameters, and the biological aspects of the analytical results are further presented.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Número Básico de Reprodução , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Pulmão/virologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/virologia
6.
Cell ; 183(2): 308-314, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064987

RESUMO

The 2020 Lasker Awards, a celebration of one of the most prestigious international prizes given to individuals for extraordinary contributions to Basic and Clinical Medical Research, Pubic Health, and Special Achievement, was cancelled because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Typically, essays on the awardees and their scientific and medical contributions are solicited and published in Cell in collaboration with the Lasker Committee. This year, the Lasker Committee commissioned an essay to reflect on the historic contributions that scientists and physicians have made to our understanding of immunology and virology, and future directions in medical and basic research that have been highlighted by COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Alergia e Imunologia/história , Animais , Distinções e Prêmios , Citocinas/imunologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Pandemias , Vacinação/história
7.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110093, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017913

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly spread all over the world and caused a major health care crisis. About 20% of patients develop severe disease and require hospitalisation, which is associated with a high mortality rate of up to 97% in those being ventilated and respiratory failure being the leading cause of death. Despite many therapeutic agents being under current investigation there is yet no panacea available. With increasing rates of infection throughout the world, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches to counteract the infection. As the nervous system has shown to be a strong modulator of respiratory function and the immune response, we want to highlight pathways involved in regulation of respiratory function, the neuro-immune axis as well as the rationale for a potential targeted treatment of fulminant acute respiratory distress syndrome via transcutaneous non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation in critically-ill COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Betacoronavirus , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Pandemias , Respiração Artificial , Nervo Vago/fisiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086508

RESUMO

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and the imposition of strict but necessary measures to prevent the spread of the new coronavirus have been, and still are, major stress factors for adults, children, and adolescents. Stress harms human health as it creates free radicals in the human body. According to various recent studies, volatile oils from various aromatic plants have a high content of antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. An external supply of antioxidants is required to destroy these free radicals. The main purpose of this paper is to create a yoghurt with high antioxidant capacity, using only raw materials from Romania; (2) Methods: The bioactive components used to enrich the cow milk yoghurt were extracted as volatile oils out of four aromatic plants: basil, mint, lavender and fennel. Initially, the compounds were extracted to determine the antioxidant capacity, and subsequently, the antioxidant activity of the yoghurt was determined. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhy-drazyl (DPPH) method was used to determine the antioxidant activity; (3) Results: The results show that cow milk yoghurt enhanced with volatile oils of basil, lavender, mint and fennel, encapsulated in sodium alginate has an antioxidant and antimicrobial effect as a staple food with multiple effects in increasing the body's immunity. The antioxidant activity proved to be considerably higher than the control sample. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained on the first day of the analysis, decreasing onwards to measurements taken on days 10 and 20. The cow milk yoghurt enriched with volatile basil oil obtained the best results; (4) Conclusions: The paper shows that yoghurts with a high antioxidant capacity were obtained, using only raw materials from Romania. A healthy diet, compliance with safety conditions and finding appropriate and safe methods to increase the body's immunity is a good alternative to a major transition through harder times, such as pandemics. The creation of food products that include natural antioxidant compounds combines both the current great possibility of developing food production in Romania and the prevention and reduction of the effects caused by pandemic stress in the human body.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Sistema Imunitário , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Iogurte , Alginatos , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Romênia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia
9.
Oecologia ; 194(4): 597-607, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095316

RESUMO

Vertebrate cellular immunity displays substantial variation among taxa and environments. Hematological parameters such as white blood-cell counts have emerged as a valuable tool to understand this variation by assessing the immunological status of individuals. These tools have long revealed that vertebrate cellular immune systems are highly plastic and respond to injury and infection. However, cellular immune systems may also be able to anticipate a high risk of injury from environmental cues (e.g., predation-related cues) and respond plastically ahead of time. We studied white blood-cell (leukocyte) profiles in African cichlids Pelvicachromis taeniatus that were raised for 4 years under different levels of perceived predation risk. In a split-clutch design, we raised fish from hatching onwards under chronic exposure to either conspecific alarm cues (communicating high predation risk) or a distilled water control treatment. Differential blood analysis revealed that alarm cue-exposed fish had twice as many lymphocytes in peripheral blood as did controls, a condition called lymphocytosis. The presence of a higher number of lymphocytes makes the cellular immune response more potent, which accelerates the removal of invading foreign antigens from the bloodstream, and, therefore, may be putatively beneficial in the face of injury. This observed lymphocytosis after long-term exposure to conspecific alarm cues constitutes first evidence for an anticipatory and adaptive plastic response of the cellular immune system to future immunological challenges.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Linfocitose , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Plásticos , Comportamento Predatório
10.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 34: 2058738420966497, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076729

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory infection, is largely associated with dysregulation and impairment of the immune system. This study investigated how the immune system changes were related to disease severity in COVID-19 patients. The frequencies of different immune cells and levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in whole blood of participants were determined by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The values of other inflammatory agents were also studied. In the late recovery stage, unlike CD56high CD16+/- NK cells and monocytes, CD56low CD16+ NK cell numbers were increased (P < 0.0001-0.05). Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell percentages were significantly lower in patients than healthy control (P < 0.0001-0.05), while their frequencies were increased following disease recovery (P < 0.0001-0.05). The numbers of Tregs, activated CD4+ T cells, and exhausted CD8+ T cells were significantly decreased during a recovery (P < 0.0001-0.05). No significant change was observed in exhausted CD4+ T cell number during a recovery (P > 0.05). B cell showed an increased percentage in patients compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.0001-0.05), whereas its number was reduced following recovery (P < 0.0001-0.05). IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 levels were significantly decreased in the late recovery stage (P < 0.0001-0.05). However, TGF-ß1 level was not significantly changed during the recovery (P > 0.05). Lymphocyte numbers in patients were significantly decreased (P < 0.001), unlike ESR value (P < 0.001). Lymphocyte number was negatively correlated to ESR value and Th2 number (P < 0.05), while its association with monocyte was significantly positive at the first day of recovery (P < 0.05). The immune system changes during the disease recovery to improve and regulate immune responses and thereby may associate with the reduction in disease severity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3292916, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029503

RESUMO

In December of 2019, there was an outbreak of a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) in China. The virus rapidly spread into the whole world causing an unprecedented pandemic and forcing governments to impose a global quarantine, entering an extreme unknown situation. The organizational consequences of quarantine/isolation are absence of organized training and competition, lack of communication among athletes and coaches, inability to move freely, lack of adequate sunlight exposure, and inappropriate training conditions. The reduction of mobility imposed to contain the advance of the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic can negatively affect the physical condition and health of individuals leading to muscle atrophy, progressive loss of muscle strength, and reductions in neuromuscular and mechanical capacities. Resistance training (RT) might be an effective tool to counteract these adverse consequences. RT is considered an essential part of an exercise program due to its numerous health and athletic benefits. However, in the face of the SARS-Cov-2 outbreak, many people might be concerned with safety issues regarding its practice, especially in indoor exercise facilities, such as gyms and fitness centers. These concerns might be associated with RT impact in the immune system, respiratory changes, and contamination due to equipment sharing and agglomeration. In this current opinion article, we provide insights to address these issues to facilitate the return of RT practices under the new logistical and health challenges. We understand that RT can be adapted to allow its performance with measures adopted to control coronavirus outbreak such that the benefits would largely overcome the potential risks. The article provides some practical information to help on its implementation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/efeitos adversos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção/métodos , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiopatologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Treinamento de Resistência/instrumentação , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Segurança
14.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003648

RESUMO

The third coronavirus outbreak in the last two decades has caused significant damage to the world's economy and community health. The highly contagious COVID-19 infection has affected millions of people to date and has led to hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. Aside from the highly infectious nature of SARS-CoV-2, the lack of a treatment or vaccine has been the main reason for its spread. Thus, it has become necessary to find alternative methods for controlling SARS-CoV-2. For the present review, we conducted an online search for different available nutrition-based therapies for previously known coronavirus infections and RNA-based virus infections as well as general antiviral therapies. These treatments have promise for combating COVID-19, as various nutrients and minerals play direct and indirect roles in the control and prevention of this newly emerged viral infection. The patients' nutritional status with COVID-19 must be analyzed before administering any treatment, and nutritional supplements should be given to the affected individuals along with routine treatment. We suggest a potential interventional role of nutrients to strengthen the immune system against the emerging infection caused by COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Micronutrientes , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
17.
Scand J Immunol ; 92(5): e12964, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869859

RESUMO

In the last decade, there has been a tremendous development of technologies focused on analysing various molecular attributes in single cells, with an ever-increasing number of parameters becoming available at the DNA, RNA and protein levels. Much of this progress has involved cells in suspension, but also in situ analysis of tissues has taken great leaps. Paralleling the development in the laboratory, and because of increasing complexity, the analysis of single-cell data is also constantly being updated with new algorithms and analysis platforms. Our immune system shares this complexity, and immunologists have therefore been in the forefront of this technological development. These technologies clearly open new avenues for immunology research, maybe particularly within autoimmunity where the interaction between the faulty immune system and the thymus or the target organ is important. However, the technologies currently available can seem overwhelming and daunting. The aim of this review is to remedy this by giving a balanced overview of the prospects of using single-cell analysis in basal and clinical autoimmunity research, with an emphasis on endocrine autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/imunologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1783-1796, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940201

RESUMO

COVID-19 manifestations in symptomatic patients can be in the form of pneumonia, acute respiratory syndrome, and multiple organ dysfunction as well. Renal complications, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, endocrine system disorders, myocardial dysfunction and arrhythmia, neurological dysfunctions, dermatological symptoms, hematological manifestations, and thromboinflammation are among the reported extrapulmonary complications. Moreover, the presence of coagulopathy, excessive and dysregulated immune responses, and autoimmunity by COVID-19 patients is considerable. The pathogenesis of infection entails the entry of the virus via receptors on cells, principally angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors. Direct virus damage coupled with indirect effects of viral infection including thromboinflammation, dysfunction of the immune system, and dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system leads to multiple organ failure. This review outlines the extrapulmonary organ-specific complications and their pathophysiology and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Sistema Imunitário/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A
19.
Cell Prolif ; 53(10): e12863, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Immunodeficient mice injected with human cancer cell lines have been used for human oncology studies and anti-cancer drug trials for several decades. However, rodents are not ideal species for modelling human cancer because rodents are physiologically dissimilar to humans. Therefore, anti-tumour drugs tested effective in rodents have a failure rate of 90% or higher in phase III clinical trials. Pigs are similar to humans in size, anatomy, physiology and drug metabolism rate, rendering them a desirable pre-clinical animal model for assessing anti-cancer drugs. However, xenogeneic immune rejection is a major barrier to the use of pigs as hosts for human tumours. Interleukin (IL)-2 receptor γ (IL2RG), a common signalling subunit for multiple immune cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21, is required for proper lymphoid development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IL2RG-/Y pigs were generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and examined for immunodeficiency and ability to support human oncogenesis. RESULTS: Compared to age-matched wild-type pigs, IL2RG-/Y pigs exhibited a severely impaired immune system as shown by lymphopenia, lymphoid organ atrophy, poor immunoglobulin function, and T- and NK-cell deficiency. Human melanoma Mel888 cells generated tumours in IL2RG-/Y pigs but not in wild-type littermates. The human tumours grew faster in IL2RG-/Y pigs than in nude mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that these pigs are promising hosts for modelling human cancer in vivo, which may aid in the discovery and development of anti-cancer drugs.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Linfopenia/patologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suínos , Porco Miniatura , Transplante Heterólogo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238044, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997665

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies report that intense physical activity influences the down-regulation of immune function in athletes as well as the interaction between adipose tissue and the immune system. AIM: This study aimed to compare the plasma soluble levels of the immune checkpoint HLA-G (sHLA-G) molecule with the fat mass and muscle mass index among 77 bodybuilders and 64 controls. RESULTS: The comparisons of the percentage of body fat (%BF) revealed that the groups of male and female bodybuilders showed a statistically significant reduction in the percentage of body fat when compared to their control group, (P <0.0001, for both comparisons). Regarding sHLA-G levels, the comparisons showed that the group of male bodybuilders had significantly higher sHLA-G levels compared to the group of female bodybuilders (P = 0.0011). CONCLUSION: Our results showed that in bodybuilders with less body fat, the systemic levels of soluble HLA-G, an immunological molecule with recognized immunosuppressive function, are significantly higher and suggest that this immune mechanism may corroborate the immunosuppressive state in athletes undergoing intense and prolonged physical training.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Exercício Físico , Antígenos HLA-G/sangue , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Levantamento de Peso/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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