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1.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 3770-3786, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977950

RESUMO

Food allergies are known as the public health problem, affecting people of all age groups, but more commonly in babies and children, with consequences for nutritional status and quality of life. The increase in the consumption of healthy foods has consequently led to an increased demand for functional foods with specific health benefits. Thus, the pharmaceutical industry's interest in natural products has grown every time and is therefore considered as an alternative to synthetic drugs. Kefir has been outstanding for several years as promising in the manufacture of various pharmaceutical products, due to its nutritional and therapeutic properties for the treatment of many diseases. Currently, a wide variety of new functional foods are appearing on the market, representing an important segment. Postbiotics, for example, has stood out for being a product with action similar to probiotics, without offering side effects. The kefiran is the postbiotic from kefir that promotes potential beneficial effects on food allergy from the intestinal microbiome to the immune system. In this context, it is necessary to know the main promoting component of this functional effect. This review compiles the benefits that kefir, and especially its postbiotic, kefiran, can bring to food allergy. In addition, it serve as a subsidy for studies on the development of innovative nutraceutical products, including the use of kefiran as an alternative therapy in food allergy.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Alimento Funcional , Kefir , Polissacarídeos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Lactente , Kefir/análise , Kefir/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Circ Res ; 128(8): 1214-1236, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856918

RESUMO

A pandemic of historic impact, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has potential consequences on the cardiovascular health of millions of people who survive infection worldwide. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of COVID-19, can infect the heart, vascular tissues, and circulating cells through ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), the host cell receptor for the viral spike protein. Acute cardiac injury is a common extrapulmonary manifestation of COVID-19 with potential chronic consequences. This update provides a review of the clinical manifestations of cardiovascular involvement, potential direct SARS-CoV-2 and indirect immune response mechanisms impacting the cardiovascular system, and implications for the management of patients after recovery from acute COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/virologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Cardiomiopatias/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/enzimologia , Neuropilina-1/metabolismo , Ativação Plaquetária , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Volta ao Esporte , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/ultraestrutura , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Troponina/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular , Ligação Viral , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) ; 69(1): 3, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638703

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the most serious diseases affecting health and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the development of various therapeutic modalities to deal with cancer, limited improvement in overall survival of patients has been yielded. Since there is no certain cure for cancer, detection of premalignant lesions, and prevention of their progression are vital to the decline of high morbidity and mortality of cancer. Among approaches to cancer prevention, immunoprevention has gained further attention in recent years. Deep understanding of the tumor/immune system interplay and successful prevention of virally-induced malignancies by vaccines have paved the way toward broadening cancer immunoprevention application. The identification of tumor antigens in premalignant lesions was the turning point in cancer immunoprevention that led to designing preventive vaccines for various malignancies including multiple myeloma, colorectal, and breast cancer. In addition to vaccines, immune checkpoint inhibitors are also being tested for the prevention of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and imiquimod which is an established drug for the prevention of skin SCC, is a non-specific immunomodulator. Herein, to provide a bench-to-bedside understanding of cancer immunoprevention, we will review the role of the immune system in suppression and promotion of tumors, immunoprevention of virally-induced cancers, identification of tumor antigens in premalignant lesions, and clinical advances of cancer immunoprevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/imunologia
6.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546416

RESUMO

There is a growing recognition that both the gut microbiome and the immune system are involved in a number of psychiatric illnesses, including eating disorders. This should come as no surprise, given the important roles of diet composition, eating patterns, and daily caloric intake in modulating both biological systems. Here, we review the evidence that alterations in the gut microbiome and immune system may serve not only to maintain and exacerbate dysregulated eating behavior, characterized by caloric restriction in anorexia nervosa and binge eating in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, but may also serve as biomarkers of increased risk for developing an eating disorder. We focus on studies examining gut dysbiosis, peripheral inflammation, and neuroinflammation in each of these eating disorders, and explore the available data from preclinical rodent models of anorexia and binge-like eating that may be useful in providing a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying eating disorders. Such knowledge is critical to developing novel, highly effective treatments for these often intractable and unremitting eating disorders.


Assuntos
Encefalite/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Animais , Anorexia Nervosa/etiologia , Bulimia , Bulimia Nervosa/etiologia , Restrição Calórica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/complicações , Encefalite/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Humanos
7.
Hum Immunol ; 82(3): 162-169, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581927

RESUMO

Maintenance and progression of pregnancy is an intricate process governed by a variety of developmental cues. Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a complication experienced by expecting mothers that is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses. This review focuses on the dysfunctions of the immune system as one of the key contributors towards RPL. The current data suggests that the alloimmune and autoimmune factors contribute to the loss of fetus. Such causes despite being recognized as a definitive reason for recurrent pregnancy loss, are still under extensive investigation with new parameters being discovered and scrutinized for their association with RPLs. More in-depth and high throughput studies are required for devising better diagnostic tools and management strategies for the affected female so that they can carry their pregnancy to term.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Imunidade/fisiologia , Gravidez/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Isoantígenos/imunologia
8.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 42(1): 77-85, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544528

RESUMO

COVID-19 has resulted in an ongoing global pandemic, which spread largely among people who have had close contact with the infected person. The immunopathology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus includes the production of an excess amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines "a cytokine-storm". The respiratory system (main), cardiovascular system and the gastrointestinal tract are the most affected body systems during viral infection. It has been found that most of the patients who require admission to hospital are elderly or have chronic underlying diseases. Higher cases of malnutrition and co-morbidities like diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases are reported in elderly patients due to which, the immune system weakens and hence, the response to the virus is diminished in magnitude. A deficiency of micronutrients results in impaired immune responses leading to improper secretion of cytokines, alterations in secretory antibody response and antibody affinity which increases susceptibility to viral infection. The deficiency of various micronutrients in COVID-19 patient can be treated by appropriate nutritional supplements, prescribed after evaluating the patients' nutritional status. Here we aim to highlight the role of a few particular nutrients namely Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Omega-3 fatty acids, Zinc and Magnesium along with the synergistic roles they play in enhancing immunity and thus, maintaining homeostasis.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/fisiologia , /imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Magnésio/fisiologia , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/imunologia , Desnutrição/terapia , Micronutrientes/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Pandemias , Vitamina D/fisiologia , Zinco/fisiologia
9.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 42(1): 69-75, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617700

RESUMO

COVID-19 caused by SARS CoV2 (The novel corona virus) has already taken lives of many people across the globe even more than anyone could have imagined. This outbreak occurred in China and since then it is expanding its devastating effects by leaps and bounds. Initially it appeared to be an outbreak of pneumonia but soon it was found to be much more than that and the infectivity was found to be very high. This is the reason that it has taken whole globe in its trap and become a pandemic in such a short span of time. Death is occurring because it is a new virus and human body has no specific antibodies for it. Presently there is no approved vaccine so everyone is susceptible but people with co-morbidities appear to be in more risk and the best way for protection is social distancing and increasing one's natural immunity by taking healthy diet and exercise. When a person is infected the clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic to severe ARDS, sudden onset of anosmia, headache, cough may be the initial symptoms. This review is focused on immunopathology and effect of COVID-19 on neurological disorders and also the neurological manifestations and the treatment.


Assuntos
/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Pandemias , /imunologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Neuroimunomodulação/fisiologia , /fisiologia
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(1): 194-200, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-198857

RESUMO

Ensuring health and well-being during this pandemic is essential according to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Physical exercise has an important role in the preservation of the immune system, which is vital to prevent infections. To promote physical exercise and maintain a healthy status, recent studies have suggested general exercise routines to be implemented during the quarantine period. However, to improve the health-related physical fitness components, any specific prescription should include intensity, volume, duration, and mode. Controversy persists about which is the best intensity of physical activity, while performing exercise at a moderate intensity could bring important benefits to asymptomatic people. High intensity or unaccustomed exercise should be restricted for older people, and for people of all ages with chronic diseases or compromised immune system, obesity, or upper respiratory tract infection with limited symptoms. Besides, physical activity guidelines should be particular to each population group, giving special consideration to those vulnerable to COVID-19 who are much more likely to suffer more self-isolation. Therefore, the present study is to provide specific physical activity recommendations for different populations during this pandemic


En este periodo de pandemia es vital garantizar la salud y el bienestar según indican los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible de la ONU. El ejercicio físico desempeña un papel importante en la mejora del sistema inmunológico, siendo vital en la prevención de infecciones. Por todo ello, se recomienda la realización de actividad física de manera regular para preservar la salud mental, neuromuscular, cardiovascular, metabólica y endocrina. Para promover el ejercicio físico y mantener un estado saludable, estudios recientes han sugerido que se apliquen rutinas generales de actividad física durante el período de cuarentena. Sin embargo, para mejorar los componentes de la aptitud física relacionados con la salud, la prescripción específica debe matizar la intensidad, el volumen, la duración y el modo. Se ha detectado cierta controversia acerca de cuál es la intensidad adecuada de la actividad física durante el periodo de pandemia, ya que la realización de ejercicios de intensidad moderada podría aportar importantes beneficios. Se debería ser cauteloso con el ejercicio de alta intensidad en las personas no entrenadas o incluso limitarse en los grupos de riesgo. Se deben establecer pautas de actividad física adaptadas para cada grupo de población, prestando especial consideración a los vulnerables a la COVID 19, ya que tienen más probabilidades de volver a aislarse. Por lo tanto, el presente estudio proporciona recomendaciones específicas de actividad física para diferentes poblaciones y su estado de condición física durante esta pandemia


Assuntos
Humanos , Atividade Motora , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Consenso , Promoção da Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Quarentena , Atletas
11.
Mar Drugs ; 19(2)2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494402

RESUMO

The review of the 2016-2017 marine pharmacology literature was prepared in a manner similar as the 10 prior reviews of this series. Preclinical marine pharmacology research during 2016-2017 assessed 313 marine compounds with novel pharmacology reported by a growing number of investigators from 54 countries. The peer-reviewed literature reported antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities for 123 marine natural products, 111 marine compounds with antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities as well as affecting the immune and nervous system, while in contrast 79 marine compounds displayed miscellaneous mechanisms of action which upon further investigation may contribute to several pharmacological classes. Therefore, in 2016-2017, the preclinical marine natural product pharmacology pipeline generated both novel pharmacology as well as potentially new lead compounds for the growing clinical marine pharmaceutical pipeline, and thus sustained with its contributions the global research for novel and effective therapeutic strategies for multiple disease categories.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/química , Antituberculosos/isolamento & purificação , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Organismos Aquáticos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Fenômenos Farmacológicos e Toxicológicos
12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(1): 1294-1313, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406502

RESUMO

Although several evidence has suggested the impact of exercise on the prevention of aging phenotypes, few studies have been conducted on the mechanism by which exercise alters the immune-cell profile, thereby improving metabolism in senile obesity. In this study, we confirmed that 4-week treadmill exercise sufficiently improved metabolic function, including increased lean mass and decreased fat mass, in 88-week-old mice. The expression level of the senescence marker p16 in the white adipose tissue (WAT) was decreased after 4-weeks of exercise. Exercise induced changes in the profiles of immune-cell subsets, including natural killer (NK) cells, central memory CD8+ T cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils, in the stromal vascular fraction of WAT. In addition, it has been shown through transcriptome analysis of WAT that exercise can activate pathways involved in the interaction between WAT and immune cells, in particular NK cells, in aged mice. These results suggest that exercise has a profound effect on changes in immune-cell distribution and senescent-cell scavenging in WAT of aged mice, eventually affecting overall energy metabolism toward a more youthful state.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Esforço Físico/imunologia
13.
Nat Immunol ; 22(2): 111-117, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495644

RESUMO

Laboratory mice have provided invaluable insight into mammalian immune systems. Yet the immune phenotypes of mice bred and maintained in conventional laboratory conditions often differ from the immune phenotypes of wild mammals. Recent work to naturalize the environmental experience of inbred laboratory mice-to take them where the wild things are (to borrow a phrase from Maurice Sendak), via approaches such as construction of exposure histories, provision of fecal transplants or surrogate mothering by wild mice, and rewilding-is poised to expand understanding, complementing genetic and phylogenetic research on how natural selection has shaped mammalian immune systems while improving the translational potential of mouse research.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia , Pesquisa Biomédica , Meio Ambiente , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Imunidade , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Biota , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Sistema Imunitário/microbiologia , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Fenótipo
14.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 320(3): E399-E414, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308014

RESUMO

The ability to ward off pathogens with minimal damage to the host determines the immune system's robustness. Multiple factors, including pathogen processing, identification, secretion of mediator and effector molecules, and immune cell proliferation and differentiation into various subsets, constitute the success of mounting an effective immune response. Cellular metabolism controls all of these intricate processes. Cells utilize diverse fuel sources and switch back and forth between different metabolic pathways depending on their energy needs. The three most critical metabolic pathways on which immune cells depend to meet their energy needs are oxidative metabolism, glycolysis, and glutaminolysis. Dynamic switching between these metabolic pathways is needed for optimal function of the immune cells. Moreover, switching between these metabolic pathways needs to be tightly regulated to achieve the best results. Immune cells depend on the Warburg effect for their growth, proliferation, secretory, and effector functions. Here, we hypothesize that the sirtuin, SIRT6, could be a negative regulator of the Warburg effect. We also postulate that SIRT6 could act as a master regulator of immune cell metabolism and function by regulating critical signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Sirtuínas/fisiologia , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Sirtuínas/metabolismo
15.
Soins ; 65(849): 59-62, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357621

RESUMO

Our social environment shapes our eating habits, notably our consumption of fruit and vegetables rich in micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements), essential for regulating the immune system. Ensuring a balanced intake of micronutrients could prove to be particularly beneficial for patients with severe forms of COVID-19 suffering from critical immune dysregulation.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Humanos
16.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 17): 550, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) represents nowadays in Europe the leading cause of non-traumatic disabilities in young adults, with more than 700,000 EU cases. Although huge strides have been made over the years, MS etiology remains partially unknown. Furthermore, the presence of various endogenous and exogenous factors can greatly influence the immune response of different individuals, making it difficult to study and understand the disease. This becomes more evident in a personalized-fashion when medical doctors have to choose the best therapy for patient well-being. In this optics, the use of stochastic models, capable of taking into consideration all the fluctuations due to unknown factors and individual variability, is highly advisable. RESULTS: We propose a new model to study the immune response in relapsing remitting MS (RRMS), the most common form of MS that is characterized by alternate episodes of symptom exacerbation (relapses) with periods of disease stability (remission). In this new model, both the peripheral lymph node/blood vessel and the central nervous system are explicitly represented. The model was created and analysed using Epimod, our recently developed general framework for modeling complex biological systems. Then the effectiveness of our model was shown by modeling the complex immunological mechanisms characterizing RRMS during its course and under the DAC administration. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation results have proven the ability of the model to reproduce in silico the immune T cell balance characterizing RRMS course and the DAC effects. Furthermore, they confirmed the importance of a timely intervention on the disease course.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/imunologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Algoritmos , Daclizumabe/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/patologia , Processos Estocásticos
17.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 17): 546, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308137

RESUMO

The 3rd edition of the computational methods for the immune system function workshop has been held in San Diego, CA, in conjunction with the IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (BIBM 2019) from November 18 to 21, 2019. The workshop has continued its growing tendency, with a total of 18 accepted papers that have been presented in a full day workshop. Among these, the best 10 papers have been selected and extended for presentation in this special issue. The covered topics range from computer-aided identification of T cell epitopes to the prediction of heart rate variability to prevent brain injuries, from In Silico modeling of Tuberculosis and generation of digital patients to machine learning applied to predict type-2 diabetes risk.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
18.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 17): 449, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The STriTuVaD project, funded by Horizon 2020, aims to test through a Phase IIb clinical trial one of the most advanced therapeutic vaccines against tuberculosis. As part of this initiative, we have developed a strategy for generating in silico patients consistent with target population characteristics, which can then be used in combination with in vivo data on an augmented clinical trial. RESULTS: One of the most challenging tasks for using virtual patients is developing a methodology to reproduce biological diversity of the target population, ie, providing an appropriate strategy for generating libraries of digital patients. This has been achieved through the creation of the initial immune system repertoire in a stochastic way, and through the identification of a vector of features that combines both biological and pathophysiological parameters that personalise the digital patient to reproduce the physiology and the pathophysiology of the subject. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a sequential approach to sampling from the joint features population distribution in order to create a cohort of virtual patients with some specific characteristics, resembling the recruitment process for the target clinical trial, which then can be used for augmenting the information from the physical the trial to help reduce its size and duration.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Tuberculose/imunologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Tuberculose/metabolismo , Tuberculose/patologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243777, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315964

RESUMO

Masculinity-related morphological traits are supposed to be honest indicators of a man's biological quality. While some studies showed that sexually dimorphic traits are related to various aspects of biological condition such as general health, immunity or fertility, still little is known about the relationship between masculine traits and the effectiveness of innate and adaptive immunity in humans. The aim of this study was to see if masculine traits, which are dependent on androgen levels in foetal and pubertal stages of development, are related to the immune quality in healthy men. The immune quality was evaluated for 91 healthy men aged 19-36 years. Immunity measurements included innate and adaptive parameters. General health status, age, testosterone level, BMI, physical activity, and smoking were controlled. The shoulder-to-hip ratio (SHR), 2D:4D digit ratio and hand-grip strength (HGS) were used as markers of masculinization. The regressions showed that when controlling for confounds, masculinity-related traits were in general not related to innate and adaptive immunity. Only a weak association was observed for right 2D:4D ratio and T-lymphocyte counts (but it becomes non-significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons). Our results do not support the premise that masculinity is a cue for immunological quality in men. However, the positive association between right 2D:4D and T lymphocytes might suggest that further studies are needed to verify if androgen stimulation in prenatal development might be related to immunity in adulthood.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Masculinidade , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Força da Mão , Nível de Saúde , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ombro/fisiologia , Testosterona/análise , Adulto Jovem
20.
Biol Direct ; 15(1): 30, 2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371901

RESUMO

Knowing the "point of view" of the immune system is essential to understand the characteristic of a pandemic, such as that generated by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, responsible for the Coronavirus Disease (COVID)-19. In this review, we will discuss the general host/pathogen interactions dictating protective immune response or immunopathology, addressing the role of immunity or immunopathology in influencing the clinical infection outcome, and debate the potential immunoprophylactic and immunotherapy strategies required to fight the virus infection.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Autoimunidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Imunidade , Imunidade Inata , Imunoterapia
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