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2.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340216

RESUMO

Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, were responsible for approximately 2.38 million deaths worldwide in 2016. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: (1) supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; (2) supplementation above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and (3) public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
4.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 318(5): C818-C830, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208989

RESUMO

Tryptophan catabolism through the kynurenine pathway generates a variety of bioactive metabolites. Physical exercise can modulate kynurenine pathway metabolism in skeletal muscle and thus change the concentrations of select compounds in peripheral tissues and in the central nervous system. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of how exercise alters tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism in muscle and its subsequent local and distal effects. We propose that the effects of kynurenine pathway metabolites on skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, immune system, and the brain suggest that some of these compounds could qualify as exercise-induced myokines. Indeed, some of the more recently discovered biological activities for kynurenines include many of the best-known benefits of exercise: improved energy homeostasis, promotion of an anti-inflammatory environment, and neuroprotection. Finally, by considering the tissue expression of the different membrane and cytosolic receptors for kynurenines, we discuss known and potential biological activities for these tryptophan metabolites.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Homeostase/genética , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Cinurenina/genética , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , PPAR gama/genética , Triptofano/metabolismo
5.
Nat Med ; 26(2): 259-269, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042191

RESUMO

Developmental processes underlying normal tissue regeneration have been implicated in cancer, but the degree of their enactment during tumor progression and under the selective pressures of immune surveillance, remain unknown. Here we show that human primary lung adenocarcinomas are characterized by the emergence of regenerative cell types, typically seen in response to lung injury, and by striking infidelity among transcription factors specifying most alveolar and bronchial epithelial lineages. In contrast, metastases are enriched for key endoderm and lung-specifying transcription factors, SOX2 and SOX9, and recapitulate more primitive transcriptional programs spanning stem-like to regenerative pulmonary epithelial progenitor states. This developmental continuum mirrors the progressive stages of spontaneous outbreak from metastatic dormancy in a mouse model and exhibits SOX9-dependent resistance to natural killer cells. Loss of developmental stage-specific constraint in macrometastases triggered by natural killer cell depletion suggests a dynamic interplay between developmental plasticity and immune-mediated pruning during metastasis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Animais , Brônquios/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Progressão da Doença , Endoderma/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Regeneração , Transdução de Sinais
7.
HNO ; 68(3): 177-183, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559466

RESUMO

Physiological aging processes of the immune system are associated with an increased susceptibility to infectious, autoimmune and tumor diseases. In accordance with the general demographic development the number of tumor patients in advanced age also increases. An end to this development is not yet foreseeable. In tumor treatment, immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors is becoming increasingly more important; however, only a few studies on the efficacy and side-effect profiles in older patients exist so far. In this review article the changes in the immune system in old age and the influence on carcinogenesis are discussed. In addition, the current state of research on the immunotherapy of patients in advanced age who suffer from head and neck cancer is presented.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Sistema Imunitário , Idoso , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia
8.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(1): F76-F85, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736354

RESUMO

Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease display elevated circulating microparticle (MP) counts, while RTRs display immunosuppression-induced infection susceptibility. The impact of aerobic exercise on circulating immune cells and MPs is unknown in RTRs. Fifteen RTRs [age: 52.8 ± 14.5 yr, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 51.7 ± 19.8 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 (mean ± SD)] and 16 patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease (age: 54.8 ± 16.3 yr, eGFR: 61.9 ± 21.0 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2, acting as a uremic control group), and 16 healthy control participants (age: 52.2 ± 16.2 yr, eGFR: 85.6 ± 6.1 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2) completed 20 min of walking at 60-70% peak O2 consumption. Venous blood samples were taken preexercise, postexercise, and 1 h postexercise. Leukocytes and MPs were assessed using flow cytometry. Exercise increased classical (P = 0.001) and nonclassical (P = 0.002) monocyte subset proportions but decreased the intermediate subset (P < 0.001) in all groups. Exercise also decreased the percentage of platelet-derived MPs that expressed tissue factor in all groups (P = 0.01), although no other exercise-dependent effects were observed. The exercise-induced reduction in intermediate monocyte percentage suggests an anti-inflammatory effect, although this requires further investigation. The reduction in the percentage of tissue factor-positive platelet-derived MPs suggests reduced prothrombotic potential, although further functional assays are required. Exercise did not cause aberrant immune cell activation, suggesting its safety from an immunological standpoint (ISRCTN38935454).


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Transplante de Rim , Insuficiência Renal/cirurgia , Transplantados , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(1): 249-256, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102685

RESUMO

Khammassi, M, Ouerghi, N, Said, M, Feki, M, Khammassi, Y, Pereira, B, Thivel, D, and Bouassida, A. Continuous moderate-intensity but not high-intensity interval training improves immune function biomarkers in healthy young men. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 249-256, 2020-Effects of endurance running methods on hematological profile are still poorly known. This study aimed to compare the effects of 2 training regimes; high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) performed at the same external load on hematological biomarkers in active young men. Sixteen men aged 18-20 years were randomly assigned to HIIT or MCT group. Aerobic capacity and hematological biomarkers were assessed before and after 9 weeks of interventions. At baseline, aerobic and hematological parameters were similar for the 2 groups. After intervention, no significant change was observed in maximal aerobic velocity and estimated VO2max in both groups. Leukocyte (p < 0.01), lymphocyte (p < 0.05), neutrophil (p < 0.05), and monocyte (p < 0.01) count showed significant improvements in response to the MCT compared with the HIIT intervention. The MCT intervention favored an increase in the number of immune cells, whereas the opposite occurred as a result of the HIIT intervention. These findings suggest that MCT interventions might be superior to HIIT regimes in improving immune function in active young men.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Monócitos , Neutrófilos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Distribuição Aleatória , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Brasília; s.n; 2020.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1096492

RESUMO

Até o momento, existem poucas evidências ou recomendações sobre alimentação e COVID-19, no entanto, sabe-se que o adequado estado nutricional, consumo alimentar, hidratação e o bom funcionamento do sistema imunológico contribuem para a recuperação dos indivíduos em situação de doença. Além disso, é sabido que o isolamento, em função da pandemia, irá alterar a dinâmica das famílias no momento da compra, preparo e consumo de alimentos, exigindo maior planejamento das refeições. Em idosos, as atenções são redobradas em função dos prejuízos da má nutrição e da falta de atividade física à sua saúde e qualidade de vida. Então, neste período de quarentena, é necessária uma atenção especial à alimentação do idoso. Caso você seja idoso ou esteja cuidando de uma pessoa idosa, atenção à sua alimentação, que deve ser a mais adequada e saudável possível! A seguir, elaboramos alguns passos para ajudar na organização da alimentação de pessoas idosas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde do Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Nutrição do Idoso , Dieta Saudável/instrumentação , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Brasil
12.
Physiol Rev ; 100(1): 357-405, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437089

RESUMO

The phenomenon of behaviorally conditioned immunological and neuroendocrine functions has been investigated for the past 100 yr. The observation that associative learning processes can modify peripheral immune functions was first reported and investigated by Ivan Petrovic Pavlov and his co-workers. Their work later fell into oblivion, also because so little was known about the immune system's function and even less about the underlying mechanisms of how learning, a central nervous system activity, could affect peripheral immune responses. With the employment of a taste-avoidance paradigm in rats, this phenomenon was rediscovered 45 yr ago as one of the most fascinating examples of the reciprocal functional interaction between behavior, the brain, and peripheral immune functions, and it established psychoneuroimmunology as a new research field. Relying on growing knowledge about efferent and afferent communication pathways between the brain, neuroendocrine system, primary and secondary immune organs, and immunocompetent cells, experimental animal studies demonstrate that cellular and humoral immune and neuroendocrine functions can be modulated via associative learning protocols. These (from the classical perspective) learned immune responses are clinically relevant, since they affect the development and progression of immune-related diseases and, more importantly, are also inducible in humans. The increased knowledge about the neuropsychological machinery steering learning and memory processes together with recent insight into the mechanisms mediating placebo responses provide fascinating perspectives to exploit these learned immune and neuroendocrine responses as supportive therapies, the aim being to reduce the amount of medication required, diminishing unwanted drug side effects while maximizing the therapeutic effect for the patient's benefit.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Psicológico , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Ratos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817971

RESUMO

Forest therapy is a fast-growing treatment approach, as it has the potential to alleviate stressful life events and to improve psychological well-being and physical health. Bamboo forests are widespread in southwestern China. Nevertheless, a knowledge gap on the specific health benefits of bamboo forest (BF) therapy still exists. To explore the psycho-physiologic responses of participants to the effects of BF therapy, 60 male adults aged between 19 and 24, with similar healthy conditions, were selected to participate in this study. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used for the BF sites and the city site (CS) to compare the difference in the psycho-physiologic responses of participants before and after the test. Participants at the BF sites participated in a three-day bamboo forest therapy session, and those at the CS participated in a three-day urban program. Blood pressure, heart rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation were measured as the physical signs, and the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire was completed by the participants for the psychological evaluation. Blood was sampled, and natural killer (NK) activity, the number of NK cells, and the levels of corticosterone, granulysin, perforin, and granzyme A/B in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were measured. All the measurements mentioned above were performed at 08:00 on the first and fourth days within the test. Results indicated that the three-day BF therapy was capable of enhancing positive mood states and also reducing negative mood states in the male participants. The blood pressure and heart rates of the male participants decreased, while the peripheral oxygen saturation increased after the three-day BF therapy session. Furthermore, BF therapy significantly increased NK activity and the number of NK cells and perforin-, granulysin-, and granzyme A/B-expressing cells and significantly decreased the corticosterone level in PBLs in the male participants. The three-day BF therapy session improved the psychological and physiological well-being and enhanced the immune functions of the male college students.


Assuntos
Florestas , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Terapia de Relaxamento/métodos , Sasa , Estudantes/psicologia , China , Humanos , Masculino , Psicofisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 47(6): 1581-1595, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769472

RESUMO

Mutations in the leucine-rich-repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are associated with familial and sporadic cases of Parkinson's disease but are also found in immune-related disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, tuberculosis and leprosy. LRRK2 is highly expressed in immune cells and has been functionally linked to pathways pertinent to immune cell function, such as cytokine release, autophagy and phagocytosis. Here, we examine the current understanding of the role of LRRK2 kinase activity in pathway regulation in immune cells, drawing upon data from multiple diseases associated with LRRK2 to highlight the pleiotropic effects of LRRK2 in different cell types. We discuss the role of the bona fide LRRK2 substrate, Rab GTPases, in LRRK2 pathway regulation as well as downstream events in the autophagy and inflammatory pathways.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/genética , Mutação
15.
Science ; 366(6465)2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672864

RESUMO

Sociability can facilitate mutually beneficial outcomes such as division of labor, cooperative care, and increased immunity, but sociability can also promote negative outcomes, including aggression and coercion. Accumulating evidence suggests that symbiotic microorganisms, specifically the microbiota that reside within the gastrointestinal system, may influence neurodevelopment and programming of social behaviors across diverse animal species. This relationship between host and microbes hints that host-microbiota interactions may have influenced the evolution of social behaviors. Indeed, the gastrointestinal microbiota is used by certain species as a means to facilitate communication among conspecifics. Further understanding of how microbiota influence the brain in nature may be helpful for elucidating the causal mechanisms underlying sociability and for generating new therapeutic strategies for social disorders in humans, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Comportamento Social , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Dieta , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Olfato , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/microbiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/terapia , Estresse Psicológico , Nervo Vago/fisiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0223759, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682635

RESUMO

microRNAs are of vital importance for the regulation of the adaptive and innate immune responses, modulating gene expression at the post transcriptional level. Although there is cumulative information regarding the steady state mature microRNA levels and their respective targets, little is known about the effect of the three-dimensional chromatin architecture on the transcriptional regulation of microRNA gene loci. Here, we sought to investigate the effect of subnuclear localization on the transcriptional activation of eight murine microRNA loci in the immune system. Our results show that microRNA genes display a preferential monoallelic gene expression profile accompanied with perinuclear localization irrespectively of their transcription status or differentiation state. The expression profile and perinuclear localization are developmentally conserved while microRNA gene loci localization outside constitutive lamin associated domains is cross-species conserved. Our findings provide support for an active nuclear periphery and its role in chromatin organization of the non-coding genome.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Cromatina/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Laminas/genética , Camundongos , Transcrição Genética/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética
18.
Immunity ; 51(5): 794-811, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747581

RESUMO

The consumption of Western-type calorically rich diets combined with chronic overnutrition and a sedentary lifestyle in Western societies evokes a state of chronic metabolic inflammation, termed metaflammation. Metaflammation contributes to the development of many prevalent non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and these lifestyle-associated pathologies represent a rising public health problem with global epidemic dimensions. A better understanding of how modern lifestyle and Western diet (WD) activate immune cells is essential for the development of efficient preventive and therapeutic strategies for common NCDs. Here, we review the current mechanistic understanding of how the Western lifestyle can induce metaflammation, and we discuss how this knowledge can be translated to protect the public from the health burden associated with their selected lifestyle.


Assuntos
Dieta Ocidental , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Homeostase , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos
19.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci ; 21(2): 211-215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636495

RESUMO

The significance of early life for the long-term programming of mental health is increasingly being recognized. However, most psychotropic medications are currently intended for adult patients, and early psychopharmacological approaches aimed at reverting aberrant neurodevelopmental trajectories are missing. Psychopharmacologic intervention at an early age faces the challenge of operating in a highly plastic system and requires a comprehensive knowledge of neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Recently the systems biology approach has contributed to the understanding of neuroplasticity mechanisms from a new perspective that interprets them as the result of complex and dynamic networks of signals from different systems. This approach is creating opportunities for developmental psychopharmacology, suggesting novel targets that can modulate the course of development by interfering with neuroplasticity at an early age. We will discuss two interconnected systems-the immune and gut microbiota-that regulate neurodevelopment and that have been implicated in preclinical research as new targets in the prevention of aberrant brain development.
.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Psicofarmacologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Biologia de Sistemas , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Mental , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/fisiologia
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