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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810172

RESUMO

The relationship between autoimmunity and changes in intestinal microbiota is not yet fully understood. In this study, the role of intestinal microbiota in the onset and progression of autoimmune lesions in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice was evaluated by administering antibiotics to alter their intestinal microenvironment. Flow cytometric analysis of spleen cells showed that antibiotic administration did not change the proportion or number of T and B cells in NOD mice, and pathological analysis demonstrated that autoimmune lesions in the salivary glands and in the pancreas were also not affected by antibiotic administration. These results suggest that the onset and progression of autoimmunity may be independent of enteral microbiota changes. Our findings may be useful for determining the appropriate use of antibiotics in patients with autoimmune diseases who are prescribed drugs to maintain systemic immune function.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Autoimunidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Sialadenite/etiologia , Sialadenite/metabolismo , Sialadenite/patologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807632

RESUMO

The thoracic and peritoneal cavities are lined by serous membranes and are home of the serosal immune system. This immune system fuses innate and adaptive immunity, to maintain local homeostasis and repair local tissue damage, and to cooperate closely with the mucosal immune system. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are found abundantly in the thoracic and peritoneal cavities, and they are crucial in first defense against pathogenic viruses and bacteria. Nanomaterials (NMs) can enter the cavities intentionally for medical purposes, or unintentionally following environmental exposure; subsequent serosal inflammation and cancer (mesothelioma) has gained significant interest. However, reports on adverse effects of NM on ILCs and other components of the serosal immune system are scarce or even lacking. As ILCs are crucial in the first defense against pathogenic viruses and bacteria, it is possible that serosal exposure to NM may lead to a reduced resistance against pathogens. Additionally, affected serosal lymphoid tissues and cells may disturb adipose tissue homeostasis. This review aims to provide insight into key effects of NM on the serosal immune system.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Nanoestruturas/química , Cavidade Peritoneal/fisiologia , Membrana Serosa/imunologia , Cavidade Torácica/imunologia , Animais , Homeostase/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668117

RESUMO

The term trogocytosis refers to a rapid bidirectional and active transfer of surface membrane fragment and associated proteins between cells. The trogocytosis requires cell-cell contact, and exhibits fast kinetics and the limited lifetime of the transferred molecules on the surface of the acceptor cells. The biological actions of trogocytosis include information exchange, cell clearance of unwanted tissues in embryonic development, immunoregulation, cancer surveillance/evasion, allogeneic cell survival and infectious pathogen killing or intercellular transmission. In the present review, we will extensively review all these aspects. In addition to its biological significance, aberrant trogocytosis in the immune system leading to autoimmunity and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases will also be discussed. Finally, the prospective investigations for further understanding the molecular basis of trogocytosis and its clinical applications will also be proposed.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/imunologia , Membrana Celular/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno , Comunicação Celular , Humanos
5.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 17(4): 235-245, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526907

RESUMO

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common complication of pregnancy and increases the risk of the offspring developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) later in life. Alterations in the immune system are implicated in the pathogenesis of IUGR-induced T2DM. The development of the fetal immune system is a delicate balance as it must remain tolerant of maternal antigens whilst also preparing for the post-birth environment. In addition, the fetal immune system is susceptible to an altered intrauterine milieu caused by maternal and placental inflammatory mediators or secondary to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. Pancreatic-resident macrophages populate the pancreas during fetal development, and their phenotype is dynamic through the neonatal period. Furthermore, macrophages in the islets are instrumental in islet development as they influence ß-cell proliferation and islet neogenesis. In addition, cytokines, derived from ß-cells and macrophages, are important to islet homeostasis in the fetus and adult and, when perturbed, can cause islet dysfunction. Several activated immune pathways have been identified in the islets of people who experienced IUGR, with alternations in the levels of IL-1ß and IL-4 as well as changes in TGFß signalling. Leptin levels are also altered. Immunomodulation has shown therapeutic benefit in T2DM and might be particularly useful in IUGR-induced T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/imunologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Lesões Pré-Natais/imunologia
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2224: 195-202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606216

RESUMO

Mice with human hematopoietic system have become critical for research and preclinical studies. Mice with patient-derived xenografts of different tumors exist without human immune system. Answers can be addressed with the same immunodeficient mice that are chimeric for the human hemato-lymphoid system (humanized mice). The growing field of immune-oncology could benefit from preclinical studies with the humanized mice. Other fields will also benefit such as studies of infectious disease, regenerative medicine, organ transplant, and allergies. Here, we describe the method to humanize immune-deficient mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic cells.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Antígenos CD34/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Cytokine ; 140: 155439, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunodeficiency has pivotal role in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several studies have indicated defects in the immune system of COVID-19 patients at different disease stages. Therefore, this study investigated whether alters in immune responses of COVID-19 patients may be considered as predicting factors for disease outcome. METHODS: The percentages of innate and adoptive immune cells in the recovered and dead patients with COVID-19, and healthy subjects were determined by flow cytometry. The levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and other immune factors were also measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: At the first day of hospitalization, the frequencies of CD56dim CD16+ NK cells and CD56bright CD16dim/- NK cells in patients who died during treatment were significantly increased compared to recovered and healthy individuals (P < 0.0001). The recovered and dead patients had a significant increase in monocyte number in comparison with healthy subjects (P < 0.05). No significant change was observed in Th1 cell numbers between the recovered and dead patients while Th2, Th17 cell, and Treg percentages in death cases were significantly lower than healthy control and those recovered, unlike exhausted CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and activated CD4 + T cells (P < 0.0001-0.05). The activated CD8 + T cell was significantly higher in the recovered patients than healthy individuals (P < 0.0001-0.05). IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in patients were significantly increased (P < 0.0001-0.01). However, there were no differences in TNF-α and IL-1ß levels between dead and recovered patients. Unlike TGF-ß1 level, IL-10 was significantly increased in recovered patients (P < 0.05). Lymphocyte numbers in recovered patients were significantly increased compared to dead patients, unlike ESR value (P < 0.001-0.01). CRP value in recovered patients significantly differed from dead patients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Changes in frequencies of some immune cells and levels of some immune factors may be considered as predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/classificação , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
8.
Hum Cell ; 34(2): 698-699, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527306

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 is one of the deadliest pandemics in recent decades. In the lack of a specific treatment for this novel infection, knowing the role of cell signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of this infection could be useful in finding effective drugs against this disease. The mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important cell signaling pathway that has important role in the regulation of cell growth, protein synthesis, and metabolism in reactance to upstream signals in both pathological and normal physiological conditions. Recently, some researchers have suggested the therapeutic potential of mTOR inhibitors such as rapamycin against COVID-19. However, it is important to consider the role of activation of this pathway in controlling immune system response against viral activity in drug repositioning of rapamycin and other mTOR inhibitors in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/fisiologia , /imunologia , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
9.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(2): 1925-1934, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486674

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory syndrome, reported at the end of 2019 in China originally and immediately spread affecting over ten million world population to date. This pandemic is more lethal for the older population and those who previously suffered from other ailments such as cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, and other immune system affecting abnormalities including cancers. Lung cancer is an important comorbidity of COVID-19. In this review, we emphasized the impact of lung tumor microenvironment (TME) on the possibility of enhanced severity of infection caused by the SARS-Co-V2. The compromised lung TME is further susceptible to the attack of viruses. The lung cells are also abundant in the virus entry receptors. Several SARS-Co-V2 proteins can modulate the lung TME by disrupting the fragile immune mechanisms contributing to cytokine storming and cellular metabolic variations. We also discussed the impact of medication used for lung cancer in the scenario of this infection. Since other respiratory infections can be a risk factor for lung cancer, COVID-19 recovered patients should be monitored for tumor development, especially if there is genetic susceptibility or it involves exposure to other risk factors.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , /epidemiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/virologia , Pandemias , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
PLoS Genet ; 17(1): e1009301, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395405

RESUMO

Immune repertoires provide a unique fingerprint reflecting the immune history of individuals, with potential applications in precision medicine. However, the question of how personal that information is and how it can be used to identify individuals has not been explored. Here, we show that individuals can be uniquely identified from repertoires of just a few thousands lymphocytes. We present "Immprint," a classifier using an information-theoretic measure of repertoire similarity to distinguish pairs of repertoire samples coming from the same versus different individuals. Using published T-cell receptor repertoires and statistical modeling, we tested its ability to identify individuals with great accuracy, including identical twins, by computing false positive and false negative rates < 10-6 from samples composed of 10,000 T-cells. We verified through longitudinal datasets that the method is robust to acute infections and that the immune fingerprint is stable for at least three years. These results emphasize the private and personal nature of repertoire data.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440862

RESUMO

Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the infiltration of exocrine glands including salivary and lachrymal glands responsible for the classical dry eyes and mouth symptoms (sicca syndrome). The spectrum of disease manifestations stretches beyond the classical sicca syndrome with systemic manifestations including arthritis, interstitial lung involvement, and neurological involvement. The pathophysiology underlying SS is not well deciphered, but several converging lines of evidence have supported the conjuncture of different factors interplaying together to foster the initiation and perpetuation of the disease. The innate and adaptive immune system play a cardinal role in this process. In this review, we discuss the inherent parts played by both the innate and adaptive immune system in the pathogenesis of SS.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450990

RESUMO

The current emergence of multi-, extensively-, extremely-, and total-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a major health, social, and economic threat, and stresses the need to develop new therapeutic strategies. The notion of phage therapy against bacteria has been around for more than a century and, although its implementation was abandoned after the introduction of drugs, it is now making a comeback and gaining renewed interest in Western medicine as an alternative to treat drug-resistant pathogens. Mycobacteriophages are genetically diverse viruses that specifically infect mycobacterial hosts, including members of the M. tuberculosis complex. This review describes general features of mycobacteriophages and their mechanisms of killing M. tuberculosis, as well as their advantages and limitations as therapeutic and prophylactic agents against drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. This review also discusses the role of human lung micro-environments in shaping the availability of mycobacteriophage receptors on the M. tuberculosis cell envelope surface, the risk of potential development of bacterial resistance to mycobacteriophages, and the interactions with the mammalian host immune system. Finally, it summarizes the knowledge gaps and defines key questions to be addressed regarding the clinical application of phage therapy for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Micobacteriófagos/fisiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/virologia , Terapia por Fagos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/terapia , Tuberculose/terapia , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Terapia por Fagos/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/imunologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
13.
J Biol Rhythms ; 36(1): 23-34, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480287

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms are evolutionarily conserved anticipatory systems that allow the host to prepare and respond to threats in its environment. This article summarizes a European Biological Rhythms Society (EBRS) workshop held in July 2020 to review current knowledge of the interplay between the circadian clock and viral infections to inform therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. A large body of work supports the role of the circadian clock in regulating various aspects of viral replication, host responses, and associated pathogenesis. We review the evidence describing the multifaceted role of the circadian clock, spanning host susceptibility, antiviral mechanisms, and host resilience. Finally, we define the most pressing research questions and how our knowledge of chronobiology can inform key translational research priorities.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , /imunologia , Animais , /virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Pandemias , /fisiologia , Replicação Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/imunologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 525, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483505

RESUMO

CTLA-4 is an important regulator of T-cell function. Here, we report that expression of this immune-regulator in mouse B-1a cells has a critical function in maintaining self-tolerance by regulating these early-developing B cells that express a repertoire enriched for auto-reactivity. Selective deletion of CTLA-4 from B cells results in mice that spontaneously develop autoantibodies, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and germinal centers (GCs) in the spleen, and autoimmune pathology later in life. This impaired immune homeostasis results from B-1a cell dysfunction upon loss of CTLA-4. Therefore, CTLA-4-deficient B-1a cells up-regulate epigenetic and transcriptional activation programs and show increased self-replenishment. These activated cells further internalize surface IgM, differentiate into antigen-presenting cells and, when reconstituted in normal IgH-allotype congenic recipient mice, induce GCs and Tfh cells expressing a highly selected repertoire. These findings show that CTLA-4 regulation of B-1a cells is a crucial immune-regulatory mechanism.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Homeostase/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Animais , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/citologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/citologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 169: 28-38, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340621

RESUMO

The immune system is a highly advanced and coordinated mechanism that allows a living organism to distinguish between "self" and "non-self". The host uses both innate and adaptive immune response mechanisms to identify and eliminate pathogenic microorganisms. Human immunoglobulin is the prominently used blood product in the clinical practice. Immunoglobulin applications have improved rapidly due to the exploration of its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. This made this blood product into a precious and advanced tool in the treatment of numerous disease conditions which are linked with humoral immune deficiency or that cause immune system dysfunction. Human immunoglobulin (Ig) is used for Ig replacement therapy in both primary and secondary immunodeficiency conditions, for prevention and treatment of certain infections. It also acts as an immunomodulatory agent for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Therapeutic antibodies have been successfully used for the treatment of diverse pathological conditions. Drug development programs exclusively select highly specific antibodies that recognize a single disease-associated target. Hopefully this review will give an insight towards the immune system, the involvement of the specialized immune cells, their products and involvement in various immune disorders and pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/farmacologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/fisiologia , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Imunomodulação/imunologia
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 111157, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370631

RESUMO

Autoimmune diseases (AUDs) are a multifactorial disease, among which rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis are more prevalent. Several anti-inflammatory, biologics, and AUD-modifying drugs are found effective against them, but their repeated use are associated with various adverse effects. In this review article, we have focused on the regulation of inflammatory molecules, molecular signaling pathways, immune cells, and epigenetics by natural product thymoquinone on AUDs. Studies indicate that thymoquinone can regulate inflammatory molecules including interferons, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), oxidative stress, regulatory T cells, and various signaling pathways such as nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κß), janus kinase/signal transduction and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) at the molecular level and epigenetic alteration. As these molecules and signaling pathways with defective immune function play an important role in AUD development, controlling these molecules and deregulated molecular mechanism is a significant feature of AUD therapeutics. Interestingly thymoquinone is reported to possess all these potential. This article reviewed the deregulated mechanism of AUDs, and the action of thymoquinone on inflammatory molecules, immune cells, signaling pathways, and epigenetic machinery. Thymoquinone can be regarded as a potential drug candidate for AUD treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Benzoquinonas/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/fisiopatologia , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(6): 771-788, nov.-dic. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199269

RESUMO

Allergic diseases have been a global problem over the past few decades. The effect of allergic diseases on healthcare systems and society is generally remarkable and is considered as one of the most common causes of chronic and hospitalized disease. The functional ability of probiotics to modulate the innate/acquired immune system leads to the initiation of mucosal/systemic immune responses. Gut microbiota plays a beneficial role in food digestion, development of the immune system, control/growth of the intestinal epithelial cells and their differentiation. Prescribing probiotics causes a significant change in the intestinal microflora and modulates cytokine secretion, including networks of genes, TLRs, signaling molecules and increased intestinal IgA responses. The modulation of the Th1/Th2 balance is done by probiotics, which suppress Th2 responses with shifts to Th1 and thereby prevent allergies. In general, probiotics are associated with a decrease in inflammation by increasing butyrate production and induction of tolerance with an increase in the ratio of cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10/IFN-Gamma, Treg/TGF-Beta, reducing serum eosinophil levels and the expression of metalloproteinase-9 which contribute to the improvement of the allergic disease's symptoms. Finally, it can be said that the therapeutic approach to immunotherapy and the reduction of the risk of side effects in the treatment of allergic diseases is the first priority of treatment and the final approach that completes the first priority in maintaining the condition and sustainability of the tolerance along with the recovery of the individual


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi ; 75(2): 185-194, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361654

RESUMO

Countless numbers of bacteria inhabit the intestinal tract. One of the important functions of gut microbiota is the "colonization resistance" against infection by pathogenic microorganisms. However, detailed mechanism of the colonization resistance of intestinal bacteria is still largely unknown. We tried to identify molecular and cellular mechanism of it and found that antigen presentation by dendritic cells is required for the induction of intestinal segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB)-induced T helper 17 (Th17) cells that contribute to the protection against infection by Citrobacter rodentium. We further identified that gut Th17 cells selectively recognize antigens derived from SFB. We also revealed that SFB induce α1,2-fucose, one of carbohydrate chains, expressed on the intestinal epithelial cells mediated by group 3 innate lymphoid cells. Epithelial α1,2-fucose protected against infection by pathogenic bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. Furthermore, it was found that intestinal bacteria inhibit colonization of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans as well as pathogenic bacteria. From these studies, detailed mechanism of "colonization resistance" against pathogenic microorganisms by intestinal bacteria has been clarified.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Citrobacter rodentium/patogenicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Aderência Bacteriana/imunologia , Candida albicans/imunologia , Citrobacter rodentium/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Fucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243777, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315964

RESUMO

Masculinity-related morphological traits are supposed to be honest indicators of a man's biological quality. While some studies showed that sexually dimorphic traits are related to various aspects of biological condition such as general health, immunity or fertility, still little is known about the relationship between masculine traits and the effectiveness of innate and adaptive immunity in humans. The aim of this study was to see if masculine traits, which are dependent on androgen levels in foetal and pubertal stages of development, are related to the immune quality in healthy men. The immune quality was evaluated for 91 healthy men aged 19-36 years. Immunity measurements included innate and adaptive parameters. General health status, age, testosterone level, BMI, physical activity, and smoking were controlled. The shoulder-to-hip ratio (SHR), 2D:4D digit ratio and hand-grip strength (HGS) were used as markers of masculinization. The regressions showed that when controlling for confounds, masculinity-related traits were in general not related to innate and adaptive immunity. Only a weak association was observed for right 2D:4D ratio and T-lymphocyte counts (but it becomes non-significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons). Our results do not support the premise that masculinity is a cue for immunological quality in men. However, the positive association between right 2D:4D and T lymphocytes might suggest that further studies are needed to verify if androgen stimulation in prenatal development might be related to immunity in adulthood.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Masculinidade , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Força da Mão , Nível de Saúde , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ombro/fisiologia , Testosterona/análise , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334069

RESUMO

Inflammatory colon diseases, which are a global health concern, include a variety of gastrointestinal tract disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. The pathogenesis of these colon disorders involves immune alterations with the pronounced infiltration of innate and adaptive immune cells into the intestines and the augmented expression of mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokines stimulated by commensal microbiota. Epidemiological studies during the past half century have shown that the proportion of obese people in a population is associated with the incidence and pathogenesis of gastrointestinal tract disorders. The advancement of understanding of the immunological basis of colon disease has shown that adipocyte-derived biologically active substances (adipokines) modulate the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the progress of intestinal inflammation. The biomedical significance in immunological homeostasis of adipokines, including adiponectin, leptin, apelin and resistin, is clear. In this review, we highlight the existing literature on the effect and contribution of adipokines to the regulation of immunological homeostasis in inflammatory colon diseases and discuss their crucial roles in disease etiology and pathogenesis, as well as the implications of these results for new therapies in these disorders.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Homeostase , Imunomodulação , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Adipocinas/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia
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