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1.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 1): 1616-1620, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: There is the increasing number of elderly patients with motion disabilities who require help and infatuations from nursing stuff. According to the Central Statistic Department (GUS), 25,4% people in Poland is over 60. In 2050 this number will increase to 40%(39,9%). This is very important topic because when the number of old people will increase the geriatric care will be more important. Especially because this is partially covered by nursing team. They should be satisfied and content of the job they do, and they should fulfill the aim they had when they started this profession. The aim: Analysis of nurse's work with patients, nursing procedures evaluation, how this procedure is scored by the nurse, what is the nurse's role in the rehabilitation process. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: There were nursing process with geriatric patients analyzed in this article. There were nursing procedures investigated with the opinion of the person who performed this procedure. Role of the nurse in rehabilitation process was and the satisfaction from typical work load was analyzed. RESULTS: Results: Analyzed results showed that there is a deficit in the nurse's knowledge and the lack of the complex care in elderly patient with disabilities. There is lack of the preparation and education program to perform holistic patient care. This includes monitoring, examination and elderly needs. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The nurse is the first link that helps the patient to understand his disease. The nurse develops therapeutic contact that helps the patient to feel safe and positively react for the introduced treatment.


Assuntos
Enfermagem Geriátrica , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/enfermagem , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/reabilitação , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Idoso , Humanos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Polônia
3.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 282, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries (MSKIs) are common in military trainees and present a considerable threat to occupational fitness, deployability, and overall military readiness. Despite the negative effects of MSKIs on military readiness, comprehensive evaluations of the key known and possible risk factors for MSKIs are lacking. The U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (ARIEM) is initiating a large-scale research effort, the ARIEM Reduction in Musculoskeletal Injury (ARMI) Study, to better understand the interrelationships among a wide range of potential MSKI risk factors in U.S. Army trainees in order to identify those risk factors that most contribute to MSKI and may be best targeted for effective mitigation strategies. METHODS: This prospective study aims to enroll approximately 4000 (2000 male and 2000 female) U.S. Army trainees undergoing Basic Combat Training (BCT). Comprehensive in-person assessments will be completed at both the beginning and end of BCT. Participants will be asked to complete surveys of personal background information, medical history, physical activity, sleep behaviors, and personality traits. Physical measurements will be performed to assess anthropometrics, tibial microarchitecture and whole body bone mineral density, muscle cross-sectional area, body composition, and muscle function. Blood sampling will be also be conducted to assess musculoskeletal, genetic, and nutritional biomarkers of risk. In addition, participants will complete weekly surveys during BCT that examine MSKI events, lost training time, and discrete risk factors for injury. Participants' medical records will be tracked for the 2 years following graduation from training to identify MSKI events and related information. Research hypotheses focus on the development of a multivariate prediction model for MSKI. DISCUSSION: Results from this study are expected to inform current understanding of known and potential risk factors for MSKIs that can be incorporated into solutions that optimize Soldier health and enhance military readiness.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (5): 52-56, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169819

RESUMO

AIM: Experimental analysis of the strength properties of integration of muscle tissue, tendons and ligaments, bone tissue into titanium highly porous materials prepared by using of additive technologies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 9 mature rabbits of the Chinchilla breed. Both posterior paws and latissimus dorsi muscles (36 specimens) were used. Titanium models (Ti-6-Al-4-V, 'Rematitan', Germany) were made by additive technologies with preliminary prototyping, the prototypes had a highly porous mesh structure. RESULTS: It was developed experimental model of functional bone defect involving points of attachment of the muscle and ligaments. Strength of attachment of muscles to highly porous implants was 145 H vs. 31 H for standard models. Tensile strength for fixation to bone tissue was 84 H vs. 152 H in the main group. CONCLUSION: It was found integration of soft tissues and bones into highly porous titanium implants prepared with additive technologies. Fixation strength significantly exceeds that for standard models.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/cirurgia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Osseointegração/fisiologia , Próteses e Implantes , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Osso e Ossos/lesões , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Ligamentos/fisiopatologia , Ligamentos/cirurgia , Modelos Animais , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/cirurgia , Porosidade , Desenho de Prótese , Implantação de Prótese , Coelhos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reoperação , Telas Cirúrgicas , Tendões/fisiopatologia , Tendões/cirurgia , Titânio
5.
Wiad Lek ; 72(4): 575-578, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The sharp deterioration in the physical development of the younger generation is worrying. The morbidity of youth has increased by 29.9% compared with the last century. More than 33% of boys and girls, among first-year students with chronic diseases. The aim: Assessing the state of the students' body by examining the results of a survey among the second- and third-year students of the university using a specially designed questionnaire. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The material on the assessment of the state of health and the characteristics of the organism has been processed by studying the results of a survey of young men and women aged 20-23, obtained on the basis of using the developed questionnaire. RESULTS: Results: Physical development has been studied in accordance with the state of health of the students, as well as a thorough study of a number of criteria: diseases of the musculoskeletal system were 37.1%, 49.7% and 43.45 among boys aged 20, 22 and 23 and respectively 33.3 %, 38.6% and 47.7% among girls in their 20s, 22s and 23s. The morbidity of eye was 18.0%, 3.8% and 9.9% among boys aged 20, 22 and 23 years and 17.7%, 17.1% and 7.7% among girls aged 20, 22 and 23 years. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: In the structure of morbidities are diseases of the musculoskeletal system, diseases of the nervous system and the organ of vision. Correlation of the characteristics of the level of students' health and their physical development have indicators on the level of educational adaptation and the number of diseases.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Estudantes , Universidades , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(4): 4009-4016, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069615

RESUMO

Telomeres are capped at the end of the chromosome and gradually shorten when the cell divides. When there is an oxidative stress, it can cause the DNA to be damaged. Hence, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) has been shown to be an indicator for oxidative DNA damage. This study aimed to determine the relative telomere length (RTL) and 8-OHdG levels in neoplastic tissues, adjacent non-neoplastic tissues, and blood leukocytes of musculoskeletal (MS) tumor patients. Neoplastic tissues were compared to adjacent non-neoplastic tissues in MS tumor patients (n = 46). Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of MS tumor subjects were compared to those of age-matched healthy controls (n = 107). RTL was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and 8-OHdG levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The RTL in neoplastic tissues was significantly shorter than that in non-neoplastic tissues [1.12 (0.86-1.46) vs 1.45 (1.25-1.65), P = 0.001]. PBLs had lower RTL than non-neoplastic tissues in MS tumor patients [1.04 (0.85-1.13) vs 1.45 (1.25-1.65), P < 0.001]. However, there was no significant difference between RTL in PBLs and in neoplastic tissues. In addition, PBLs of MS tumor patients had higher RTL than those of the controls [1.04 (0.85-1.13) versus 0.78 (0.68-0.90), P < 0.001]. The 8-OHdG levels in neoplastic tissues were remarkably higher than those in non-neoplastic tissues [8.14 (6.81-11.37) nM/µg/µl vs. 3.79 (2.53-6.17) nM/µg/µl, P < 0.001]. Furthermore, plasma 8-OHdG levels in MS tumor patients were markedly greater than those in the controls [102.50 (73.16-133.50) nM vs. 41.09 (6.81-11.37) nM, P < 0.001]. Area under the curve (AUC) was 0.7536 (95% confident interval (CI) 0.6602-0.8469) when the cut-off value of RTL in PBLs was 0.97. Also, plasma 8-OHdG levels depicted that when the cut-off value was 38.67 nM, the AUC was 0.7723 (95% CI 0.6920-0.8527). Moreover, ROC curve analysis showed that both RTL and 8-OHdG appeared to improve the sensitivity (85.68%) and specificity (70.91%) with the AUC 0.8639 (95% CI 0.7500-0.9500). This study suggested that blood leukocyte RTL and plasma 8-OHdG could serve as promising non-invasive biomarkers to differentiate between MS tumor patients and healthy controls. Additionally, telomere attrition and increased oxidative DNA damage might play contributory roles in the pathogenesis of MS tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecido Muscular/patologia , Homeostase do Telômero/fisiologia , /análise , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Telômero/metabolismo
8.
Complement Ther Med ; 43: 170-175, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935526

RESUMO

Yoga is an increasingly popular activity, perhaps because of its association with stress reduction and relaxation - an association that is generally supported by empirical evidence. Understanding of the mediating variables is, however, limited. Given that, the purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical perspective that encourages systematic research regarding the relationship between yoga, stress, and musculoskeletal activity. This embodied perspective parallels popular interest in the mind-body connection and emphasizes the influence of body position on thinking as well as emotion. Those influences take on added meaning in the context of the Cognitive Appraisal Theory and the Biopsychosocial Model of Challenge and Threat. Investigations of embodied cognition suggest that yoga may reduce stress by affecting the way individuals appraise stressors. The combination of body position and common components of yoga practice may also contribute to that effect, particularly when considering thoughts about the self and feelings of confidence. Findings regarding embodied emotion make a similar contribution to understanding the implications of previous research findings and common yoga practices. Considering yoga and stress from an embodied perspective also highlights the role of the musculoskeletal system in the stress process, leading to the question of whether yoga influences stress by directly influencing the musculoskeletal system, indirectly by influencing awareness of that system, or through a combination of the two. Those questions, in turn, highlight the importance of expanding investigations of psychological processes, body position, musculoskeletal activity during yoga, and the interactions between those variables.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Ioga/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Meditação/psicologia
10.
Lupus ; 28(5): 583-590, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841789

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal manifestations are extremely common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Transient and migratory arthralgia is frequently reported even without clinical signs of joint or tendon inflammation. In less than 15% of patients, joints may be more severely affected by deforming (Jaccoud's arthropathy) and/or erosive arthropathy (Rhupus syndrome). In recent years, ultrasound has emerged as a promising imaging technique for the assessment of musculoskeletal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus, having demonstrated the ability to detect inflammation and structural damage both at articular and periarticular level. Recent ultrasound studies have also revealed new insights into musculoskeletal involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, some of them questioning the traditional concepts of systemic lupus erythematosus arthropathy, with potential clinical, prognostic and therapeutic implications. In daily clinical practice, the use of ultrasound in the assessment of joint and tendon involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is still limited. Several methodological issues encountered in ultrasound studies evaluating musculoskeletal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus patients need to be addressed in order to improve both the reliability and clinical usefulness of ultrasound findings. This paper reviews ultrasound studies assessing musculoskeletal involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, highlighting certainty, limits, potential applications and future perspectives of ultrasound use in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.


Assuntos
Artropatias/patologia , Articulações/patologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Tendões/patologia , Humanos , Artropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulações/diagnóstico por imagem , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
11.
Rev. esp. cir. oral maxilofac ; 41(1): 17-25, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182842

RESUMO

Introducción: La estabilidad esquelética postoperatoria en cirugía ortognática ha sido objeto de evaluación durante el paso del tiempo. Diversos autores han reportado que se produce una disminución de la misma en diversos movimientos de los maxilares en ocasiones utilizados en casos de rotación del complejo maxilomandibular. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar la estabilidad esquelética postoperatoria de la cirugía ortognática bimaxilar convencional vs. cirugía ortognática bimaxilar con rotación del complejo maxilomandibular en pacientes sometidos a cirugía ortognática en el Servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital Militar Central de Bogotá, entre enero de 2012 hasta julio de 2016. Materiales y métodos: Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo. Se llevó a cabo análisis cefalométrico para comparar la estabilidad esquelética entre los pacientes de cirugía ortognática bimaxilar convencional vs. los pacientes de cirugía ortognática bimaxilar con rotación del complejo maxilomandibular durante tres momentos: preoperatorio (T1), postoperatorio inmediato (T2), postoperatorio al menos de seis meses (T3). Resultados: Se obtuvo una cohorte de 45 pacientes sometidos a cirugía ortognática bimaxilar convencional o cirugía ortognática bimaxilar con rotación del complejo maxilomandibular. La mayoría de las medidas realizadas mostraron que no existe diferencia significativa de estabilidad a largo plazo en ambos grupos. Conclusiones: La cirugía ortognática con rotación del complejo maxilomandibular, tanto en sentido horario como antihorario, es un procedimiento estable cuando se utiliza fijación interna rígida, cuando se está en presencia de articulacion temporomandibular (ATM) sanas y cuando la rotación se lleva a cabo en un punto a través del cóndilo mandibular


Introduction: Postoperative skeletal stability in orthognathic surgery has been evaluated over time, several authors have reported a decrease of it in movements of the jaws occasionally used in cases of alteration of the maxillo-mandibular complex. The aim of the present study was to compare the postoperative skeletal stability of conventional bimaxillary orthognathic surgery versus bimaxillary orthognathic surgery with rotation of the maxillo-mandibular complex in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Service of the Central Military Hospital of Bogotá between January 2012 until July 2016. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted. We performed a cephalometric analysis to compare the skeletal stability between patients with conventional bimaxillary orthognathic surgery versus bimaxillary orthognathic surgery patients with maxillo-mandibular alteration during 3 moments: before surgery (T1), right after the surgery (T2), at least 6 months after surgery (T3). Results: A cohort of 45 patients undergoing conventional bimaxillary orthognathic surgery or bimaxilar orthognathic surgery with rotation of the maxillo-mandibular complex was obtained. Most of the measurements showed that there is no significant difference in long-term stability in both groups. Conclusions: Orthognathic surgery with rotation of the maxillo-mandibular complex both clockwise and counter-clockwise is a stable procedure when rigid internal fixation is used, when the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) are healthy and stable and when rotation is performed at a point through the mandibular condyle


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Fixação da Arcada Osseodentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Anormalidades Maxilomandibulares/cirurgia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Rotação , Resultado do Tratamento , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Ajuste Oclusal/métodos
12.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin ; 22(4): 376-385, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668171

RESUMO

To account for proximal femoral deformities in children with cerebral palsy (CP), subject-specific musculoskeletal models are needed. Non-rigid deformation (NRD) deforms generic onto personalized bone geometry and thereby transforms the muscle points. The goal of this study was to determine to what extent the models and simulation outcomes in CP patients differ when including subject-specific detail using NRD or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-based models. The NRD models slightly overestimated hip contact forces compared to MRI models and differences in muscle point positions and moment arm lengths (MALs) remained, although differences were smaller than for the generic model.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Paralisia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Musculoesquelético/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 18(1): 9-16, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624329

RESUMO

Adaptive sports refers to organized sporting activities that are practiced by individuals with disabilities and are worthwhile to maintain physical and psychological health. As adaptive sports participation continues to rise, health care providers must have an enhanced understanding of injury and illness patterns specific to the adaptive athlete. Early recognition and prevention are important to ensure safe and successful participation in sport. The present review aims to provide a framework for diagnosis and prevention of common conditions specific to the wheelchair athlete. In particular, autonomic dysreflexia, impaired thermoregulation, urinary tract infection, and pressure injuries, as well as shoulder pain, upper-extremity entrapment neuropathies, and osteoporotic fractures will be discussed.


Assuntos
Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Cadeiras de Rodas , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Medicina Esportiva
14.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin ; 22(3): 259-270, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663342

RESUMO

Optimizing the geometric complexity of musculoskeletal models is important for reliable yet feasible estimation of joint biomechanics. This study investigated the effects of subject-specific model geometry on hip joint reaction forces (JRFs) and muscle forces in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and healthy controls. For nine DDH and nine control subjects, three models were created with increasingly subject-specific pelvis geometry, hip joint center locations and muscle attachments. Hip JRFs and muscle forces during a gait cycle were compared among the models. For DDH subjects, resultant JRFs from highly specific models including subject-specific pelvis geometry, joint locations and muscle attachments were not significantly different compared to models using generic geometry in early stance, but were significantly higher in late stance (p = 0.03). Estimates from moderately specific models using CT-informed scaling of generic pelvis geometry were not significantly different from low specificity models using generic geometry scaled with skin markers. For controls, resultant JRFs in early stance from highly specific models were significantly lower than moderate and low specificity models (p ≤ 0.02) with no significant differences in late stance. Inter-model JRF differences were larger for DDH subjects than controls. Inter-model differences for JRF components and muscle forces were similar to resultant JRFs. Incorporating subject-specific pelvis geometry significantly affects JRF and muscle force estimates in both DDH and control groups, which may be especially important for reliable estimation of pathomechanics in dysplastic hips.


Assuntos
Luxação do Quadril/patologia , Luxação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Quadril/patologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Modelos Biológicos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/patologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Anisotropia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Luxação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pelve/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 178: 9-15, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528652

RESUMO

MicroRNA's are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of genes by targeting the 3' UTR's of mRNA. Studies reveal that miRNAs play a pivotal role in normal musculoskeletal function such as mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, survivability and apoptosis, osteogenesis, and chondrogenesis. Changes in normal miRNA expression have been linked to a number of pathological disease processes. Additionally, with aging, it is noted that there is dysregulation in the normal function of stem cell differentiation, bone formation/degradation, chondrocyte function, and muscle degeneration. Due to the change in expression of miRNA in degenerative musculoskeletal pathology, it is believed that these molecules may be at least partially responsible for cellular dysfunction. A number of miRNAs have already been identified to play a role in osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and sarcopenia. One miRNA that has become of interest recently is miRNA 141. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature available on miRNA 141 and how it could play a role in osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and musculoskeletal pathology overall.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Marcação de Genes , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia
16.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36 Suppl 114(5): 10-15, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296976

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique that utililises powerful magnets and radiofrequency to produce 3-dimentional images. MRI does not involve ionising radiation and has superb tissue resolution, enabling excellent delineation of anatomy as well as pathology in joints. This article briefly reviews the technical principle of magnetic resonance and discusses advantages and disadvantages of the technique, with particular attention to rheumatologic imaging. New information is summarised concerning the use of contrast media, dynamic, contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging, cartilage imaging and whole-body MRI.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Reumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Reumatologistas , Reumatologia/métodos , Humanos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Doenças Reumáticas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Reumáticas/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36 Suppl 114(5): 3-9, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296987

RESUMO

Within the realm of rheumatology, the field of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) has grown exponentially over the last few decades. This review, aimed at the clinical rheumatologist, provides a basic overview of the principles of image generation and the commonly used clinical applications of MSUS, while also highlighting its advantages and limitations. In particular, the role of MSUS in the assessment of early and established rheumatoid arthritis, crystalline disease, the spondyloarthropathies and Sjögren's disease is discussed in more detail and by reviewing the pertinent literature.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Musculoesquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Reumatologistas , Reumatologia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/terapia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36 Suppl 114(5): 82-85, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296992

RESUMO

Pain is the most common symptom in rheumatic diseases. However, the severity of pain does not correlate with pathology. The lack of an objective test for pain results in clinicians consider pain in patients with fibromyalgia as psychological. Research over the last two decade using functional neuroimaging especially functional MRI scan have demonstrated objectively that patients with fibromyalgia were not malingering. Pain processing is complex and multiple regions of the brain are involved. One consistent finding is decrease activity in regions of the brain involved in pain inhibitory pathways suggesting this is one of the fundamental pathophysiology processes in fibromyalgia.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Reumatologia/métodos , Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Fibromialgia/terapia , Humanos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 13(6): 066005, 2018 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221628

RESUMO

Soft actuators have played an indispensable role in generating compliant motions of soft robots. Among the various soft actuators explored for soft robotic applications, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) have caught the eye with their intriguing attributes similar to biological muscles. However, the control challenge of DEAs due to their strong nonlinear behaviors has hindered the development of DEA-based soft robots. To overcome the control challenge, this paper proposes a bioinspired control approach of DEAs. A three-dimensional muscle-like DEA, capable of large forces and giant deformation, is fabricated and adopted as the control platform. To facilitate the controller design, the dynamic model of the DEA is developed through experimental analysis, which takes electromechanical coupling, viscoelastic effects and dynamics uncertainties into consideration. Motivated by the proprioception of the biological muscles, the self-sensing capability of the actuator is explored and exhibits good accuracy. Thus the self-sensing of the actuator is utilized to provide the sensory feedback in the control loop without the need of additional external sensors. Inspired from the role of the cerebellum in motor learning, a cerebellum model articulation nonlinear controller is proposed to compensate the dynamics uncertainties and to provide motion correction. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control approach is verified by both the simulation and the experiments.


Assuntos
Biomimética/métodos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Robótica/métodos , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Elastômeros/química , Retroalimentação , Movimento (Física) , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Dinâmica não Linear
20.
Age Ageing ; 47(suppl_4): iv1-iv19, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203052

RESUMO

The complexities and heterogeneity of the ageing process have slowed the development of consensus on appropriate biomarkers of healthy ageing. The Medical Research Council-Arthritis Research UK Centre for Integrated research into Musculoskeletal Ageing (CIMA) is a collaboration between researchers and clinicians at the Universities of Liverpool, Sheffield and Newcastle. One of CIMA's objectives is to 'Identify and share optimal techniques and approaches to monitor age-related changes in all musculoskeletal tissues, and to provide an integrated assessment of musculoskeletal function'-in other words to develop a toolkit for assessing musculoskeletal ageing. This toolkit is envisaged as an instrument that can be used to characterise and quantify musculoskeletal function during 'normal' ageing, lend itself to use in large-scale, internationally important cohorts, and provide a set of biomarker outcome measures for epidemiological and intervention studies designed to enhance healthy musculoskeletal ageing. Such potential biomarkers include: biochemical measurements in biofluids or tissue samples, in vivo measurements of body composition, imaging of structural and physical properties, and functional tests. This review assesses candidate biomarkers of musculoskeletal ageing under these four headings, details their biological bases, strengths and limitations, and makes practical recommendations for their use. In addition, we identify gaps in the evidence base and priorities for further research on biomarkers of musculoskeletal ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Pesquisa Biomédica , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Envelhecimento Saudável/metabolismo , Sistema Musculoesquelético , Idoso , Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Consenso , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Sistema Musculoesquelético/metabolismo , Sistema Musculoesquelético/patologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Pesquisa
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