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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2022227, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326024

RESUMO

Importance: Therapeutic inertia (TI) is the failure to escalate therapy when treatment goals are unmet and is associated with low tolerance to uncertainty and aversion to ambiguity in physician decision-making. Limited information is available on how physicians handle therapeutic decision-making in the context of uncertainty. Objective: To evaluate whether an educational intervention decreases TI by reducing autonomic arousal response (pupil dilation), a proxy measure of how physicians respond to uncertainty during treatment decisions. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this randomized clinical trial, 34 neurologists with expertise in multiple sclerosis (MS) practicing at 15 outpatient MS clinics in academic and community institutions from across Canada were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned to receive an educational intervention that facilitates treatment decisions (active group) or to receive no exposure to the intervention (usual care [control group]) from December 2017 to March 2018. Participants listened to 20 audio-recorded simulated case scenarios as pupil responses were assessed by eye trackers. Autonomic arousal was assessed as pupil dilation in periods in which critical information was provided (first period [T1]: clinical data, second period [T2]: neurologic status, and third period [T3]: magnetic resonance imaging data). Data were analyzed from September 2018 to March 2020. Interventions: The traffic light system (TLS)-based educational intervention vs usual care (unexposed). The TLS (use of established associations between traffic light colors and actions to stop or proceed) assists participants in identifying factors associated with worse prognosis in MS care, thereby facilitating the treatment decision-making process by use of established associations between red, green, and yellow colors and risk levels, and actions (treatment decisions). Main Outcomes and Measures: Pupil assessment was the primary autonomic outcome. To test the treatment effect of the educational intervention (TLS), difference-in-differences models (also called untreated control group design with pretest and posttest) were used. Results: Of 38 eligible participants, 34 (89.4%) neurologists completed the study. The mean (SD) age was 44.6 (11.6) years; 38.3% were female and 20 (58.8%) were MS specialists. Therapeutic inertia was present in 50.0% (17 of 34) of all participants and was associated with greater pupil dilation. For every additional SD of pupil dilation, the odds of TI increased by 51% for T1 (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.12-2.03), by 31% for T2 (odds ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.59), and by 49% for T3 (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.13-1.97). The intervention significantly reduced TI (risk reduction, 31.5%; 95% CI, 16.1%-47.0%). Autonomic arousal responses mediated 29.0% of the effect of the educational intervention on TI. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, the TLS intervention decreased TI as measured by pupil dilation, which suggests that individual autonomic arousal is an indicator of how physicians handle uncertainty when making live therapeutic decisions. Pupil response, a biomarker of TI, may eventually be useful in medical education. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03134794.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Neurologistas/psicologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244427, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382784

RESUMO

Although emotion regulation has been proposed to be crucial for empathy, investigations on emotion regulation have been primarily limited to intrapersonal processes, leaving the interpersonal processes of self-regulation rather unexplored. Moreover, studies showed that emotion regulation and empathy are related with increased autonomic activation. How emotion regulation and empathy are related at the autonomic level, and more specifically during differently valenced social situations remains an open question. Healthy adults viewed a series of short videos illustrating a target who was expressing positive, negative, or no emotions during a social situation (Positive, Negative, or Neutral Social Scenes). Prior to each video, participants were instructed to reappraise their own emotions (Up-regulation, Down-regulation, or No-regulation). To assess autonomic activation, RR intervals (RRI), high frequency (HF) components of heart rate variability (HRV), and electrodermal activity phasic responses (EDRs) were calculated. Situational empathy was measured through a visual analogue scale. Participants rated how empathic they felt for a specific target. Up- and Down-regulation were related to an increase and a decrease in situational empathy and an increase in RRI and HF, respectively, compared to the control condition (No-regulation). This suggests increased activity of the parasympathetic branch during emotion regulation of situational empathic responses. Positive compared to Negative Social Scenes were associated with decreased situational empathy, in addition to a slightly but non-significantly increased HF. Altogether, this study demonstrates that emotion regulation may be associated with changes in situational empathy and autonomic responses, preferentially dominated by the parasympathetic branch and possibly reflecting an increase of regulatory processes. Furthermore, the current study provides evidence that empathy for different emotional valences is associated with distinct changes in situational empathy and autonomic responses.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Adulto , Empatia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 19(80): 513-527, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198569

RESUMO

La cinética de la recuperación del consumo de oxígeno (VO2) es un indicador de la capacidad funcional (CF). El objetivo de este estudio es analizar el comportamiento de la cinética de recuperación del consumo de oxígeno en deportistas de diferentes disciplinas, de acuerdo al sistema energético predominante en cada uno de ellos. Se diseñó un estudio comparativo, no experimental y transversal en 22 sujetos de deportes federados seleccionados correspondientes a Futsal, Halterofilia y Triatlón mediante un muestreo no probabilístico intencionado. Se valoraron las siguientes variables: peso, talla, índice de masa corporal (IMC), presión arterial, perímetro de cintura y cinética del consumo de oxígeno. Los principales resultados muestran que la cinética de recuperación del (VO2) demostró que los deportistas que practican futsal, evidencian una mejor recuperación (p < 0,05) comparado con los deportistas de triatlón y halterofilia


Oxygen uptake kinetics (VO2) is an indicator of functional capacity (CF). The objective of this study is to analyze the oxygen uptake kinetics in athletes of different disciplines, according to the predominant energy system in each one of them. A comparative, non-experimental and cross-sectional study was designed in 22 subjects of selected federated sports corresponding to futsal, weightlifting and triathlon through intentional non-probabilistic sampling. The following variables were assessed: weight, height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, waist circumference and oxygen uptake kinetics. The main results show that the oxygen uptake kinetics (VO2) showed that sportsmen who practice futsal, show a better recovery (p <0.05) compared to athletes of triathlon and weightlifting


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Peso-Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pressão Arterial , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia
4.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(10): 853-859, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886848

RESUMO

AIM: To analyze the correlation between the appearance of signs/symptoms during a cardiovascular rehabilitation program and linear indexes of the heart rate variability (HRV) at rest. METHODS: To carry out the present observational longitudinal study, 48 patients were analyzed. The protocol was divided into two stages. First, the patients had their personal details collected, and the autonomic modulation at rest was evaluated by HRV. Second, they underwent 36 sessions of the cardiovascular rehabilitation program to evaluate signs/symptoms. Then, just for analysis of the data, they were divided into two groups: the group without signs/symptoms (n = 26; 65.15 ± 9.7 years); and the group with signs/symptoms (n = 22; 66.77 ± 14.4 years). The HRV indexes were compared by ancova. The effect size was measured through the partial eta-squared. Pearson's and Spearman's correlations (P < 0.05) were used to analyze the data, and linear regression was applied. RESULTS: A total of 103 signs/symptoms occurred. The group with signs/symptoms presented lower values of HRV indexes when compared with the group without signs/symptoms, especially for the parasympathetic indexes with a large effect size. The root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD), percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration >50 ms (pNN50), high-frequency spectral component (HF) varying from 0.15 to 0.4 Hz (expressed as ms2 ), dispersion of the points perpendicular to the line of identity and represents the instantaneous record of the beat-to-beat variability (SD1) and SD1/scatter of points along the identity line and represents the HRV in long-term records (SD2) index presented a negative correlation with the appearance of signs/symptoms. When the linear regression was applied, the rMSSD, SD1 and SD1/SD2 showed negative values of ß (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with lower HRV are more likely to have signs/symptoms. The rMSSD, pNN50, HF (expressed as ms2 ), SD1 and SD1/SD2 index presented a negative correlation with the appearance of signs/symptoms. For rMSSD, SD1 and SD1/SD2, the lower the values of these HRV indexes, the greater the risk of appearance of signs/symptoms. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 853-859.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Idoso , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946493

RESUMO

Humans can innately track a moving target by anticipating its future position from a brief history of observations. While ballistic trajectories can be readily extrapolated, many natural and artificial systems are governed by more general nonlinear dynamics and, therefore, can produce highly irregular motion. Yet, relatively little is known regarding the behavioral and physiological underpinnings of prediction and tracking in the presence of chaos. Here, we investigated in lab settings whether participants could manually follow the orbit of a paradigmatic chaotic system, the Rössler equations, on the (x,y) plane under different settings of a control parameter, which determined the prominence of transients in the target position. Tracking accuracy was negatively related to the level of unpredictability and folding. Nevertheless, while participants initially reacted to the transients, they gradually learned to anticipate it. This was accompanied by a decrease in muscular co-contraction, alongside enhanced activity in the theta and beta EEG bands for the highest levels of chaoticity. Furthermore, greater phase synchronization of breathing was observed. Taken together, these findings point to the possible ability of the nervous system to implicitly learn topological regularities even in the context of highly irregular motion, reflecting in multiple observables at the physiological level.


Assuntos
Dinâmica não Linear , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Eletromiografia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Cinética , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Movimento (Física) , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236999, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813734

RESUMO

Snakes have been important ambush predators of both primates and human hunter-gatherers throughout their co-evolutionary history. Viperid snakes in particular are responsible for most fatal venomous snakebites worldwide and thus represent a strong selective pressure. They elicit intense fear in humans and are easily recognizable thanks to their distinctive morphotype. In this study, we measured skin resistance (SR) and heart rate (HR) in human subjects exposed to snake pictures eliciting either high fear (10 venomous viperid species) or disgust (10 nonvenomous fossorial species). Venomous snakes subjectively evaluated as frightening trigger a stronger physiological response (higher SR amplitude) than repulsive non-venomous snakes. However, stimuli presented in a block (more intense stimulation) do not trigger a stronger emotional response compared to sequentially presented stimuli (less intense stimulation). There are significant interindividual differences as subjects with high fear of snakes confronted with images of viperid snakes show stronger, longer-lasting, and more frequent changes in SR and higher HR compared to low-fear subjects. Thus, we show that humans demonstrate a remarkable ability to discriminate between dangerous viperids and harmless fossorial snakes, which is also reflected in distinct autonomous body responses.


Assuntos
Medo/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/psicologia , Serpentes , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Asco , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicometria , Psicofisiologia , Venenos de Serpentes/envenenamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236930, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maturation of multiple neurobehavioral systems, including autonomic regulation, is altered by preterm birth. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) in the NICU on autonomic regulation of preterm infants and their mothers. METHOD: A subset of infants and mothers (48% of infants, 51% of mothers) randomly assigned to either standard are (SC), or SC plus the FNI in the NICU in a prior RCT (ClincalTrials.gov; NCT01439269) returned for follow-up assessments when the children were 4 to 5 years corrected age (CA). ECGs were collected for 10 minutes in mothers and their children while children were in their mothers' laps. Heart rate, standard deviation for heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)-an index of parasympathetic regulation, and a measure of vagal efficiency were quantified. RESULTS: Both children and mothers in the FNI group had significantly greater levels of RSA compared to the SC group (child: mean difference = 0.60, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.03, p = 0.008; mother: mean difference = 0.64, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.21, p = 0.031). In addition, RSA increased more rapidly in FNI children between infancy and the 4 to 5-year follow-up time point (SC = +3.11±0.16 loge msec2, +3.67±0.19 loge msec2 for FNI, p<0.05). These results show that the rate of increase in RSA from infancy to childhood is more rapid in FNI subjects. CONCLUSION: Although these preliminary follow-up results are based on approximately half of subjects originally enrolled in the RCT, they suggest that FNI-NICU led to healthier autonomic regulation in both mother and child, when measured during a brief face-to-face socioemotional interaction. A Pavlovian autonomic co-conditioning mechanism may underly these findings that can be exploited therapeutically.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/terapia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória
8.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628173

RESUMO

The electrocardiogram is a valuable tool for evaluating the cardiac conduction system. Animal research has helped generate novel genetic and pharmacological information regarding the electrocardiogram. However, making electrocardiogram measurements in small animals in vivo, such as mice, has been challenging. To this end, we used an electrocardiogram recording method in anesthetized mice with many advantages: it is a technically simple procedure, is inexpensive, has short measuring time, and is affordable, even in young mice. Despite the limitations with using anesthesia, comparisons between control and experimental groups can be performed with enhanced sensitivity. We treated mice with agonists and antagonists of the autonomic nervous system to determine the validity of this protocol and compared our results with previous reports. Our ECG protocol detected increased heart rates and QTc intervals on treatment with atropine, decreased heart rates and QTc intervals after carbachol treatment, and higher heart rates and QTc intervals with isoprenaline but did not note any change in ECG parameters on administration of propranolol. These results are supported by previous reports, confirming the reliability of this ECG protocol. Thus, this method can be used as a screening approach to making ECG measurements that otherwise would not be attempted due to high cost and technical difficulties.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Anestésicos/farmacologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Animais , Atropina/farmacologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Propranolol/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Clin Auton Res ; 30(4): 299-315, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700055

RESUMO

The pandemic viral illness COVID-19 is especially life-threatening in the elderly and in those with any of a variety of chronic medical conditions. This essay explores the possibility that the heightened risk may involve activation of the "extended autonomic system" (EAS). Traditionally, the autonomic nervous system has been viewed as consisting of the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system, and the enteric nervous system. Over the past century, however, neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems have come to the fore, justifying expansion of the meaning of "autonomic." Additional facets include the sympathetic adrenergic system, for which adrenaline is the key effector; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis; arginine vasopressin (synonymous with anti-diuretic hormone); the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, with angiotensin II and aldosterone the main effectors; and cholinergic anti-inflammatory and sympathetic inflammasomal pathways. A hierarchical brain network-the "central autonomic network"-regulates these systems; embedded within it are components of the Chrousos/Gold "stress system." Acute, coordinated alterations in homeostatic settings (allostasis) can be crucial for surviving stressors such as traumatic hemorrhage, asphyxiation, and sepsis, which throughout human evolution have threatened homeostasis; however, intense or long-term EAS activation may cause harm. While required for appropriate responses in emergencies, EAS activation in the setting of chronically decreased homeostatic efficiencies (dyshomeostasis) may reduce thresholds for induction of destabilizing, lethal vicious cycles. Testable hypotheses derived from these concepts are that biomarkers of EAS activation correlate with clinical and pathophysiologic data and predict outcome in COVID-19 and that treatments targeting specific abnormalities identified in individual patients may be beneficial.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico
11.
Clin Auton Res ; 30(4): 325-330, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661775

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the way most medical procedures are performed. Autonomic units, as well as other healthcare sectors, are required to undergo a thorough reorganization of the protocols in order to guarantee the safety of patients and healthcare staff. Cardiovascular autonomic function testing (CAFT) is necessary in certain situations; however, it poses several concerns which need to be addressed. Here, we provide some practical advice based on current national and international health authorities' recommendations and our experience about how to perform CAFT during the COVID-19 emergency. We examine aspects regarding patients, healthcare staff, laboratory preparation, and test performance.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia
12.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(1): R60-R68, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493037

RESUMO

In the central nervous system (CNS), nuclei of the brain stem play a critical role in the integration of peripheral sensory information and the regulation of autonomic output in mammalian physiology. The nucleus tractus solitarius of the brain stem acts as a relay center that receives peripheral sensory input from vagal afferents of the nodose ganglia, integrates information from within the brain stem and higher central centers, and then transmits autonomic efferent output through downstream premotor nuclei, such as the nucleus ambiguus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and the rostral ventral lateral medulla. Although there is mounting evidence that sex and sex hormones modulate autonomic physiology at the level of the CNS, the mechanisms and neurocircuitry involved in producing these functional consequences are poorly understood. Of particular interest in this review is the role of estrogen, progesterone, and 5α-reductase-dependent neurosteroid metabolites of progesterone (e.g., allopregnanolone) in the modulation of neurotransmission within brain-stem autonomic neurocircuits. This review will discuss our understanding of the actions and mechanisms of estrogen, progesterone, and neurosteroids at the cellular level of brain-stem nuclei. Understanding the complex interaction between sex hormones and neural signaling plasticity of the autonomic nervous system is essential to elucidating the role of sex in overall physiology and disease.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Tronco Encefálico/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(05-06): 185-188, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579308

RESUMO

Background and purpose: After carpal tunnel surgery, some patients report complaints such as edema, pain, and numbness. Purpose - The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic nervous system function in patients with a history of carpal tunnel surgery using sympathetic skin response (SSR). Methods: Thirty three patients (55 ±10 years old) with a history of unilateral operation for carpal tunnel syndrome were included in the study. The SSR test was performed for both hands. Both upper extremities median and ulnar nerve conduction results were recorded. Results: A reduced amplitude (p=0.006) and delayed latency (p<0.0001) were detected in the SSR test on the operated side compared to contralateral side. There was no correlation between SSR and carpal tunnel syndrome severity. Conclusion: Although complex regional pain syndrome does not develop in patients after carpal tunnel surgery, some of the complaints may be caused by effects on the autonomic nervous system.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/cirurgia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nervo Mediano , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Resultado do Tratamento , Nervo Ulnar/fisiologia , Nervo Ulnar/fisiopatologia
14.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(3): 201-204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system, especially the sympathetic nervous system, may stimulate the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, which regulates irisin. This study aimed to explore whether there was any association between autonomic function as assessed by heart rate related indices and irisin release following acute exercise. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventeen healthy adults were asked to perform an incremental exhaustive cycling as well as an incremental exhaustive running separately on different days. Heart rate was monitored, and blood samples were collected before, immediately, 10-, and 60-minutes post-exercise. Serum irisin was measured using ELISA kit. RESULTS: Markers for autonomic function, such as heart rate at rest, peak, or recovery, heart rate reserve, heart rate recovery, and chronotropic index, were comparable between cycling and running (all P > 0.10). Irisin was increased immediately following both exercise. No significant association was observed between heart rate at rest, peak, or recovery and irisin level at the corresponding time-point, as well as between heart rate reserve, heart rate recovery, or chronotropic index and exercise induced irisin release, with or without controlling for age, body mass index, and glucose (all P > 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Autonomic function might not be associated with irisin release in healthy adults. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):201-4.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/irrigação sanguínea , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Fibronectinas/sangue , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clin Auton Res ; 30(4): 295-297, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529405

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a global pandemic that is wreaking havoc with the health and economy of much of human civilization. In this document from the American Autonomic Society, we identify the potential risks of exposure to patients, physicians, and allied healthcare staff. We provide guidance for conducting autonomic function testing safely in this environment.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico
16.
Int J Neural Syst ; 30(6): 2050028, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498643

RESUMO

The cortical and subcortical circuit regulating both cognition and cardiac autonomic interactions are already well established. This circuit has mainly been analyzed from cortex to heart. Thus, the heart rate variability (HRV) is usually considered a reflection of cortical activity. In this paper, we investigate whether HRV changes affect cortical activity. Short-term local autonomic changes were induced by three breathing strategies: spontaneous (Control), normal (NB) and slow paced breathing (SB). We measured the performance in two cognition domains: executive functions and processing speed. Breathing maneuvres produced three clearly differentiated autonomic states, which preconditioned the cognitive tasks. We found that the SB significantly increased the HRV low frequency (LF) power and lowered the power spectral density (PSD) peak to 0.1[Formula: see text]Hz. Meanwhile, executive function was assessed by the working memory test, whose accuracy significantly improved after SB, with no significant changes in the response times. Processing speed was assessed by a multitasking test. Consistently, the proportion of correct answers (success rate) was the only dependent variable affected by short-term and long-term breath pacing. These findings suggest that accuracy, and not timing of these two cognitive domains would benefit from short-term SB in this study population.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos
17.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi ; 57(2): 155-162, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475943

RESUMO

AIM: In recent years in Japan, forest therapies have been implemented in various places. While the effects of such therapies have been reported in previous research papers, those of artificial gardens have not been clarified. At the 2018 Yamaguchi Yume Flower Expo, the Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine had the opportunity to provide a "Well-being Garden" in collaboration with the Japan Landscape Contractors Association Yamaguchi Prefecture Branch. We examined the physical and mental responses of older people who strolled in the Well-being Garden. METHODS: Participants were 158 people ≥ 65 years old. Pre-and post-stroll interviews were conducted, and the heart rate, blood pressure, and autonomic nervous activities were measured. RESULTS: After strolling in the garden, the heart rate significantly decreased from 76.1±12.9 to 73.9±11.8/min (p<0.01), and both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased from 142.5±24.4 to 139.4±24.1 mmHg and from 83.7±12.0 to 81.5±11.9 mmHg, respectively (p<0.01). The ralue of low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) after strolling in the garden came closer to the standard one than before, both in the participants with much tension and with less tension. In the post-stroll interview, 74 reported feeling very good, and 84 felt good. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that strolling in the Well-being Garden positively influenced the physical and mental condition of the participants.


Assuntos
Afeto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Jardins , Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Flores , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Japão
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479554

RESUMO

The dogs' responses to training exercise are seldom monitored using physiological variables, and cardiac autonomic regulation (CAR) is a relevant determinant of endurance-training adaptation. There are studies in the literature establishing that regular exercise could interfere with CAR in dogs, measured by heart rate and vagal-derived indexes of heart-rate-variability (HRV). However, few studies were found using a prescribed training program based on the lactate threshold (LT) to determine HRV by a 24-h Holter analysis. The purpose of this study was to test whether an endurance-training program (ETP) guided individually by LT raises time-domain measures of HRV in healthy Beagle dogs. Twenty dogs were assigned to two groups: control (C) and trained (T). The dogs from group T underwent an incremental exercise test (IET) to determine their LT. Both LT and velocity corresponding to the LT (VLT) was determined by visual inspection. T group performed an eight-week endurance-training program consisting of treadmill runs set to 70-80% of the VLT. Next, dogs from the group T have submitted to IET again. The maximal velocities (Vmax) at which achieved by the trained dogs in both IETs were determined. The group S did not undergo IETs or ETP. HRV was determined by the 24-hour-Holter at rest, before and on the 2°, 4°, 6° and 8° training weeks. To examine the HR impact on HRV, standard HRV variables were normalized to prevailing HR. VLT and Vmax rose in group T, indicating an improvement of dogs' aerobic and anaerobic capacity. The normalized standard HRV indexes were relatively attenuated since these variables had a reduction in the degree of correlation concerning an average HR. The ETP resulted in decreased resting heart rate and increased time-domain indices, highlighting the log-transformed square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R-R intervals (Ln rMSSD). The lactate-guided endurance-training program could lead to better parasympathetic cardiac modulation in Beagle dogs.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Cães , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/veterinária , Treino Aeróbico/métodos , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Coração/fisiologia , Masculino , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Nervo Vago/fisiologia
19.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101138, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sheetali pranayama is a cooling pranayama practiced for hypertension (HTN). The effects of Sheetali pranayama, as a solitary intervention on cardiovascular and autonomic changes in hypertension is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current study was conducted on 100 patients with HTN, randomly allocated to HTN with pranayama (Intervention group,n = 50) and HTN without pranayama (control group,n = 50) group. The intervention group practiced Sheetali pranayama for a period of 3 months. Blood pressure and HRV was assessed before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Intervention group showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in blood pressure variables when compared to the control group. In short term HRV, time and frequency domain parameters showed parasympathetic dominance (P < 0.05) in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: Sheetali pranayama significantly reduces blood pressure in patients with HTN and improved heart rate variability. Sheetali pranayama could thus be practiced in addition to regular medications for the efficacious management of HTN.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101162, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: and purpose: The impact of music on the human body extends beyond an emotional response. Music can bring benefits to the cardiovascular system by influencing heart rate variability (HRV), which is a well-accepted method to analyze the oscillations of the intervals between successive heartbeats and investigate the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS). This study is a systematic review to examine the effect of musical interventions on HRV. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane and identified additional studies with hand searching of reference lists of relevant references. RESULTS: 29 original articles (24 pre-post intervention studies and five randomized controlled trials) with a total of 1368 subjects were available and eligible to be included in the systematic review. Within the whole, only three studies reveal no significant impact of music on HRV, which might be due to using a small sample size and a concise duration of music administration. Interestingly, the rest of the studies have suggested a positive impact of music on HRV with a 0.05 level of significance. CONCLUSION: This systematic review confirms music as a stimulus acting to the cardiac ANS that increases parasympathetic activity and HRV. The effects are, however, associated with a high risk of bias. Therefore, further studies are necessary to compare the impact of individualized music therapy to passive listening and preferred soundtracks.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Musicoterapia/métodos , Música/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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