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1.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 16(5): 652-658, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919485

RESUMO

Fragrances are extensively applied in food, daily chemicals, tobacco and medicine industries. However, too strong volatility of fragrances results in a fast release rate, thereby reducing the usage time of aromatherapy products. Although loading fragrances into nanomaterials is capable of slowing their rates of release, the encapsulation efficiency of traditional nanomaterials is very low, and the nanomaterials themselves are not stable. Herein, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (hMSNs) were designed for encapsulation of eugenol and the nano-fragrance was named EG@hMSNs. The structure of hMSNs was stable and the encapsulation rate of eugenol reached 46.5%. Besides, EG@hMSNs could significantly slow the release rate of eugenol. Subsequently, the EG@hMSNs were testified that they had positive roles in stress relief by open field tests. The molecular mechanisms of these positive effects on the central nervous system were then explored. Furthermore, the preparation method of hMSCs was simple, and the preparation cost was low. Therefore, EG@hMSNs are expected to be industrially produced and have a great application prospect.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Eugenol , Sistema Nervoso , Porosidade , Dióxido de Silício
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942748

RESUMO

The recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is still spreading worldwide. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for COVID-19, binds to its receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and replicates within the cells of the nasal cavity, then spreads along the airway tracts, causing mild clinical manifestations, and, in a majority of patients, a persisting loss of smell. In some individuals, SARS-CoV-2 reaches and infects several organs, including the lung, leading to severe pulmonary disease. SARS-CoV-2 induces neurological symptoms, likely contributing to morbidity and mortality through unknown mechanisms. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid with pleiotropic properties and functions in many tissues, including the nervous system. S1P regulates neurogenesis and inflammation and it is implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS). Notably, Fingolimod (FTY720), a modulator of S1P receptors, has been approved for the treatment of MS and is being tested for COVID-19. Here, we discuss the putative role of S1P on viral infection and in the modulation of inflammation and survival in the stem cell niche of the olfactory epithelium. This could help to design therapeutic strategies based on S1P-mediated signaling to limit or overcome the host-virus interaction, virus propagation and the pathogenesis and complications involving the nervous system.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/metabolismo , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Olfatória/metabolismo , Mucosa Olfatória/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais , Esfingosina/metabolismo
3.
Crit Care Nurs Q ; 43(4): 390-399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833775

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) creates severe respiratory distress and often a cascade of other systemic complications impacting several organ systems. The immune response includes a cytokine storm that creates many life-threatening problems including coagulopathies, arrhythmias, and secondary infections. This article discusses the multisystem responses to the physical insults created by this corona virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Sistema Cardiovascular/virologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Tegumento Comum/virologia , Rim/virologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/virologia , Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Pandemias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sistema Respiratório/virologia
4.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(16): 2137-2160, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820801

RESUMO

The highly infective coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel strain of coronaviruses - the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - discovered in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan (Hubei Province, China). Remarkably, COVID-19 has rapidly spread across all continents and turned into a public health emergency, which was ultimately declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in early 2020. SARS-CoV-2 presents similar aspects to other members of the coronavirus family, mainly regarding its genome, protein structure and intracellular mechanisms, that may translate into mild (or even asymptomatic) to severe infectious conditions. Although the mechanistic features underlying the COVID-19 progression have not been fully clarified, current evidence have suggested that SARS-CoV-2 may primarily behave as other ß-coronavirus members. To better understand the development and transmission of COVID-19, unveiling the signaling pathways that may be impacted by SARS-CoV-2 infection, at the molecular and cellular levels, is of crucial importance. In this review, we present the main aspects related to the origin, classification, etiology and clinical impact of SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, here we describe the potential mechanisms of cellular interaction and signaling pathways, elicited by functional receptors, in major targeted tissues/organs from the respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), cardiovascular, renal, and nervous systems. Furthermore, the potential involvement of these signaling pathways in evoking the onset and progression of COVID-19 symptoms in these organ systems are presently discussed. A brief description of future perspectives related to potential COVID-19 treatments is also highlighted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
5.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(10): 1760-1767, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819907

RESUMO

When preparing for the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and its effects on the CNS, radiologists should be familiar with neuroimaging appearances in past zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks. Organisms that have crossed the species barrier from animals to humans include viruses such as Hendra, Nipah, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, and influenza, as well as bacteria and others. Brain CT and MR imaging findings have included cortical abnormalities, microinfarction in the white matter, large-vessel occlusion, and features of meningitis. In particular, the high sensitivity of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in detecting intracranial abnormalities has been helpful in outbreaks. Although the coronaviruses causing the previous Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome outbreak and the current coronavirus disease 19 pandemic are related, it is important to be aware of their similarities as well as potential differences. This review describes the neuroimaging appearances of selected zoonotic outbreaks so that neuroradiologists can better understand the current pandemic and potential future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso , Neuroimagem , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia
6.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(8-9): 775-782, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696614

RESUMO

The recent emergence of a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, responsible for COVID-19, is a new warning of the risk to public health represented by viral zoonoses and in particular by coronaviruses. Mainly described as being able to infect the upper and lower respiratory tract, coronaviruses can also infect the central and peripheral nervous systems as many other respiratory viruses, such as influenza or respiratory syncytial virus. Viral infections of the nervous system are a major public health concern as they can cause devastating illnesses up to death, especially when they occur in the elderly, who are more susceptible to these infections. Knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of recently emerging coronaviruses (MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) and how they reach the central nervous system are very sketchy and the work in progress aims in particular to better understand their biology and the mechanisms associated with neurological damage. In this review we will discuss the current state of knowledge on the neurotropism of human coronaviruses and the associated mechanisms by developing in particular the latest data concerning SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Coronaviridae/patogenicidade , Coronaviridae/fisiologia , Coronaviridae/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Coronaviridae/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Tropismo Viral , Virulência , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses
7.
Crit Care Nurs Q ; 43(4): 390-399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729219

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) creates severe respiratory distress and often a cascade of other systemic complications impacting several organ systems. The immune response includes a cytokine storm that creates many life-threatening problems including coagulopathies, arrhythmias, and secondary infections. This article discusses the multisystem responses to the physical insults created by this corona virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Sistema Cardiovascular/virologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Tegumento Comum/virologia , Rim/virologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético/virologia , Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Pandemias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sistema Respiratório/virologia
8.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(16): 2137-2160, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726946

RESUMO

The highly infective coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel strain of coronaviruses - the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - discovered in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan (Hubei Province, China). Remarkably, COVID-19 has rapidly spread across all continents and turned into a public health emergency, which was ultimately declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in early 2020. SARS-CoV-2 presents similar aspects to other members of the coronavirus family, mainly regarding its genome, protein structure and intracellular mechanisms, that may translate into mild (or even asymptomatic) to severe infectious conditions. Although the mechanistic features underlying the COVID-19 progression have not been fully clarified, current evidence have suggested that SARS-CoV-2 may primarily behave as other ß-coronavirus members. To better understand the development and transmission of COVID-19, unveiling the signaling pathways that may be impacted by SARS-CoV-2 infection, at the molecular and cellular levels, is of crucial importance. In this review, we present the main aspects related to the origin, classification, etiology and clinical impact of SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, here we describe the potential mechanisms of cellular interaction and signaling pathways, elicited by functional receptors, in major targeted tissues/organs from the respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), cardiovascular, renal, and nervous systems. Furthermore, the potential involvement of these signaling pathways in evoking the onset and progression of COVID-19 symptoms in these organ systems are presently discussed. A brief description of future perspectives related to potential COVID-19 treatments is also highlighted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
9.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(10): 1760-1767, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724511

RESUMO

When preparing for the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and its effects on the CNS, radiologists should be familiar with neuroimaging appearances in past zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks. Organisms that have crossed the species barrier from animals to humans include viruses such as Hendra, Nipah, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, and influenza, as well as bacteria and others. Brain CT and MR imaging findings have included cortical abnormalities, microinfarction in the white matter, large-vessel occlusion, and features of meningitis. In particular, the high sensitivity of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in detecting intracranial abnormalities has been helpful in outbreaks. Although the coronaviruses causing the previous Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome outbreak and the current coronavirus disease 19 pandemic are related, it is important to be aware of their similarities as well as potential differences. This review describes the neuroimaging appearances of selected zoonotic outbreaks so that neuroradiologists can better understand the current pandemic and potential future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso , Neuroimagem , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia
10.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(4): 1381-1385, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic risk factors of HLH children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement so as to provide more reference for further improving the prognosis of HLH children. METHODS: The clinical data of 45 HLH children with CNS involvement treated in our hospital from January 2006 to October 2016 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The clinical characteristics of HLH children with CNS involvement were recorded, moreover the possible factors influencing the prognosis of HLH children with CNS involvement were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis through the establishment of Cox risk ratio model. RESULTS: Among 45 HLH children with CNS involvement, male was 19 cases and female was 26 cases. The median age of 4.0 years old (1.0-15.1). The detection showed that EBV found in 38 cases (84.44%), CMV infection in 1 case (2.22%), bacterial infection in 3 cases (6.67%), connection tissue disease in 1 case (2.22%) and indefinite etiology infection in 2 cases (4.44%). After lumbar puncture of 27 HLH children with CNS involvement, 10 cases (37.04%) showed cerebrospinal fluid abnormality. In addition, 22 cases showed the craniography abnormality. The follow-up results showed that the OS rate of 1 year was 46.67% (21/45), the OS rate of 3 years was 44.44% (20/45); the median survival time was 5.0 months. The OS analysis indicated that 1 years OS rate of diseased children with cerebrospinal fluid abnormality was significantly lower than that of diseased children with cerebrospinal fluid normality (10/45 vs 17/45) (P<0.05), and 1 years OS rate of diseased children who not received intrathecal injection was significantly lower that of diseased children who received intrathecal (10/45 vs 17/45) (P<0.05). The univariate analysis showed that the symptoms of nervous system, abnormal cerebrospinal fluid, absence of intrathecal injection and treatment schedule all were the risk factors affecting the prognosis of HLH children with CNS involvement (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis by Cox risk model showed that abnormal cerebrospinal fluid and absence of intrathecal injection were independent risk factors for of HLH children with CNS involvement (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The clinical prognosis of HLH children with CNS involvement is relatively poor, moreover some of HLH children with CNS involvement have neural sequelae. The cerebrospinal fluid abnormality and absence of intrathecal injection are independent risk factors leading to poor prognosis for HLH clildren with CNS involvement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Sistema Nervoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(8-9): 775-782, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755537

RESUMO

The recent emergence of a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, responsible for COVID-19, is a new warning of the risk to public health represented by viral zoonoses and in particular by coronaviruses. Mainly described as being able to infect the upper and lower respiratory tract, coronaviruses can also infect the central and peripheral nervous systems as many other respiratory viruses, such as influenza or respiratory syncytial virus. Viral infections of the nervous system are a major public health concern as they can cause devastating illnesses up to death, especially when they occur in the elderly, who are more susceptible to these infections. Knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of recently emerging coronaviruses (MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) and how they reach the central nervous system are very sketchy and the work in progress aims in particular to better understand their biology and the mechanisms associated with neurological damage. In this review we will discuss the current state of knowledge on the neurotropism of human coronaviruses and the associated mechanisms by developing in particular the latest data concerning SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Coronaviridae/patogenicidade , Coronaviridae/fisiologia , Coronaviridae/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Coronaviridae/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Tropismo Viral , Virulência , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses
12.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 168: 104617, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711778

RESUMO

The projection of plant protection products' (PPPs) toxicity to non-target organisms at early stages of their development is challenging and demanding. Recent developments in bioanalytics, however, have facilitated the study of fluctuations in the metabolism of biological systems in response to treatments with bioactives and the discovery of corresponding toxicity biomarkers. Neonicotinoids are improved insecticides that target nicotinic acetylocholine receptors (nAChR) in insects which are similar to mammals. Nonetheless, they have sparked controversy due to effects on non-target organisms. Within this context, mammalian cell cultures represent ideal systems for the development of robust models for the dissection of PPPs' toxicity. Thus, we have investigated the toxicity of imidacloprid, clothianidin, and their mixture on primary mouse (Mus musculus) neural stem/progenitor (NSPCs) and mouse neuroblastoma-derived Neuro-2a (N2a) cells, and the undergoing metabolic changes applying metabolomics. Results revealed that NSPCs, which in vitro resemble those that reside in the postnatal and adult central nervous system, are five to seven-fold more sensitive than N2a to the applied insecticides. The energy equilibrium of NSPCs was substantially altered, as it is indicated by fluctuations of metabolites involved in energy production (e.g. glucose, lactate), Krebs cycle intermediates, and fatty acids, which are important components of cell membranes. Such evidence plausibly suggests a switch of cells' energy-producing mechanism to the direct metabolism of glucose to lactate in response to insecticides. The developed pipeline could be further exploited in the discovery of unintended effects of PPPs at early steps of development and for regulatory purposes.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Nitrocompostos , Animais , Guanidinas , Homeostase , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Neonicotinoides , Sistema Nervoso , Células-Tronco , Tiazóis
13.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20201198, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693729

RESUMO

The origin of bilateral symmetry, a major transition in animal evolution, coincided with the evolution of organized nervous systems that show regionalization along major body axes. Studies of Xenacoelomorpha, the likely outgroup lineage to all other animals with bilateral symmetry, can inform the evolutionary history of animal nervous systems. Here, we characterized the neural anatomy of the acoel Hofstenia miamia. Our analysis of transcriptomic data uncovered orthologues of enzymes for all major neurotransmitter synthesis pathways. Expression patterns of these enzymes revealed the presence of a nerve net and an anterior condensation of neural cells. The anterior condensation was layered, containing several cell types with distinct molecular identities organized in spatially distinct territories. Using these anterior cell types and structures as landmarks, we obtained a detailed timeline for regeneration of the H. miamia nervous system, showing that the anterior condensation is restored by eight days after amputation. Our work detailing neural anatomy in H. miamia will enable mechanistic studies of neural cell type diversity and regeneration and provide insight into the evolution of these processes.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso/anatomia & histologia , Platelmintos/fisiologia , Animais , Regeneração
15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(8): e206-e207, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637482

RESUMO

Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndromes associated with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 are emerging in recent reports. We describe a patient with critical illness consistent with atypical Kawasaki disease with cardiac dysfunction and abdominal involvement presenting weeks after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 infection. Our patient showed unique central nervous system involvement with small vessel vasculitis and profound hypocomplementemia, both not previously reported in case descriptions and may hint at possible disease mechanisms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/complicações , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Glomerulonefrite Membranoproliferativa , Hemossiderose/diagnóstico por imagem , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações , Sistema Nervoso , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/terapia
16.
Science ; 369(6505): 787-793, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675289

RESUMO

Although Huntington's disease is a late-manifesting neurodegenerative disorder, both mouse studies and neuroimaging studies of presymptomatic mutation carriers suggest that Huntington's disease might affect neurodevelopment. To determine whether this is actually the case, we examined tissue from human fetuses (13 weeks gestation) that carried the Huntington's disease mutation. These tissues showed clear abnormalities in the developing cortex, including mislocalization of mutant huntingtin and junctional complex proteins, defects in neuroprogenitor cell polarity and differentiation, abnormal ciliogenesis, and changes in mitosis and cell cycle progression. We observed the same phenomena in Huntington's disease mouse embryos, where we linked these abnormalities to defects in interkinetic nuclear migration of progenitor cells. Huntington's disease thus has a neurodevelopmental component and is not solely a degenerative disease.


Assuntos
Proteína Huntingtina/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso/embriologia , Animais , Ciclo Celular , Endossomos/metabolismo , Feto , Humanos , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Doença de Huntington/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Mitose , Mutação , Células Neuroepiteliais/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
17.
Dev Genes Evol ; 230(4): 305-314, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671457

RESUMO

Crinoids are considered as the most basal extant echinoderms. They retain aboral nervous system with a nerve center, which has been degraded in the eleutherozoan echinoderms. To investigate the evolution of patterning of the nervous systems in crinoids, we examined temporal and spatial expression patterns of three neural patterning-related homeobox genes, six3, pax6, and otx, throughout the development of a feather star Anneissia japonica. These genes were involved in the patterning of endomesodermal tissues instead of the ectodermal neural tissues in the early planktonic stages. In the stages after larval attachment, the expression of these genes was mainly observed in the podia and the oral nervous systems instead of the aboral nerve center. Our results indicate the involvement of these three genes in the formation of oral nervous system in the common ancestor of the echinoderms and suggest that the aboral nerve center is not evolutionally related to the brain of other bilaterians.


Assuntos
Equinodermos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Otx/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/metabolismo , Animais , Padronização Corporal/genética , Equinodermos/genética , Equinodermos/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios , Fatores de Transcrição Otx/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/genética
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3512, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665545

RESUMO

Regional brain morphology has a complex genetic architecture, consisting of many common polymorphisms with small individual effects. This has proven challenging for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Due to the distributed nature of genetic signal across brain regions, multivariate analysis of regional measures may enhance discovery of genetic variants. Current multivariate approaches to GWAS are ill-suited for complex, large-scale data of this kind. Here, we introduce the Multivariate Omnibus Statistical Test (MOSTest), with an efficient computational design enabling rapid and reliable inference, and apply it to 171 regional brain morphology measures from 26,502 UK Biobank participants. At the conventional genome-wide significance threshold of α = 5 × 10-8, MOSTest identifies 347 genomic loci associated with regional brain morphology, more than any previous study, improving upon the discovery of established GWAS approaches more than threefold. Our findings implicate more than 5% of all protein-coding genes and provide evidence for gene sets involved in neuron development and differentiation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Sistema Nervoso/citologia
19.
Rev Med Virol ; 30(5): e2118, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687681

RESUMO

Human Coronaviruses (HCoVs) have long been known as respiratory viruses. However, there are reports of neurological findings in HCoV infections, particularly in patients infected with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) amid Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Therefore, it is essential to interpret the interaction of HCoVs and the nervous system and apply this understanding to the COVID-19 pandemic. This review of the literature analyses how HCoVs, in general, and SARS-CoV-2, in particular, affect the nervous system, highlights the various underlying mechanisms, addresses the associated neurological and psychiatric manifestations, and identifies the neurological risk factors involved. This review of literature shows the magnitude of neurological conditions associated with HCoV infections, including SARS-CoV-2. This review emphasises, that, during HCoV outbreaks, such as COVID-19, a focus on early detection of neurotropism, alertness for the resulting neurological complications, and the recognition of neurological risk factors are crucial to reduce the workload on hospitals, particularly intensive-care units and neurological departments.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatias/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Encefalite Viral/fisiopatologia , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
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