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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1195-1214, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-994984

RESUMO

O período de 1870 a 1920 é conhecido como aquele no qual diversos teóricos da psicologia estadunidense estabelecem as diretrizes teóricas e políticas da independência da disciplina frente às demais ciências e às reflexões filosóficas. A psicologia comparada proposta por Robert Mearns Yerkes é uma das mais importantes do final do século XIX e das duas primeiras décadas do século seguinte. As obras do autor referentes à evolução do sistema nervoso central e periférico e suas relações com a inteligência, em conjunto com a psicologia militar e a eugenia, possibilitam, ao menos em parte, a concretização da engenharia humana e de suas futuras aplicações em diversos setores da sociedade estadunidense como instrumento de dominação da classe dominante. Como se trata de uma obra vasta e variadas aplicações na vida cotidiana, pensamos que essa primeira aproximação seja aprofundada em futuras investigações acerca dos movimentos da classe trabalhadora durante o processo de modernização da indústria e da grande reforma social pela qual a sociedade estadunidense à época. Movimentos amplamente desprezados pela historiografia da psicologia estadunidense.(AU)


The period from 1870 to 1920 is known as the one in which several theorists of American psychology establish the theoretical and political guidelines of the discipline's independence from other sciences and philosophical domain. The comparative psychology proposed by Robert Mearns Yerkes is one of the most important of the late nineteenth century and the first two decades of the following century. The author's works on the evolution of the central and peripheral nervous system and its relations with intelligence, taken together with military psychology and eugenics, enable, at least in part, the concretization of human engineering and its future applications in various sectors of the American society as an instrument of domination of the ruling class. As it is a vast work and of varied applications in everyday life, we think that this first approximation will be deepened in future investigations about the movements of the working class during the process of modernization of the industry and of the great social reform by which the American society happened to the time. These movements were widely neglected by the historiography of American psychology.(AU)


El período de 1870 a 1920 es conocido como aquel en el cual diversos teóricos de la psicología estadounidense establecen las directrices teóricas y políticas de la independencia de la disciplina frente a las demás ciencias y reflexiones filosóficas. La psicología comparada propuesta por Robert Mearns Yerkes es una de las más importantes del fin del siglo XIX y de las dos primeras décadas del siglo siguiente. Las obras del autor referentes a la evolución del sistema nervioso central y periférico y sus relaciones con la inteligencia, en conjunto con la psicología militar y la eugenesia, posibilitan, al menos en parte, la concreción de la ingeniería humana y de sus futuras aplicaciones en diversos sectores de la sociedad estadounidense como instrumento de dominación de la clase dominante. Como se trata de una obra vasta y de variadas aplicaciones en la vida cotidiana, esperamos que esa primera aproximación sea profundizada en futuras investigaciones acerca de los movimientos de la clase trabajadora durante el proceso de modernización de la industria y de la gran reforma social por la que la sociedad estadounidense pasaba en esa época. Estos movimientos fueron ampliamente despreciados por la historiografía de la psicología estadounidense.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia/história , Ergonomia , Psicologia Comparada , Psicologia Militar , Eugenia , Sistema Nervoso
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 762-769, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154201

RESUMO

Alkyl phenanthrene (A-Phen) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that widely co-exist in the environment. It has been established that both A-Phen and DP elicit neurotoxicity, but the potential interactive toxicity of these contaminants is not well-known. To determine whether a mixture of A-Phen and DP would exhibit interactive effects on neurodevelopment, we co-exposed 3-methylphenanthrene (3-MP), a representative of A-Phen, with DP. Our results illustrated that exposure to 5 or 20 µg/L 3-MP alone or in combination with 60 µg/L DP caused neurobehavioral anomalies in zebrafish. In accordance with the behavioral deficits, 3-MP alone or co-exposed with DP significantly decreased axonal growth of secondary motoneurons, altered intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and induced cell apoptosis in the muscle of zebrafish. Additionally, 3-MP alone or co-exposed with DP significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mRNA levels of apoptosis-related genes. These findings indicate that 3-MP alone or co-exposed with DP induces neurobehavioral deficits through the combined effects on neuronal connectivity and muscle function. Chemical analysis revealed significant increases in 3-MP and DP bioaccumulation in zebrafish co-exposed with 3-MP and DP. Elevated bioaccumulation resulting from mixture exposure may represent a significant contribution of the synergistic effects observed in combined chemical exposure.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenantrenos/toxicidade , Compostos Policíclicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenantrenos/síntese química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(3): 463-470, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218337

RESUMO

Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) is responsible for muscle building and masculinizing. Using AAS can enhance muscle development and strength, and improve athletic performance. AAS abuse is not only seen in sport. Research has shown that there is an increasing number of adolescent AAS abusers. Adolescents are at a critical period of physical and mental development. Sex hormones are one of the important physiological factors affecting the development of their bodies and brains. Long-term or high-dose AAS treatment is likely to cause irreversible damage to their nervous system and psychological behavior, and these effects are easily overlooked. The article reviewed the long-term adverse effects of AAS on psychological behavior, emotion, cognitive functions and the nervous system of adolescents.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/farmacologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 893-902, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200309

RESUMO

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a widely applied brominated flame retardant (BFR) and is regarded as a persistent organic pollutant. It has been found in human tissues and has the potential to cause neurological disorders. However, our understanding of HBCD neurotoxicity at the diastereoisomer level remains lacking. Here, we investigated the neurotoxicity of three HBCD diastereoisomers, i.e., α-, ß-, and γ-HBCD, in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Results showed that the HBCD diastereoisomers decreased cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and impaired cytoskeleton development. Typical morphological features and apoptosis rates showed that the HBCD diastereoisomers induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. The expression levels of several cell apoptosis-related genes and proteins, including Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome c, Bcl-2, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), as well as the cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) consumption, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) levels, were examined. Results showed that the HBCD diastereoisomer neurotoxicity was ranked ß-HBCD > γ-HBCD > α-HBCD. The cell apoptosis and caspase expression levels of the three HBCD diastereoisomers followed the same order, suggesting that caspase-dependent apoptosis may be one mechanism responsible for the structure-selective HBCD diastereoisomer neurotoxicity. The levels of intracellular Ca2+ and ROS increased significantly. The ROS levels were ordered ß-HBCD > γ-HBCD > α-HBCD, whereas those of intracellular Ca2+ were γ-HBCD > ß-HBCD > α-HBCD. Thus, ROS may be a key factor regulating the neurotoxicity of HBCD diastereoisomers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the diastereoisomer-specific toxicity of HBCD in human neural cells and on the possible mechanisms responsible for the selective neurotoxicity of HBCD diastereoisomers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/toxicidade , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Dano ao DNA , Retardadores de Chama , Humanos , Neuroblastoma , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Testes de Toxicidade
5.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(16): 3055-3081, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236626

RESUMO

'A disintegrin and metalloproteases' (ADAMs) are a family of transmembrane proteins with diverse functions in multicellular organisms. About half of the ADAMs are active metalloproteases and cleave numerous cell surface proteins, including growth factors, receptors, cytokines and cell adhesion proteins. The other ADAMs have no catalytic activity and function as adhesion proteins or receptors. Some ADAMs are ubiquitously expressed, others are expressed tissue specifically. This review highlights functions of ADAMs in the mammalian nervous system, including their links to diseases. The non-proteolytic ADAM11, ADAM22 and ADAM23 have key functions in neural development, myelination and synaptic transmission and are linked to epilepsy. Among the proteolytic ADAMs, ADAM10 is the best characterized one due to its substrates Notch and amyloid precursor protein, where cleavage is required for nervous system development or linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD), respectively. Recent work demonstrates that ADAM10 has additional substrates and functions in the nervous system and its substrate selectivity may be regulated by tetraspanins. New roles for other proteolytic ADAMs in the nervous system are also emerging. For example, ADAM8 and ADAM17 are involved in neuroinflammation. ADAM17 additionally regulates neurite outgrowth and myelination and its activity is controlled by iRhoms. ADAM19 and ADAM21 function in regenerative processes upon neuronal injury. Several ADAMs, including ADAM9, ADAM10, ADAM15 and ADAM30, are potential drug targets for AD. Taken together, this review summarizes recent progress concerning substrates and functions of ADAMs in the nervous system and their use as drug targets for neurological and psychiatric diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAM/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas ADAM/química , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Epilepsia/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Bainha de Mielina/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Proteólise
6.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(5): 706-713, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166449

RESUMO

The term meditation can be used in many different ways, according to the technique to which it refers. Transcendental Meditation (MT) is one of these techniques. TM could serve as a model for research on spiritual meditation, unlike the meditation techniques based on secular knowledge. The purpose of the present study is to conduct a bibliographic review to organize scientific evidence on the effects of TM on neurophysiology, neurochemistry, and cognitive and behavioral aspects of its practitioners. To conduct this critical narrative review of the literature, we searched for scientific papers on the PubMed database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The keywords used in the search were Transcendental Meditation, Neuroscience of meditation e Meditation and behavior. We selected 21 papers that analyzed different aspects that could be altered through meditation practice. We concluded that TM has positive and significant documentable neurochemical, neurophysiological, and cognitive-behavioral effects. Among the main effects are the reduction of anxiety and stress (due to the reduction of cortisol and norepinephrine levels), increase of the feeling of pleasure and well-being (due to the increase of the synthesis and release of dopamine and serotonin), and influence on memory recall and possible consolidation. Further studies are needed using creative and innovative methodological designs that analyze different neural circuitry and verify the clinical impact on practitioners.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Meditação/psicologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Sistema Nervoso/química , Humanos , Neurotransmissores/análise , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo
7.
Science ; 364(6444): 933-934, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171680
8.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(4): 381-386, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between OAS1 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to central nervous system (CNS) involvement of enterovirus (EV)71 infection. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted among 180 children with EV71 infection, including 72 with mild infections without any complications and 108 with severe infections and CNS involvement; 201 children undergoing routine physical examination served as the healthy controls. For all the participants, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at OAS1 rs2660 and rs1131454 were analyzed using SNPscan multiple SNP typing methods. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between the case and control groups in genotype or allele distributions of rs2660 and rs1131454. OAS1 rs2660 polymorphism was significantly different between the children with CNS involvement and those with mild EV71 infection, and the genotype AG frequency was higher and the genotype GG frequency was lower in children with CNS involvement. No significant difference was found in the distribution of genotypes or alleles of rs1131454 between the children with CNS involvement and those with mild EV71 infection. CONCLUSIONS: OAS1 gene rs2660 and rs1131454 SNPs are not associated with the susceptibility to or CNS involvement of EV71 infection, but OAS1 rs2660 SNPs are significantly correlated with the susceptibility to CNS involvement in EV71 infection. Children carrying OAS1 rs2660 AG genotype are more likely to have CNS involvement after EV71 infection.


Assuntos
2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/genética , Enterovirus Humano A , Infecções por Enterovirus , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Infecções por Enterovirus/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075861

RESUMO

A large body of experimental evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is a key pathological event triggering and perpetuating the neurodegenerative process associated with many neurological diseases. Therefore, different stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are used to model neuroinflammation associated with neurodegeneration. By acting at its receptors, LPS activates various intracellular molecules, which alter the expression of a plethora of inflammatory mediators. These factors, in turn, initiate or contribute to the development of neurodegenerative processes. Therefore, LPS is an important tool for the study of neuroinflammation associated with neurodegenerative diseases. However, the serotype, route of administration, and number of injections of this toxin induce varied pathological responses. Thus, here, we review the use of LPS in various models of neurodegeneration as well as discuss the neuroinflammatory mechanisms induced by this toxin that could underpin the pathological events linked to the neurodegenerative process.


Assuntos
Inflamação/patologia , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia
10.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 746-755, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121539

RESUMO

Gabapentin (GPT) has become an emerging contaminant in aquatic environments due to its wide application in medical treatment all over the world. In this study, embryos of zebrafish were exposed to gabapentin at realistically environmental concentrations, 0.1 µg/L and 10 µg/L, so as to evaluate the ecotoxicity of this emergent contaminant. The transcriptomics profiling of deep sequencing was employed to illustrate the mechanisms. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo were exposed to GPT from 12 hpf to 96 hpf resulting in 136 and 750 genes differentially expressed, respectively. The results of gene ontology (GO) analysis and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis illustrated that a large amount of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were involved in the antioxidant system, the immune system and the nervous system. RT-qPCR was applied to validate the results of RNA-seq, which provided direct evidence that the selected genes involved in those systems mentioned above were all down-regulated. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lysozyme (LZM) and the content of C-reactive protein (CRP) were decreased at the end of exposure, which is consistent with the transcriptomics results. The overall results of this study demonstrate that GPT simultaneously affects various vital functionalities of zebrafish at early developmental stage, even at environmentally relevant concentrations.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/embriologia , Gabapentina/toxicidade , Sistema Imunitário/embriologia , Sistema Nervoso/embriologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Acetilcolinesterase/biossíntese , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa/biossíntese , Regulação para Baixo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Muramidase/biossíntese
11.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 203-211, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078959

RESUMO

Pyraclostrobin is widely used to control crop diseases, and was reported to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms. The molecular target of pyraclostrobin to fungus is the mitochondrion, but its effect on mitochondria of aquatic organisms has rarely been investigated. In this study, zebrafish larvae at 4 days post fertilization (dpf) were exposed to a range of pyraclostrobin for 96 h to assess its acute toxicity and effects on mitochondria. Pyraclostrobin at 36 µg/L or higher concentrations caused significant influences on larval heart and brain including pericardial edema, brain damage malformations, histological and mitochondrial structural damage of the two organs. The results of RNA-Seq revealed that the transcripts of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, cardiac muscle contraction, mitochondrion, nervous system development and glutamate receptor activity were significantly influenced by 36 µg/L pyraclostrobin. Further tests showed that pyraclostrobin at 18 and 36 µg/L reduced the concentrations of proteins related to cardiac muscle contraction, impaired cardiac function, inhibited glutamate receptors activities and suppressed locomotor behavior of zebrafish larvae. Negative changes in mitochondrial complex activities, as well as reduced ATP content were also observed in larvae treated with 18 and 36 µg/L pyraclostrobin. These results suggested that pyraclostrobin exposure caused cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity in zebrafish larvae and mitochondrial dysfunction might be the underlying mechanism of pyraclostrobin toxicity.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrobilurinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18267-18290, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041704

RESUMO

Exposure to pesticides is a major factor in the cause of dysfunction in the nervous system and neurodevelopment disorders in children at critical periods of great vulnerability. The aim of this study was to review scientific evidence published on neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in different stages, including neonates, infants, toddlers, preschool children, and school-age children. Full-text articles published in PubMed, Scopus, and ISI databases between 1973 and 2019 were reviewed and the scientific evidence was evaluated. Results: Fifty studies were eligible for inclusion in this quantitative synthesis. Fifteen of these papers evaluated the effects on neonates and infants, 18 on the effects on toddlers and preschool children, and 24 the effects on school-age children. Considerable evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to OPs contributes to child neurodevelopment disorders in all stages, whereas data about the effects of postnatal exposure are limited. Therefore, the available evidence supports the theory that sensitive time-windows occur prenatally rather than postnatally. Although 45 out of the total 50 selected articles found an association between OP exposure and child neurodevelopment, some of the evidence is controversial. A standardized methodology is needed to enable the comparison of the results in several studies, and further research studies are needed to warrant firmer conclusions. A systematic review of this evidence should be performed continuously to update the state of knowledge regarding neurodevelopmental effects associated with OP exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
13.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(17): 3301-3310, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073743

RESUMO

The channel kinase (chanzyme) transient receptor potential melastatin-like 7 (TRPM7) has a unique dual protein structure composed of an ion channel with an α-kinase domain on its C-terminus. In the nervous system, under physiological conditions, TRPM7 contributes to critical neurobiological processes ranging from synaptic transmission to cognitive functions. Following certain pathological triggers, TRPM7 mediates neurotoxicity, neuro-injuries, and neuronal death. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of TRPM7 functions in neuronal systems in health and disease. The molecular mechanisms by which this chanzyme might regulate synaptic and cognitive functions are discussed. We also discuss the lack of knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms responsible for turning TRPM7 into "a vicious tool" that mediates neuronal death following certain pathological triggers. Some synthetic and natural pharmacological modulators of the TRPM7 channel and its α-kinase are reviewed. We suggest that based on current knowledge, we should reshape our thinking regarding the implications of TRPM7 in neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Moreover, we propose a paradigm shift concerning the targeting of TRPM7 as a therapeutic approach for treating certain neurological diseases. We agree that TRPM7 overexpression or overactivation may mediate neurodegenerative processes following certain triggers. However, TRPM7 dysfunction and/or downregulation might also be among the pathological changes leading to neurodegeneration. Consequently, further investigations are required before we decide whether blocking or activating the chanzyme is the correct therapeutic approach to treat certain neurological and/or neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Humanos , Magnésio/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Plasticidade Neuronal , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPM/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Zinco/metabolismo
14.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 538-546, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108286

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate insecticide, has been linked to adverse neurodevelopmental effects in animal studies. However, little is known about long-term neurotoxicity of early-life CPF exposure in humans. We aimed to evaluate the associations of both prenatal and early childhood CPF exposure with neurodevelopment of children. In this observational study based on Sheyang Mini Birth Cohort, pregnant women were recruited from an agricultural region between June 2009 and January 2010, and their children were followed up from birth to age three. Urinary 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), a specific metabolite of CPF, was quantified using large-volume-injection gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Developmental quotients (DQs) of children in motor, adaptive, language, and social areas were assessed by trained pediatricians. Data from 377 mother-child pairs were used in the current study. Associations between CPF exposure and neurodevelopmental indicators were estimated using generalized linear models with adjustment for potential confounders. The median concentrations of TCPy in maternal and children's urine were 5.39 µg/L and 5.34 µg/L, respectively. No statistically significant association was found between maternal urinary TCPy concentrations and children neurodevelopment. While for postnatal exposure, we found lower motor area DQ score 0.61 [95% confidence interval (CI): -1.13, -0.09; p = 0.02] and social area DQ score 0.55 (95% CI: -1.07, -0.03; p = 0.04) per one-unit increase in the ln-transformed childhood urinary TCPy concentrations. Further stratification by sex indicated that the inverse associations were only observed in boys, but not in girls. Our findings suggest that adverse neurodevelopmental effects were associated with early childhood CPF exposure, but not prenatal exposure. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to replicate these results and to further understand the toxicological mechanisms of CPF.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Clorpirifos/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Inseticidas/urina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Sistema Nervoso/embriologia , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/urina , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridonas/urina , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(4): 53-62, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078153

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones regulate the development and maturation of the brain by maintaining levels of neurotransmitters and their related metabolites. The present work emphasizes the neural dysfunction in the brain caused by hypothyroidism and the potential role of Hordeum vulgare (water soluble barley, (B)) in ameliorating these effects. The study was conducted on euothyroid and hypothyroid adult female rats. The induction of hypothyroidism was conducted by oral-administration of neo-mercazole (5.0 mg.kg-1) daily for thirty days prior the study and terminated at the end of the study. The groups were assigned as; euthyroid (EU) and hypothyroid (H) groups and other two groups were treated with 100 mg.kg-1 water soluble barley; daily for one month and assigned as (EU+B) and (H+B) groups. Compared with EU and EU+B groups, a reduction in fT4, and ERK1/2 levels and elevation in TSH in brain tissue, Moreover, a  significant elevation in 8-OH deoxyguanosine and caspase-3 levels, confirmed with increase percentage DNA-damage in the brain and thyroid tissues in hypothyroid control rats. Furthermore, a significant decrease in all monoamines levels in different brain areas and downregulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytreptamin receptors transcription, with a significant increase in excitatory amino acids and no significant change in the levels inhibitory amino acids were recorded in control hypothyroid group. Treatment of hypothyroid group with Hordeum vulgare improved the above-mentioned adverse impact by ameliorating the thyroid hormone levels with depleting the DNA-degradation and elaborating the levels of neurotransmitters with related receptors and amino acids in brain areas.  Water soluble Hordeum vulgare as a phytonutrient, is safe and efficient agent in ameliorating the neural dysfunction resulting from hypothyroidism status in adult female rats.


Assuntos
Monoaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo
16.
Genes Dev ; 33(9-10): 479-481, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043492

RESUMO

Adult neural stem cells are mostly quiescent and only rarely enter the cell cycle to self-renew and generate neuronal or glial progenies. The Notch signaling pathway is essential for both the quiescent and proliferative states of neural stem cells. However, these are mutually exclusive cellular states; thus, how Notch promotes both of these programs within adult neural stem cells has remained unclear. In this issue of Genes & Development, Sueda and colleagues (pp. 511-523) use an extensive repertoire of mouse genetic tools and techniques to demonstrate that it is the levels and dynamic expression of the Notch transcriptional effector Hairy and Enhancer of Split 1 that enables this dual role.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Adultas/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Ciclo Celular , Camundongos , Sistema Nervoso , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição HES-1
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2113, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068592

RESUMO

Gene editing by CRISPR/Cas9 is commonly used to generate germline mutations or perform in vitro screens, but applicability for in vivo screening has so far been limited. Recently, it was shown that in Drosophila, Cas9 expression could be limited to a desired group of cells, allowing tissue-specific mutagenesis. Here, we thoroughly characterize tissue-specific (ts)CRISPR within the complex neuronal system of the Drosophila mushroom body. We report the generation of a library of gRNA-expressing plasmids and fly lines using optimized tools, which provides a valuable resource to the fly community. We demonstrate the application of our library in a large-scale in vivo screen, which reveals insights into developmental neuronal remodeling.


Assuntos
Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Drosophila/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Corpos Pedunculados/metabolismo , Mutagênese , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Neurônios/fisiologia , Plasmídeos/genética , RNA Guia/genética
18.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 129: 169-200, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029722

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review (SR) composed of preclinical and clinical studies which investigated the toxicological and pharmacologic effects of farnesol [Molecular formula: C15H26O; IUPAC: (3,7,11-Trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol]. This SR was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. Literature research was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases using the descriptor combinations: "farnesol and pharmacological effect" and "farnesol and toxicology". The inclusion criteria used were original articles from preclinical and clinical studies investigating the pharmacological and toxicological effects of farnesol, published between January 1960 and December 2017 which were written in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Primary research identified 414 articles, from which 76 articles were selected for final analysis following the inclusion criteria. After grouping, 51.32 and 22.37% of the articles investigated the antimicrobial and antitumor effect, respectively. Methodological biases have been observed both in pre-clinical studies with non-human animals and in clinical trials, mainly in group allocation and blinding. This SR is the first study developed to compile the studies concerning the pharmacological and toxicological effects of farnesol. This study concludes that farnesol possesses different pharmacological and toxicological features, which permit its use as an active or a coadjuvant drug.


Assuntos
Farneseno Álcool/farmacologia , Farneseno Álcool/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934641

RESUMO

One of the fundamental steps during development of the nervous system is the formation of proper connections between neurons and their target cells-a process called neural wiring, failure of which causes neurological disorders ranging from autism to Down's syndrome. Axons navigate through the complex environment of a developing embryo toward their targets, which can be far away from their cell bodies. Successful implementation of neuronal wiring, which is crucial for fulfillment of all behavioral functions, is achieved through an intimate interplay between axon guidance and neural activity. In this review, our focus will be on axon pathfinding and the implication of some of its downstream molecular components in neurological disorders. More precisely, we will talk about axon guidance and the molecules implicated in this process. After, we will briefly review the Rho family of small GTPases, their regulators, and their involvement in downstream signaling pathways of the axon guidance cues/receptor complexes. We will then proceed to the final and main part of this review, where we will thoroughly comment on the implication of the regulators for Rho GTPases-GEFs (Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors) and GAPs (GTPase-activating Proteins)-in neurological diseases and disorders.


Assuntos
Orientação de Axônios , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/enzimologia , Sistema Nervoso/enzimologia , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
20.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 39(4): 471-472, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941611

RESUMO

Steroids are complex molecules, exerting known and still unknown effects in the nervous system. Throughout this volume, the reader will find a wide spectrum of articles, giving an up-to-date account of the molecular, physiological, pharmacological, and clinical aspects of steroid action on the nervous system.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/metabolismo , Esteroides/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos
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