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1.
Gene ; 766: 145134, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artesunate (ART) has been used extensively as anti-malarial drugs worldwide. Besides, it has also been reported to have anti-cancer activities. This study was aimed to explore the anti-cancer activity of ART in combination with cisplatin (CIS) on A549 cells. METHODS: Cells were cultured with different concentrations of ART and/or CIS for 24, 48, or 72 h to test the anti-proliferative effects by CCK-8 assay. Colony formation assay and EdU staining were also performed. TUNEL staining was used to illustrate the morphologic changes. Cell cycle and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry assay, and Western blot analysis was conducted to detect the expression of apoptosis- and proliferation-related proteins. Caspase activities were determined by colorimetric assay kit. Moreover, the synergistic effect of ART with CIS in A549 cell xenograft model was also determined. RESULTS: ART significantly inhibited cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manners. Collectively, the combination treatment remarkably decreased colony formation rates and increased the rates of TUNEL-positive cells compared with mono-treatment. Mechanistically, the combination treatment influenced the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, p-P53, Caspase-3/7, Caspase-9, CyclinB1, P34, P21, and synergistically regulated the activity of P38/JNK/ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. In mice A549 xenograft tumors, the combination strategy significantly increased the anti-cancer efficacy of ART and CIS alone, consistent with the in vitro observations. CONCLUSIONS: ART exhibited significant anti-tumor effect on A549 cells and this efficiency could be enhanced by combination with CIS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Artesunato/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia
2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(11): 1291-1295, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179243

RESUMO

RASopathies are a group of disorders caused by germline variants of genes involved in RAS/MAPK pathway with overlapping features which may complicate their diagnosis. Since almost all RASopathies are autosomal dominant inherited disorders, the affected families may give birth to multiple children with the disease. Owning to the advance in sequencing technology, the genotype-phenotype correlation of RASopathies has become clearer in recent years, and genetic testing is now available in many places, which make prenatal diagnosis for couples with increased risk possible. For de novo variants of RASopathies, prenatal diagnosis is still difficult as the findings in routine ultrasonography are not specific enough. Nevertheless, certain findings may still be used as clues for prenatal diagnosis. This article overviews the common disorders of RASopathies, with an emphasis on the features that can be used as clues for the prenatal diagnosis of RASopathies.


Assuntos
Genes ras , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
3.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 144(4): 204-211, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070839

RESUMO

The deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein can result in the onset of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a progressive loss of motor neurons and skeletal muscle atrophy. The mechanism underlying SMA pathology remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SMN protein regulates oxidative stress and inflammatory response in microglia. Antisense oligonucleotide, which increases SMN protein expression (SMN-ASO), attenuated SMA model mice phenotypes and suppressed the activation of microglia in the spinal cord. The expression of oxidative stress marker in microglia was decreased by SMN-ASO injection in SMA model mice. Increased reactive oxygen species production and subsequent antioxidative stress reaction was observed in SMN protein-depleted RAW264.7. Furthermore, nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK) signaling, which mainly mediate the inflammatory response, are activated in SMN protein-depleted RAW264.7. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production is also increased in SMN protein-depleted RAW264.7. These findings suggest that SMN protein regulates oxidative stress and inflammatory response in microglia, supporting current claims that microglia can be an effective target for SMA therapy.


Assuntos
Inflamação/genética , Microglia/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacologia , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/uso terapêutico , Oligonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Oligonucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Medula Espinal/citologia , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Proteína 1 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(10): 1439-1447, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of zoledronate (ZOL) on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption under high glucose, and the regulation mechanism of p38 mitogen activated kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway in this process. METHODS: RAW264.7 cells were divided into four groups: low group, high group, low+ZOL group and high+ZOL group after induced into osteoclasts. Cell proliferation activity was determined by MTT assay. The migration of RAW264.7 cells were examined Optical microscopy. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to observe the cytoskeleton and sealing zones of osteoclasts. After adding group 5: high + ZOL + SB203580 group, trap staining was used to identify the number of positive osteoclasts in each group. The number and area of resorption lacunae were observed by SEM. The mRNA and protein expression of osteoclast related factors were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting. RESULTS: The cells in the 5 groups showed similar proliferative activity. High glucose promoted the migration of RAW264.7 cells (P < 0.05), inhibited the clarity of cytoskeleton and the formation of sealing zones in the osteoclasts. Exposure to high glucose significantly lowered the expressions of p38 MAPK, p-p38 MAPK, NFATc1, CTSK and TRAP, and inhibited osteoclast differentiation and bone absorption (P < 0.05). Treatment with ZOL obviously suppressed the migration ability of RAW264.7 cells, further reduced the clarity of the cytoskeleton, inhibited the formation of sealing zones of the osteoclasts, lowered the expressions of p38 MAPK, p-p38 MAPK, NFATc1, CTSK, and TRAP (P < 0.05), and inhibited osteoclast differentiation and bone absorption. Treatment with SB203580 obviously inhibited osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption and the expressions of P38 MAPK, p-p38 MAPK, NFATc1, CTSK and TRAP (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: High glucose inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. ZOL inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in high-glucose conditions by regulating p38 MAPK pathway, which can be a new pathway for ZOL to regulate diabetic osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Osteoclastos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Glucose , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC , Ligante RANK , Ácido Zoledrônico/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22438, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) plays an important role in the clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. It has the effect of anti-apoptosis, protecting macrophages that have engulfed pathogens and preventing pathogen clearance. Meanwhile, the MAPK signaling pathway plays a significant role in regulating Mcl-1 expression during tuberculosis infection. In the case of latent infection and active infection, the apoptosis and polarization of macrophages have a great influence during MTB infection, so we discussed the effect of Mcl-1 on apoptosis and polarization. Then, further discussed its mechanism. METHODS: An infected RAW264.7 macrophage model was established to investigate the regulatory role and mechanism of the Mcl-1 pathway inhibition during apoptosis and polarization of H37Rv infection. First, Mcl-1 protein and mRNA was identified by western blotting and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). RAW264.7 macrophage apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. RT-PCR was utilized to detect Bax, Caspase-3, Cyt-c and Bcl-2 mRNA expression. Next, Then the expression levels of inflammation factors CD86, CD206, iNOS, Fizz1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and TGF-ß was detected by ELISA. SEM was used to observe macrophages phenotype. Finally, Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl the expression was detected by western blotting. Confocal microscopy was used to analyze mitochondrial membrane potential using the JC-10 kit. RESULTS: In this study, we found that inhibiting the Mcl-1 expression signaling pathway led to infection by different virulence Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as changes in Mcl-1 protein and mRNA expression. Concomitantly macrophage apoptosis rate also changed, While, two phenotypic states of M1 and M2 appeared in the infected cells. We also found that the mitochondrial pathway was activated, the expression of its related genes Bax, casepase3, and Cyt-c, increased, whereas that of Bcl-2 decreased, and the mitochondrial membrane depolarization function was changed. CONCLUSIONS: We found that Mcl-1 affected the apoptosis and polarization of macrophages infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mainly M1 in the early stage and M2 in the later stage. In addition, mitochondria played a crucial role in this process.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/imunologia , Hidrolases/imunologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Potenciais da Membrana , Fenótipo , Virulência
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6039-6049, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Previously, we reported the identification of a cytotoxic chemotype compound CC-I (1a), a derivative of thiobarbituric acid. We also reported the anticancer activity of a series of novel thio- and seleno-barbituric acid analogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We herein evaluated the effect of 1a and its modified compounds on in vitro and in vivo lung cancer models. RESULTS: The compounds 1b and 2a showed more potent cytotoxicity than 1a to lung cancer cells. Moreover, 1b did not have any cytotoxicity on normal cells, such as fibroblasts. In the human lung cancer A549 mouse tumor xenograft model, 1b and 2a showed more pronounced antitumor effects than 1a In the A549 lung cancer cells, 1a induced cell death mainly via JNK and p38 MAPK activation. However, compound 1b and 2a induced lung cancer cell death mostly through JNK activation. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that 1b and 2a can be useful therapeutic agents for lung cancer.


Assuntos
Barbitúricos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Tiobarbitúricos/uso terapêutico , Células A549 , Barbitúricos/síntese química , Barbitúricos/química , Barbitúricos/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiobarbitúricos/química , Tiobarbitúricos/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5107, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037199

RESUMO

Engineered light-dependent switches provide uniquely powerful opportunities to investigate and control cell regulatory mechanisms. Existing tools offer high spatiotemporal resolution, reversibility and repeatability. Cellular optogenetics applications remain limited with diffusible targets as the response of the actuator is difficult to independently validate. Blue light levels commonly needed for actuation can be cytotoxic, precluding long-term experiments. We describe a simple approach overcoming these obstacles. Resonance energy transfer can be used to constitutively or dynamically modulate actuation sensitivity. This simultaneously offers on-line monitoring of light-dependent switching and precise quantification of activation-relaxation properties in intact living cells. Applying this approach to different LOV2-based switches reveals that flanking sequences can lead to relaxation times up to 11-fold faster than anticipated. In situ-measured parameter values guide the design of target-inhibiting actuation trains with minimal blue-light exposure, and context-based optimisation can increase sensitivity and experimental throughput a further 10-fold without loss of temporal precision.


Assuntos
Imagem Molecular/métodos , Optogenética/métodos , Fototropinas/metabolismo , Animais , Transferência de Energia , Feminino , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Hipocampo/citologia , Humanos , Luz , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Neurônios , Fototropinas/análise , Fototropinas/genética , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0232645, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108364

RESUMO

Boosting energy expenditure by harnessing the activity of brown adipocytes is a promising strategy for combatting the global epidemic of obesity. Many studies have revealed that the ß3-adrenergic receptor agonist is a potent activator of brown adipocytes, even in humans, and PKA and p38 MAPK have been demonstrated for regulating the transcription of a wide range of critical genes such as Ucp1. We previously revealed that the PKA-ASK1-p38 axis is activated in immature brown adipocytes and contributes to functional maturation. However, the downstream mechanisms of PKA that initiate the p38 MAPK cascade are still mostly unknown in mature brown adipocytes. Here, we identified the ASK family as a crucial signaling molecule bridging PKA and MAPK in mature brown adipocytes. Mechanistically, the phosphorylation of ASK1 at threonine 99 and serine 993 is critical in PKA-dependent ASK1 activation. Additionally, PKA also activates ASK2, which contributes to MAPK regulation. These lines of evidence provide new details for tailoring a ßAR-dependent brown adipocyte activation strategy.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Ativação Enzimática , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 5/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Serina/metabolismo , Treonina/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5463, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122628

RESUMO

Metastatic melanoma remains an incurable disease for many patients due to the limited success of targeted and immunotherapies. BRAF and MEK inhibitors reduce metastatic burden for patients with melanomas harboring BRAF mutations; however, most eventually relapse due to acquired resistance. Here, we demonstrate that ABL1/2 kinase activities and/or expression are potentiated in cell lines and patient samples following resistance, and ABL1/2 drive BRAF and BRAF/MEK inhibitor resistance by inducing reactivation of MEK/ERK/MYC signaling. Silencing/inhibiting ABL1/2 blocks pathway reactivation, and resensitizes resistant cells to BRAF/MEK inhibitors, whereas expression of constitutively active ABL1/2 is sufficient to promote resistance. Significantly, nilotinib (2nd generation ABL1/2 inhibitor) reverses resistance, in vivo, causing prolonged regression of resistant tumors, and also, prevents BRAFi/MEKi resistance from developing in the first place. These data indicate that repurposing the FDA-approved leukemia drug, nilotinib, may be effective for prolonging survival for patients harboring BRAF-mutant melanomas.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/genética , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239422, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031432

RESUMO

Arachidonic acid (ARA) is an integral constituent of the biological cell membrane, conferring it with fluidity and flexibility, which are necessary for the function of all cells, especially nervous system, skeletal muscle, and immune system. Codium species biosynthesize sulfated polysaccharides with very distinct structural features. Some of them have different biological activities with great potential in pharmaceutical applications. In this study, anionic macromolecules extracted from Codium fragile were investigated for their cooperative immune-enhancing activities with ARA. The cooperation between ARA and Codium resulted in increased, dose-dependent nitric oxide production and iNOS gene expression. In addition, co-treatment of ARA and Codium effectively increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α), compared with Codium alone. We also demonstrated that the expression of COX-2 mRNA was also increased, which is responsible for the production of inflammatory mediator prostaglandins and their metabolites. Compared to the Codium group, the co-treatment of Codium with ARA enhanced the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p-65, p38, and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2, indicating that this combination stimulated immune response through nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. These results indicated that the coordination of arachidonic acid with polysaccharide extracted from seaweed may be a potential source of immunomodulatory molecules.


Assuntos
Ácido Araquidônico/farmacologia , Clorófitas/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Substâncias Macromoleculares/farmacologia , Animais , Interações Medicamentosas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 7979-7993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116513

RESUMO

Background: Both magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and exosomes derived from bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC-Exos) have been reported to improve wound healing. In this study, novel exosomes (mag-BMSC-Exos) would be fabricated from BMSCs with the stimulation of MNPs and a static magnetic field (SMF) to further enhance wound repair. Methods: Mag-BMSC-Exos, namely, exosomes derived from BMSCs preconditioned with Fe3O4 nanoparticles and a SMF, together with BMSC-Exos were both first isolated by ultracentrifugation, respectively. Afterwards, we conducted in vitro experiments, including scratch wound assays, transwell assays, and tube formation assays, and established an in vivo wound healing model. The miRNA expression profiles were compared between BMSC-Exos and mag-BMSC-Exos to detect the potential mechanism of improving wound healing. At last, the function of exosomal miR-21-5p during wound healing was confirmed by utilizing a series of gain- and loss-of-function experiments in vitro. Results: The optimal working magnetic condition was 50 µg/mL Fe3O4 nanoparticles combined with 100 mT SMF. In vitro, mag-BMSC-Exo administration promoted proliferation, migration and angiogenesis to a greater extent than BMSC-Exo administration. Local transplantation of mag-BMSC-Exos into rat skin wounds resulted in accelerated wound closure, narrower scar widths and enhanced angiogenesis compared with BMSC-Exo transplantation. Notably, miR-21-5p was found to be highly enriched in mag-BMSC-Exos and served as a critical mediator in mag-BMSC-Exo-induced regulatory effects through inhibition of SPRY2 and activation of the PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Conclusion: Mag-BMSC-Exos can further enhance wound healing than BMSC-Exos by improving angiogenesis and fibroblast function, and miR-21-5p upregulation in mag-BMSC-Exos might be the potential mechanism. This work offers an effective and promising protocol to improve wound healing in clinic.


Assuntos
Exossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Campos Magnéticos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Regulação para Cima , Cicatrização , Animais , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(11): 1478-1488, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CH5126766 (also known as VS-6766, and previously named RO5126766), a novel MEK-pan-RAF inhibitor, has shown antitumour activity across various solid tumours; however, its initial development was limited by toxicity. We aimed to investigate the safety and toxicity profile of intermittent dosing schedules of CH5126766, and the antitumour activity of this drug in patients with solid tumours and multiple myeloma harbouring RAS-RAF-MEK pathway mutations. METHODS: We did a single-centre, open-label, phase 1 dose-escalation and basket dose-expansion study at the Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust (London, UK). Patients were eligible for the study if they were aged 18 years or older, had cancers that were refractory to conventional treatment or for which no conventional therapy existed, and if they had a WHO performance status score of 0 or 1. For the dose-escalation phase, eligible patients had histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced or metastatic solid tumours. For the basket dose-expansion phase, eligible patients had advanced or metastatic solid tumours or multiple myeloma harbouring RAS-RAF-MEK pathway mutations. During the dose-escalation phase, we evaluated three intermittent oral schedules (28-day cycles) in patients with solid tumours: (1) 4·0 mg or 3·2 mg CH5126766 three times per week; (2) 4·0 mg CH5126766 twice per week; and (3) toxicity-guided dose interruption schedule, in which treatment at the recommended phase 2 dose (4·0 mg CH5126766 twice per week) was de-escalated to 3 weeks on followed by 1 week off if patients had prespecified toxic effects (grade 2 or worse diarrhoea, rash, or creatinine phosphokinase elevation). In the basket dose-expansion phase, we evaluated antitumour activity at the recommended phase 2 dose, determined from the dose-escalation phase, in biomarker-selected patients. The primary endpoints were the recommended phase 2 dose at which no more than one out of six patients had a treatment-related dose-limiting toxicity, and the safety and toxicity profile of each dosing schedule. The key secondary endpoint was investigator-assessed response rate in the dose-expansion phase. Patients who received at least one dose of the study drug were evaluable for safety and patients who received one cycle of the study drug and underwent baseline disease assessment were evaluable for response. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02407509. FINDINGS: Between June 5, 2013, and Jan 10, 2019, 58 eligible patients were enrolled to the study: 29 patients with solid tumours were included in the dose-escalation cohort and 29 patients with solid tumours or multiple myeloma were included in the basket dose-expansion cohort (12 non-small-cell lung cancer, five gynaecological malignancy, four colorectal cancer, one melanoma, and seven multiple myeloma). Median follow-up at the time of data cutoff was 2·3 months (IQR 1·6-3·5). Dose-limiting toxicities included grade 3 bilateral retinal pigment epithelial detachment in one patient who received 4·0 mg CH5126766 three times per week, and grade 3 rash (in two patients) and grade 3 creatinine phosphokinase elevation (in one patient) in those who received 3·2 mg CH5126766 three times per week. 4·0 mg CH5126766 twice per week (on Monday and Thursday or Tuesday and Friday) was established as the recommended phase 2 dose. The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were rash (11 [19%] patients), creatinine phosphokinase elevation (six [11%]), hypoalbuminaemia (six [11%]), and fatigue (four [7%]). Five (9%) patients had serious treatment-related adverse events. There were no treatment-related deaths. Eight (14%) of 57 patients died during the trial due to disease progression. Seven (27% [95% CI 11·6-47·8]) of 26 response-evaluable patients in the basket expansion achieved objective responses. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that highly intermittent schedules of a RAF-MEK inhibitor has antitumour activity across various cancers with RAF-RAS-MEK pathway mutations, and that this inhibitor is tolerable. CH5126766 used as a monotherapy and in combination regimens warrants further evaluation. FUNDING: Chugai Pharmaceutical.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Cumarínicos/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Quinases raf/genética , Proteínas ras/genética
13.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(4): 1297-1306, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907315

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the differential expression of micro ribonucleic acid (miR)- 125b in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) cases, and to explore the mechanism by which it affects cardiac function. Sprague-Dawley rats were used for AMI modeling, and the expression of miR-125b in the myocardial tissues of AMI rats was detected via fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Thereafter, the target genes of miR-125b were collected and uploaded to WenGestalt for gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses. In-vitro experiments were then applied to determine the p38-sirtuin 1 (Sirt1)-p53 expression change and cardiomyocyte apoptosis under down-regulation of miR-125b. Next, the interaction between miR-125b and its target genes was verified by luciferase reporter gene assay. The expression of miR-125b in the cardiac tissues was decreased in theAMI group compared with that in the Sham group (p<0.05). The luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed that p38 was the target gene of miR-125b. Furthermore, the down-regulated expression of miR-125b in H9C2 cells up-regulated the protein expressions of p38 and phosphorylated p38, thus activating the Sirt1-p53 signaling pathway. Moreover, the down-regulation of miR-125b expression in H9C2 cells gave rise to the elevated apoptosis rate, and the down-regulated expression of miR-125b induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through activating the p38-Sirt1-p53 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , MicroRNAs/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239496, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946513

RESUMO

Carnosine is a naturally occurring histidine-containing dipeptide present at high concentration in mammalian skeletal muscles. Carnosine was shown to affect muscle contraction, prevent the accumulation of oxidative metabolism by-products and act as an intracellular proton buffer maintaining the muscle acid-base balance. The present study was undertaken to gain additional knowledge about the intracellular mechanisms activated by carnosine in porcine myoblast cells under basal and oxidative stress conditions. Satellite cells were isolated from the skeletal muscles of 3 to 4 day-old piglets to study the effect of 0, 10, 25 and 50 mM carnosine pre-treatments in cells that were exposed (0.3 mM H2O2) or not to an H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Study results demonstrated that carnosine acts differently in myoblasts under oxidative stress and in basal conditions, the only exception being with the reduction of reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyls observed in both experimental conditions with carnosine pre-treatment. In oxidative stress conditions, carnosine pre-treatment increased the mRNA abundance of the nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 (NEF2L2) transcription factor and several of its downstream genes known to reduce H2O2. Carnosine prevented the H2O2-mediated activation of p38 MAPK in oxidative stress conditions, whereas it triggered the activation of mTOR under basal conditions. Current results support the protective effect of carnosine against oxidative damage in porcine myoblast cells, an effect that would be mediated through the p38 MAPK intracellular signaling pathway. The activation of the mTOR signaling pathway under basal condition also suggest a role for carnosine in myoblasts proliferation, growth and survival.


Assuntos
Carnosina/metabolismo , Carnosina/farmacologia , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Sus scrofa , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5299-5315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884256

RESUMO

Purpose: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are one of the most important nanomaterials that are widely used in the food, cosmetic and medical industries. Humans are often exposed to ZnONPs via inhalation, and they may reach the brain where neurotoxic effects could occur via systemic distribution. However, the mechanisms underlying how ZnONPs produce neurotoxic effects in the brain remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the novel mechanism involved in ZnONPs-induced neurotoxicity. Methods and Results: We demonstrated for the first time that pulmonary exposure to ZnONPs by intratracheal instillation could trigger ferroptosis, a new form of cell death, in the neuronal cells of mouse cerebral cortex. A similar phenomenon was also observed in cultured neuron-like PC-12 cell line. By using a specific inhibitor of ferroptosis ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1), our results showed that inhibition of ferroptosis by Fer-1 could significantly alleviate the ZnONPs-induced neuronal cell death both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistic investigation revealed that ZnONPs selectively activated the JNK pathway and thus resulted in the ferroptotic phenotypes, JNK inhibitor SP600125 could reverse lipid peroxidation upregulation and ferroptotic cell death induced by ZnONPs in PC-12 cells. Conclusion: Taken together, this study not only demonstrates that pulmonary exposure of ZnONPs can induce JNK-involved ferroptotic cell death in mouse cortex and PC-12 cells, but also provides a clue that inhibition of ferroptosis by specific agents or drugs may serve as a feasible approach for reducing the untreatable neurotoxicity induced by ZnONPs.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Antracenos/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Cicloexilaminas/farmacologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/patologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Células PC12 , Fenilenodiaminas/farmacologia , Ratos , Óxido de Zinco/administração & dosagem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235824, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881898

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD) is a momentous pulmonary hypertension disease, and left heart disease is the most familiar cause. Mechanical stretching may be a crucial cause of vascular remodeling. While, the underlining mechanism of mechanical stretching-induced in remodeling of pulmonary vein in the early stage of PH-LHD has not been completely elucidated. In our study, the PH-LHD model rats were successfully constructed. After 25 days, doppler echocardiography and hemodynamic examination were performed. In addition, after treatment, the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) were determined by ELISA, immunohistochemistry and western blot assays in the pulmonary veins. Moreover, the pathological change of pulmonary tissues was evaluated by H&E staining. Our results uncovered that left ventricular insufficiency and interventricular septal shift could be observed in PH-LHD model rats, and the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and mean left atrial pressure (mLAP) were also elevated in PH-LHD model rats. Meanwhile, we found that MMP-9 and TGF-ß1 could be highly expressed in PH-LHD model rats. Besides, we revealed that stretch-activated channel (SAC)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway could be involved in the upregulations of MMP-9 and TGF-ß1 mediated by mechanical stretching in pulmonary vein. Therefore, current research revealed that mechanical stretching induced the increasing expressions of MMP-9 and TGF-ß1 in pulmonary vein, which could be mediated by activation of SAC/MAPKs signaling pathway in the early stage of PH-LHD.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Veias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ativação Enzimática , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Masculino , Veias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Mecânico , Remodelação Vascular , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo
17.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1455-1473, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933312

RESUMO

Uric acid nephropathy (UAN) is caused by excessive uric acid, which results in the damage of renal tissue via urate crystals deposition in the kidneys. The roots and rhizomes of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (S. miltiorrhiza) have been clinically used in many prescriptions to treat uric acid-induced renal damage. This study investigates the uricosuric and nephroprotective effects of the ethyl acetate extract of S. miltiorrhiza (EASM) and tanshinone IIA (a major component of S. miltiorrhiza, Tan-IIA) on UAN and explores the underlying molecular mechanism. Both EASM and Tan-IIA significantly decreased serum uric acid (SUA), serum creatinine (SCR), urine uric acid (UUA), and increased urine creatinine (UCR), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in experimental UAN mice. In adenine and potassium oxonate-induced mice, EASM and Tan-IIA treatment alleviated renal dysfunction and downregulated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Moreover, EASM treatment significantly prevented excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in uric acid-induced HK-2 cells and suppressed the expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4). EASM also suppressed ROS-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that both EASM and Tan-IIA demonstrated inhibitory effects on UAN through relieving NOX4-mediated oxidative stress and suppressing MAPK pathways activation.


Assuntos
Abietanos/farmacologia , Abietanos/uso terapêutico , Cálculos Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Cálculos Renais/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Abietanos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cristalização , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cálculos Renais/etiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4673, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938917

RESUMO

RAS-MAPK signaling mediates processes critical to normal development including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Germline mutation of RAS-MAPK genes lead to the Noonan-spectrum of syndromes. Here, we present a patient affected by a 6p-interstitial microdeletion with unknown underlying molecular etiology. Examination of 6p-interstitial microdeletion cases reveals shared clinical features consistent with Noonan-spectrum disorders including short stature, facial dysmorphia and cardiovascular abnormalities. We find the RAS-responsive element binding protein-1 (RREB1) is the common deleted gene in multiple 6p-interstitial microdeletion cases. Rreb1 hemizygous mice display orbital hypertelorism and cardiac hypertrophy phenocopying the human syndrome. Rreb1 haploinsufficiency leads to sensitization of MAPK signaling. Rreb1 recruits Sin3a and Kdm1a to control H3K4 methylation at MAPK pathway gene promoters. Haploinsufficiency of SIN3A and mutations in KDM1A cause syndromes similar to RREB1 haploinsufficiency suggesting genetic perturbation of the RREB1-SIN3A-KDM1A complex represents a new category of RASopathy-like syndromes arising through epigenetic reprogramming of MAPK pathway genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Haploinsuficiência , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/etiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas ras/metabolismo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Animais , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6 , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Metilação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Complexo Correpressor Histona Desacetilase e Sin3/genética , Complexo Correpressor Histona Desacetilase e Sin3/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/genética
19.
Life Sci ; 260: 118472, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971106

RESUMO

AIMS: Testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D) is a critical medical condition that necessitates prompt surgical intervention to avoid testicular atrophy and infertility. The use of natural compounds may protect against the associated detrimental oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Interestingly, acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid (AKBA), the main active constituent of Boswellia resin, has shown potent inhibitory effect on 5-lipoxygenase enzyme which converts arachidonic acid into inflammatory mediators. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the protective mechanisms by which AKBA may protect against testicular T/D injury in rats. MAIN METHODS: Male rats were randomly distributed into five groups: Sham, AKBA (50 mg/kg, p.o.), unilateral testicular T/D, AKBA at two dose levels (25 or 50 mg/kg for 15 successive days) followed by T/D. Histological examination and Johnsen's score were performed to assess testicular injury and perturbations in spermatogenesis. Biochemical parameters included markers of testicular function (serum testosterone), oxidant/antioxidant status (malondialdehyde, glutathione), inflammation (5-lipoxygenase, leukotriene-B4, myeloperoxidase, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6), apoptosis (Bax, Bcl2, caspase-3), DNA integrity (quantitative DNA fragmentation, DNA laddering, PARP-1), energy production (ATP), in addition to p38 MAPK and JNK protein expression. KEY FINDINGS: In a dose dependent manner, AKBA significantly inhibited testicular T/D-induced upregulation of 5-LOX/LTB4 and p38-MAPK/JNK/Bax pathways and their associated downstream inflammatory and apoptotic cascades. These effects were accompanied with ATP replenishment and DNA preservation, resulting ultimately in salvage of the testis. SIGNIFICANCE: Unprecedentedly, the present mechanistic study revealed the pathways by which AKBA may inhibit testicular T/D injury and offered a novel protective approach that may attenuate the severity of this condition.


Assuntos
Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Torção do Cordão Espermático/metabolismo , Torção do Cordão Espermático/prevenção & controle , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Leucotrieno B4/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/metabolismo , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
20.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 393-402, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871633

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that causes severe disease when the infection occurs during pregnancy. Adenosine is a purine nucleoside involved in numerous physiological processes; however, the role of adenosine receptors in T. gondii-induced trophoblast cell function has not been investigated until now. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the intracellular signaling pathways regulated by adenosine receptors using a HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cell model of T. gondii infection. HTR8/SVneo human extravillous trophoblast cells were infected with or without T. gondii and then evaluated for cell morphology, intracellular proliferation of the parasite, adenosine receptor expression, TNF-α production and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways triggered by adenosine A3 receptor (A3AR). HTR8/SVneo cells infected with T. gondii exhibited an altered cytoskeletal changes, an increased infection rate and reduced viability in an infection time-dependent manner. T. gondii significantly promoted increased TNF-α production, A3AR protein levels and p38, ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation compared to those observed in uninfected control cells. Moreover, the inhibition of A3AR by A3AR siRNA transfection apparently suppressed the T. gondii infection-mediated upregulation of TNF-α, A3AR production and MAPK activation. In addition, T. gondii-promoted TNF-α secretion was dramatically attenuated by pretreatment with PD098059 or SP600125. These results indicate that A3AR-mediated activation of ERK1/2 and JNK positively regulates TNF-α secretion in T. gondii-infected HTR8/SVneo cells.


Assuntos
MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Receptor A3 de Adenosina/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/parasitologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
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