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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4365-4375, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ouabain has been shown to induce human cancer cell death via apoptosis. Still, its anti-metastatic effect on cell migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells has not been addressed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation and viability were measured by the MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Cell motitlity was analysed by wound healing assay. Cell migration and invasion were analysed by the transwell system. Protein expression was assayed by western blotting. RESULTS: Ouabain decreased AGS cell proliferation, cell viability, and motility. In addition, ouabain inhibited AGS cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, ouabain decreased matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity at 48 h. Ouabain reduced the levels of proteins associated with PI3K/AKT and p38/MAPK pathways. In addition, ouabain decreased the expressions of N-cadherin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (c-uPA), and MMP-2 at 48 h. CONCLUSION: Ouabain suppresses cell metastasis through multiple signaling pathways in AGS cells.


Assuntos
Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Ouabaína/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371956

RESUMO

We examined the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of asiatic acid (AA) in atopic dermatitis (AD). AA treatment (5-20 µg/mL) dose-dependently suppressed the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level and interleukin (IL)-6 protein expression in interferon (IFN)-γ + TNF-α-treated HaCaT cells. The 2,4-dinitrocholrlbenzene (DNCB)-induced AD animal model was developed by administering two AA concentrations (30 and 75 mg/kg/d: AD + AA-L and AD + AA-H groups, respectively) for 18 days. Interestingly, AA treatment decreased AD skin lesions formation and affected other AD characteristics, such as increased ear thickness, lymph node and spleen size, dermal and epidermal thickness, collagen deposition, and mast cell infiltration in dorsal skin. In addition, in the DNCB-induced AD animal model, AA treatment downregulated the mRNA expression level of AD-related cytokines, such as Th1- (TNF-α and IL-1ß and -12) and Th2 (IL-4, -5, -6, -13, and -31)-related cytokines as well as that of cyclooxygenase-2 and CXCL9. Moreover, in the AA treatment group, the protein level of inflammatory cytokines, including COX-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8, as well as the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, were decreased. Overall, our study confirmed that AA administration inhibited AD skin lesion formation via enhancing immunomodulation and inhibiting inflammation. Thus, AA can be used as palliative medication for regulating AD symptoms.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Colágeno/análise , Citocinas/genética , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Derme/patologia , Dinitroclorobenzeno , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epiderme/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunomodulação , Tecido Linfoide/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371964

RESUMO

The flowering plant genus Alisma, which belongs to the family Alismataceae, comprises 11 species, including Alisma orientale, Alisma canaliculatum, and Alisma plantago-aquatica. Alismatis rhizome (Ze xie in Chinese, Takusha in Japanese, and Taeksa in Korean, AR), the tubers of medicinal plants from Alisma species, have long been used to treat inflammatory diseases, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, bacterial infection, edema, oliguria, diarrhea, and dizziness. Recent evidence has demonstrated that its extract showed pharmacological activities to effectively reverse cancer-related molecular targets. In particular, triterpenes naturally isolated from AR have been found to exhibit antitumor activity. This study aimed to describe the biological activities and plausible signaling cascades of AR and its main compounds in experimental models representing cancer-related physiology and pathology. Available in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that AR extract possesses anticancer activity against various cancer cells, and the efficacy might be attributed to the cytotoxic and antimetastatic effects of its alisol compounds, such as alisol A, alisol B, and alisol B 23-acetate. Several beneficial functions of triterpenoids found in AR might be due to p38 activation and inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Moreover, AR and its triterpenes inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells that are resistant to chemotherapy. Thus, AR and its triterpenes may play potential roles in tumor attack, as well as a therapeutic remedy alone and in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs.


Assuntos
Alisma , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Rizoma , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
4.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356600

RESUMO

Centipeda minima (L.) A. Braun & Asch is a well-studied plant in Chinese medicine that is used for the treatment of several diseases. A recent study has revealed the effects of extract of Cetipeda minima (CMX) standardized by brevilin A in inducing hair growth. However, the mechanism of action of CMX in human hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs) has not yet been identified. We aimed to investigate the molecular basis underlying the effect of CMX on hair growth in HFDPCs. CMX induced the proliferation of HFDPCs, and the transcript-level expression of Wnt family member 5a (Wnt5a), frizzled receptor (FZDR), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was upregulated. These results correlated with an increase in the expression of growth-related factors, such as VEGF and IGF-1. Immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry further revealed that the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK was enhanced by CMX in HFDPCs, and ß-catenin accumulated significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, CMX substantially induced the expression of Wnt signaling-related proteins, such as GSK phosphorylation and ß-catenin. This study supports the hypothesis that CMX promotes hair growth and secretion of growth factors via the Wnt/ß-catenin, ERK, and JNK signaling pathways. In addition, computational predictions of drug-likeness, together with ADME property predictions, revealed the satisfactory bioavailability score of CMX compounds, exhibiting high gastrointestinal absorption. We suggest that CMX could be used as a promising treatment for hair regeneration and minimization of hair loss.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico , Alopecia/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360629

RESUMO

Macrophages play a critical role in the inflammatory response to environmental triggers, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Inflammatory signaling through macrophages and the innate immune system are increasingly recognized as important contributors to multiple acute and chronic disease processes. Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical that plays an important role in immune and inflammatory responses as an important intercellular messenger. In addition, NO has an important role in inflammatory responses in mucosal environments such as the ocular surface. Histatin peptides are well-established antimicrobial and wound healing agents. These peptides are important in multiple biological systems, playing roles in responses to the environment and immunomodulation. Given the importance of macrophages in responses to environmental triggers and pathogens, we investigated the effect of histatin-1 (Hst1) on LPS-induced inflammatory responses and the underlying molecular mechanisms in RAW264.7 (RAW) macrophages. LPS-induced inflammatory signaling, NO production and cytokine production in macrophages were tested in response to treatment with Hst1. Hst1 application significantly reduced LPS-induced NO production, inflammatory cytokine production, and inflammatory signaling through the JNK and NF-kB pathways in RAW cells. These results demonstrate that Hst1 can inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory mediator production and MAPK signaling pathways in macrophages.


Assuntos
Histatinas/farmacologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445767

RESUMO

The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are implicated in many neuropathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. To explore potential JNK3 inhibitors from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug library, we performed structure-based virtual screening and identified azelastine (Aze) as one of the candidates. NMR spectroscopy indicated its direct binding to the ATP-binding site of JNK3, validating our observations. Although the antihistamine effect of Aze is well documented, the involvement of the JNK pathway in its action remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the effects of Aze on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced JNK phosphorylation, pro-inflammatory mediators, and cell migration in BV2 microglial cells. Aze was found to inhibit the LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun. It also inhibited the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nitric oxide. Wound healing and transwell migration assays indicated that Aze attenuated LPS-induced BV2 cell migration. Furthermore, Aze inhibited LPS-induced IκB phosphorylation, thereby suppressing nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Aze exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-migratory effects through inhibition of the JNK/NF-κB pathway in BV2 cells. Based on our findings, Aze may be a potential candidate for drug repurposing to mitigate neuroinflammation in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445346

RESUMO

Corosolic acid (CA; 2α-hydroxyursolic acid) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid with antioxidant, antitumour and antimetastatic activities against various tumour cells during tumourigenesis. However, CA's antitumour effect and functional roles on human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells are utterly unknown. In this study, our results demonstrated that CA significantly exerted an inhibitory effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)1 expression, cell migration and invasion without influencing cell growth or the cell cycle of human OSCC cells. The critical role of MMP1 was confirmed using the GEPIA database and showed that patients have a high expression of MMP1 and have a shorter overall survival rate, confirmed on the Kaplan-Meier curve assay. In the synergistic inhibitory analysis, CA and siMMP1 co-treatment showed a synergically inhibitory influence on MMP1 expression and invasion of human OSCC cells. The ERK1/2 pathway plays an essential role in mediating tumour progression. We found that CA significantly inhibits the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 dose-dependently. The ERK1/2 pathway played an essential role in the CA-mediated downregulation of MMP1 expression and in invasive motility in human OSCC cells. These findings first demonstrated the inhibitory effects of CA on OSCC cells' progression through inhibition of the ERK1/2-MMP1 axis. Therefore, CA might represent a novel strategy for treating OSCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360915

RESUMO

Patients diagnosed with melanoma have a poor prognosis due to regional invasion and metastases. The receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is found in a subtype of melanoma with a poor prognosis and contributes to drug resistance. Aloysia citrodora essential oil (ALOC-EO) possesses an antitumor effect. Understanding signaling pathways that contribute to the antitumor of ALOC-EO is important to identify novel tumor types that can be targeted by ALOC-EO. Here, we investigated the effects of ALOC-EO on melanoma growth and tumor cell migration. ALOC-EO blocked melanoma growth in vitro and impaired primary tumor cell growth in vivo. Mechanistically, ALOC-EO blocked heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF)-induced EGFR signaling and suppressed ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Myelosuppressive drugs upregulated HB-EGF and EGFR expression in melanoma cells. Cotreatment of myelosuppressive drugs with ALOC-EO improved the antitumor activity and inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 and -9 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein9. In summary, our study demonstrates that ALOC-EO blocks EGFR and ERK1/2 signaling, with preclinical efficacy as a monotherapy or in combination with myelosuppressive drugs in melanoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a EGF de Ligação à Heparina/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Verbenaceae/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 347: 109617, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391751

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of Dapagliflozin (Dapa) cardioprotection against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Structural and functional changes in the heart as well as decrease of erythropoietin (EPO) levels were reported in DCM. EPO simultaneously activates three pathways: the Janus-activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK2/STAT5), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt (PI3K/Akt), and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK/MAPK) cascades, that result in proliferation and differentiation of cardiac cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: DCM was induced by a high fat diet for 10 weeks followed by administration of streptozotocin. After confirmation of diabetes, rats were divided randomly to 5 groups: Group 1; normal control group, Group 2; untreated diabetic group and Groups (3-5); diabetic groups received Dapa daily (0.75 mg, 1.5 or 3 mg/Kg, p.o) respectively for a month. At the end of the experiment, full anaesthesia was induced in all rats using ether inhalation and ECG was recorded. Blood samples were collected then rats were sacrificed and their heart were dissected out and processed for biochemical and histopathological studies. Untreated diabetic rats showed abnormal ECG pattern, elevation of serum cardiac enzymes, decrease EPO levels, downregulation of P-Akt, P-JAK2 and pMAPK pathways, abnormal histological structure of the heart and increase immunostaining intensity of P53 and TNF α in the cardiomyocytes. Dapa in a dose dependent manner attenuated the alterations in the previously mentioned parameters. CONCLUSION: The cardioprotective effect of Dapa could be mediated by increasing EPO levels and activation of P-Akt, P-JAK2 and pMAPK signalling cascades which in turn decrease apoptosis.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/patologia , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritropoetina/sangue , Eritropoetina/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
10.
Toxicol Lett ; 350: 62-70, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252507

RESUMO

The impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on public health has received increasing attention. Through various biochemical mechanisms, PM2.5 alters the normal structure and function of the airway epithelium, causing epithelial barrier dysfunction. Src homology domain 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp2) has been implicated in various respiratory diseases; however, its role in PM2.5-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction remains unclear. Herein, we assessed the regulatory effects of Shp2 on PM2.5-mediated epithelial barrier function and tight junction (TJ) protein expression in both mice and human pulmonary epithelial (16HBE) cells. We observed that Shp2 levels were upregulated and claudin-4 levels were downregulated after PM2.5 stimulation in vivo and in vitro. Mice were exposed to PM2.5 to induce acute lung injury, and disrupted epithelial barrier function, with decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and increased paracellular flux that was observed in 16HBE cells. In contrast, the selective inhibition or knockdown of Shp2 retained airway epithelial barrier function and reversed claudin-4 downregulation that triggered by PM2.5, and these effects may occur through the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. These data highlight an important role of Shp2 in PM2.5-induced airway epithelial barrier dysfunction and suggest a possible new course of therapy for PM2.5-induced respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/fisiopatologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Domínios de Homologia de src/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Animais , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206871

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Studies have shown that bradykinin (BK) is highly expressed in liver cancer. We designed the novel BK receptor inhibitors J051-71 and J051-105, which reduced the viability of liver cancer cells and inhibited the formation of cancer cell colonies. J051-71 and J051-105 reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells, which may be due to the inhibition of the extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. In addition, these BK receptor inhibitors reversed the cell proliferation induced by BK in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells by downregulating B1 receptor expression. Inhibiting B1 receptor expression decreased the protein levels of p-ERK and reduced the malignant progression of HCC, providing a potential target for HCC therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas dos Receptores da Bradicinina/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Antagonistas dos Receptores da Bradicinina/síntese química , Antagonistas dos Receptores da Bradicinina/química , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 908: 174374, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303662

RESUMO

The efficacy of corticosteroids and its use for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections is controversial. In this study, using data sets of SARS-CoV-2 infected lung tissues and nasopharyngeal swabs, as well as in vitro experiments, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly downregulates DUSP1 expression. This downregulation of DUSP1 could be the mechanism regulating the enhanced activation of MAPK pathway as well as the reported steroid resistance in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, chloroquine, an off labeled COVID-19 drug is able to induce DUSP1 and attenuate MAPK pathway; and is expected to improve sensitivity to steroid treatment. However, further mechanistic studies are required to confirm this effect.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Fosfatase 1 de Especificidade Dupla/genética , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Fosfatase 1 de Especificidade Dupla/metabolismo , Fibroblastos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Uso Off-Label , Cultura Primária de Células , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
13.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208655

RESUMO

The RTK-RAS-MAPK axis is one of the most extensively studied signaling cascades and is related to the development of both cancers and RASopathies. In the last 30 years, many ideas and approaches have emerged for directly targeting constituent members of this cascade, predominantly in the context of cancer treatment. These approaches are still insufficient due to undesirable drug toxicity, resistance, and low efficacy. Significant advances have been made in understanding the spatiotemporal features of the constituent members of the RTK-RAS-MAPK axis, which are linked and modulated by many accessory proteins. Given that the majority of such modulators are now emerging as attractive therapeutic targets, a very small number of accessory inhibitors have yet to be discovered.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas ras/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
14.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(4)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328202

RESUMO

A number of drugs and other triggers can cause acute liver injury (ALI) in clinical practice. Therefore, identifying a safe drug for the prevention of liver injury is important. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential preventive effect and regulatory mechanism of urantide on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)­induced ALI by investigating the expression of components of the MAPK signalling pathway and the urotensin II (UII)/urotensin receptor (UT) system. Liver oedema and severe fatty degeneration of the cytoplasm were observed in ALI model rats, and the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were found to be significantly increased. Compared with those in the ALI model group, ALT and AST levels and the liver index did not significantly increase in each group given the preventive administration of urantide, and the liver tissue morphology was correspondingly protected. Moreover, the gene and protein expression levels of UII, G protein­coupled receptor (GPR14) and the oxidative stress­sensitive cytokines, α­smooth muscle actin and osteopontin were decreased, indicating that the protein translation process was effectively maintained. However, the expression levels of MAPK signalling pathway­related proteins and genes were decreased. It was found that urantide could effectively block the MAPK signalling pathway by antagonizing the UII/UT system, thus protecting the livers of ALI model rats. Therefore, it was suggested that ALI may be associated with the MAPK signalling pathway, and effective inhibition of the MAPK signalling pathway may be critical in protecting the liver.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Urotensinas/farmacologia , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Masculino , Osteopontina/genética , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Urotensinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 876-889, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237364

RESUMO

The integrity of the epidermal barrier and the maintenance of barrier homeostasis depend on the dynamic balance between the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Calcium (Ca2+) plays a crucial role in maintaining a balance of these two processes as well as in the formation of an epidermal permeability barrier. In this study, we showed that topical application of oat ß-glucan (OG) could ameliorate epidermal hyperplasia and accelerate the recovery of the epidermal barrier by promoting epidermal differentiation. Mechanistic studies revealed a positive interaction between OG and the dectin-1 receptor, and this interaction could lead to an upregulated expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) via activation of the downstream ERK and p38 pathways. This consequently increased the sensitivity of keratinocytes to extracellular Ca2+ under the condition of calcium loss following the disruption of the epidermal barrier, resulting in the maintenance of normal keratinocyte differentiation in the epidermis, and ultimately promoting the recovery of the epidermal barrier. These findings clearly demonstrated the healing effect of OG on a physically damaged epidermal barrier. Thus, OG could be considered a valuable component in the development of skin repair agents.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Queratinócitos/citologia , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HaCaT , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética , Regulação para Cima , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
16.
Toxicology ; 459: 152855, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252479

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that accumulates in the brain and causes a series of histopathological changes. Selenium (Se) exerts a crucial function in protecting damage caused by toxic heavy metals, but its potential mechanism is rarely studied. The main purpose of this study is to explore the protective effects of Se on Cd-induced oxidative stress and autophagy in rabbit cerebrum. Forty rabbits were randomly divided into four groups and treated as follows: Control group, Cd (1 mg/kg⋅BW) group, Se (0.5 mg/kg⋅BW) group and Cd (1 mg/kg⋅BW)+Se (0.5 mg/kg⋅BW) group, with 30 days feeding management. Our results suggested that Se treatment significantly suppressed the Cd-induced degenerative changes including cell necrosis, vacuolization, and atrophic neurons. In addition, Se decreased the contents of MDA and H2O2 and increased the activities of CAT, SOD, GST, GSH and GSH-Px, alleviating the imbalance of the redox system induced by Cd. Furthermore, Cd caused the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of autophagy-related genes (ATG3, ATG5, ATG7, ATG12 and p62), AMPK (Prkaa1, Prkaa2, Prkab1, Prkab2, Prkag2, Prkag3) and Nrf2 (Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1) signaling pathway, and the expression levels of LC3II/LC3I, p-AMPK/AMPK, Beclin-1, Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins, which were alleviated by Se, indicated that Se inhibited Cd-induced autophagy and Nrf2 signaling pathway activation. In conclusion, our study found that Se antagonized Cd-induced oxidative stress and autophagy in the brain by generating crosstalk between AMPK and Nrf2 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Intoxicação por Cádmio/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Cádmio/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Necrose , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Coelhos , Receptor Cross-Talk/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Selenito de Sódio/farmacologia , Selenito de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Vacúolos/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298943

RESUMO

Graphene oxide (GO) is a biocompatible material considered a favorable stem cell culture substrate. In this study, GO was modified with polydopamine (PDA) to facilitate depositing GO onto a tissue culture polystyrene (PT) surface, and the osteogenic performance of the PDA/GO composite in pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) was investigated. The surface chemistry of the PDA/GO-coated PT surface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A high cell viability of ESCs cultured on the PDA/GO composite-coated surface was initially ensured. Then, the osteogenic differentiation of the ESCs in response to the PDA/GO substrate was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, intracellular calcium levels, matrix mineralization assay, and evaluation of the mRNA and protein levels of osteogenic factors. The culture of ESCs on the PDA/GO substrate presented higher osteogenic potency than that on the uncoated control surface. ESCs cultured on the PDA/GO substrate expressed significantly higher levels of integrin α5 and ß1, as well as bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR) types I and II, compared with the control groups. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was observed in ESCs culture on the PDA/GO substrate. Moreover, BMP signal transduction by SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation was increased more in cells on PDA/GO than in the control. The nuclear translocation of SMAD1/5/8 in cells was also processed in response to the PDA/GO substrate. Blocking activation of the integrin α5/ß1, MAPK, or SMAD signaling pathways downregulated the PDA/GO-induced osteogenic differentiation of ESCs. These results suggest that the PDA/GO composite stimulates the osteogenic differentiation of ESCs via the integrin α5/ß1, MAPK, and BMPR/SMAD signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Grafite/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Polímeros/farmacologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281233

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor in clinical orthopedics. Iron chelators have inhibitory effects on many cancers, but their effects and mechanisms in osteosarcoma are still uncertain. Our in vitro results show that deferoxamine (DFO) and deferasirox (DFX), two iron chelators, significantly inhibited the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells (MG-63, MNNG/HOS and K7M2). The viability of osteosarcoma cells was decreased by DFO and DFX in a concentration-dependent manner. DFO and DFX generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), altered iron metabolism and triggered apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells. Iron chelator-induced apoptosis was due to the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway, with increased phosphorylation levels of JNK, p38 and ERK, and ROS generation; in this process, the expression of C-caspase-3 and C-PARP increased. In an orthotopic osteosarcoma transplantation model, iron chelators (20 mg/kg every day, Ip, for 14 days) significantly inhibited the growth of the tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that iron metabolism was altered, apoptosis was promoted, and malignant proliferation was reduced with iron chelators in the tumor tissues. In conclusion, we observed that iron chelators induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma by activating the ROS-related MAPK signaling pathway. Because iron is crucial for cell proliferation, iron chelators may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for osteosarcoma.


Assuntos
Deferasirox/uso terapêutico , Desferroxamina/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sideróforos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Deferasirox/farmacologia , Desferroxamina/farmacologia , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Camundongos , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Sideróforos/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203721

RESUMO

Interleukin-1 (IL1) is a proinflammatory cytokine and promotes cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness in a diversity of cancers, such as breast and colon cancer. Here, we focused on the pharmacological effect of Entelon® (ETL) on the tumorigenesis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells by IL1-alpha (IL1A). IL1A enhanced the cell growth and invasiveness of TNBC cells. We observed that abnormal IL1A induction is related with the poor prognosis of TNBC patients. IL1A also increased a variety of chemokines such as CCL2 and IL8. Interestingly, IL1A expression was reduced by the ETL treatment. Here, we found that ETL significantly decreased the MEK/ERK signaling pathway in TNBC cells. IL1A expression was reduced by UO126. Lastly, we studied the effect of ETL on the metastatic potential of TNBC cells. Our results showed that ETL significantly reduced the lung metastasis of TNBC cells. Our results showed that IL1A expression was regulated by the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/AKT-dependent pathway. Taken together, ETL inhibited the MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and suppressing the lung metastasis of TNBC cells through downregulation of IL1A. Therefore, we propose the possibility of ETL as an effective adjuvant for treating TNBC.


Assuntos
Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vitis/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-1alfa/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199295

RESUMO

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), a hereditary and lethal neurodegenerative disease, is attributed to the abnormal accumulation of undegradable polyglutamine (polyQ), which is encoded by mutated ataxin-3 gene (ATXN3). The toxic fragments processed from mutant ATXN3 can induce neuronal death, leading to the muscular incoordination of the human body. Some treatment strategies of SCA3 are preferentially focused on depleting the abnormal aggregates, which led to the discovery of small molecule n-butylidenephthalide (n-BP). n-BP-promoted autophagy protected the loss of Purkinje cell in the cerebellum that regulates the network associated with motor functions. We report that the n-BP treatment may be effective in treating SCA3 disease. n-BP treatment led to the depletion of mutant ATXN3 with the expanded polyQ chain and the toxic fragments resulting in increased metabolic activity and alleviated atrophy of SCA3 murine cerebellum. Furthermore, n-BP treated animal and HEK-293GFP-ATXN3-84Q cell models could consistently show the depletion of aggregates through mTOR inhibition. With its unique mechanism, the two autophagic inhibitors Bafilomycin A1 and wortmannin could halt the n-BP-induced elimination of aggregates. Collectively, n-BP shows promising results for the treatment of SCA3.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Doença de Machado-Joseph/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Machado-Joseph/patologia , Anidridos Ftálicos/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Animais , Ataxina-3/genética , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cerebelo/patologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Machado-Joseph/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação/genética , Anidridos Ftálicos/farmacologia , Agregados Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Células de Purkinje/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Purkinje/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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