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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 337: 98-110, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220401

RESUMO

Exposure to aerosol from electronic vapor (e-vapor) products has been suggested to result in less risk of harm to smokers than cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. Although many studies on e-vapor products have tested the effects of liquid formulations on cell cultures, few have evaluated the effects of aerosolized formulations. We examined the effects of acute exposure to the aerosol of an e-vapor device that uses the MESH® technology (IQOS® MESH, Philip Morris International) and to CS from the 3R4F reference cigarette on human organotypic bronchial epithelial culture and alveolar triculture models. In contrast to 3R4F CS exposure, exposure to the IQOS MESH aerosol (Classic Tobacco flavor) did not cause cytotoxicity in bronchial epithelial cultures or alveolar tricultures despite its greater concentrations of deposited nicotine (3- and 4-fold, respectively). CS exposure caused a marked decrease in the frequency and active area of ciliary beating in bronchial cultures, whereas IQOS MESH aerosol exposure did not. Global mRNA expression and secreted protein profiles revealed a significantly lower impact of IQOS MESH aerosol exposure than 3R4F CS exposure. Overall, our whole aerosol exposure study shows a clearly reduced impact of IQOS MESH aerosol relative to CS in bronchial and alveolar cultures, even at greater nicotine doses.


Assuntos
Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Alvéolos Pulmonares/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Adulto , Aerossóis , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cílios/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Nicotina/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Tabaco , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 337: 46-56, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253780

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The popularity of new and emerging tobacco products such as E-cigarettes (E-cigs) is rapidly expanding worldwide. However, uncertainties surrounding the potential health consequences due to the use of such products exist and warrant further study. METHODS: Cultured A549 and Calu-3 airway epithelia were exposed to three out of the eight types of JUUL brand e-liquids ("Mint", "Virginia Tobacco" and "Menthol", all containing 3% nicotine at 1% and 3% (vol/vol) dilutions) and assessed for viability using a resazurin-based assay. Intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured using fluorescent indicators and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were monitored by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Cultures were also analyzed by flow cytometry to evaluate apoptotic markers and cell viability. RESULTS: Exposing the airway epithelial cells to the flavored JUUL e-liquids led to significant cytotoxicity, with the "Mint" flavor being the overall most cytotoxic. The "Mint" flavored e-liquid also led to significant elevations in intracellular Ca2+ and upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and early apoptotic marker Annexin V. CONCLUSIONS: JUUL e-liquid challenge resulted in a loss of airway epithelial cell viability, induced pro-inflammatory responses and eventually caused apoptosis.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Células A549 , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/análise , Citocinas/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/toxicidade , Humanos , Mentha , Nicotina/análise , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 218: 108438, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking may increase the risk of COVID-19 complications, reinforcing the urgency of smoking cessation in populations with high smoking prevalence such as individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD). Whether the COVID-19 pandemic has altered perceptions, motivation to quit, or tobacco use among cigarette smokers and nicotine e-cigarette vapers with OUD is unknown. METHODS: A telephone survey was conducted in March-July 2020 of current cigarette smokers or nicotine vapers with OUD who were stable on buprenorphine treatment at five Boston (MA) area community health centers. The survey assessed respondents' perceived risk of COVID-19 due to smoking or vaping, interest in quitting, quit attempts and change in tobacco consumption during the pandemic. RESULTS: 222/520 patients (43 %) completed the survey, and 145 were asked questions related to COVID-19. Of these, 61 % smoked cigarettes only, 13 % vaped nicotine only, and 26 % were dual users. Nearly 80 % of participants believed that smoking and vaping increased their risk of COVID-19 infection or complications. Smokers with this belief reported an increased interest in quitting (AOR 4.6, 95 % CI:1.7-12.4). Overall, 49 % of smokers and 42 % of vapers reported increased interest in quitting due to the pandemic; 24 % and 20 %, respectively, reported attempting to quit since the pandemic. However, 35 % of smokers and 27 % of vapers reported increasing smoking and vaping, respectively, during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with OUD believed that smoking and vaping increased their vulnerability to COVID-19, half reported increased interest in quitting, but others reported increasing smoking and vaping during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Atitude , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Pandemias , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Boston , Estudos Transversais , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto Jovem
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(3): 3149-3161, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902748

RESUMO

Data (N = 11614) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 1999-2016 for US adults aged ≥ 20 years were analyzed by fitting regression models to estimate unadjusted and adjusted geometric means (AGM) for several different groups of smokers. Serum cotinine level ≥ 3.3 ng/mL was used to distinguish smokers from nonsmokers. AGMs for cigarette only, cigar only, dual cigarette/cigar, e-cigarette or dual e-cigarette/cigarette, and smokeless tobacco only smokers were estimated to be 152.5, 65.1, 92.5, 146.3, and 272.0 ng/mL, respectively. Males were found to have higher cotinine levels than females for dual cigarette and cigar smokers, but the reverse was observed for smokeless tobacco users. Non-Hispanic blacks had higher AGMs than non-Hispanic whites for cigarette only smokers, but the reverse was observed for dual cigarette and cigar smokers. For the first time, serum cotinine estimates for those self-reported nonsmokers who were classified to be smokers (29.4 ng/mL) and those smokers for whom self-reported data for use of tobacco products were missing were also estimated (113.8 ng/mL).


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Cotinina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fumantes , Fumar
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 333: 109308, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242460

RESUMO

Nicotine exposure increases the release of glutamate in part through stimulatory effects on pre-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To assess the impact of chronic electronic (e)-cigarette use on these drug dependence pathways, we exposed C57BL/6 mice to three types of inhalant exposures for 3 months; 1) e-cigarette aerosol generated from liquids containing nicotine (ECN), 2) e-cigarette aerosol generated from liquids containing vehicle chemicals without nicotine (Veh), and 3) air only (AC). We investigated the effects of daily e-cigarette exposure on protein levels of α7 nAChR and α4/ß2 nAChR, gene expression and protein levels of astroglial glutamate transporters, including glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT), in the frontal cortex (FC), striatum (STR) and hippocampus (HIP). We found that chronic inhalation of ECN increased α4/ß2 nAChR in all brain regions, and increased α7 nAChR expression in the FC and STR. The total GLT-1 relative mRNA and protein expression were decreased in the STR. Moreover, GLT-1 isoforms (GLT-1a and GLT-1b) were downregulated in the STR in ECN group. However, inhalation of e-cigarette aerosol downregulated xCT expression in STR and HIP compared to AC and Veh groups. ECN group had increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the STR compared to control groups. Finally, mass spectrometry detected high concentrations of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, in the FC and STR in ECN group. This work demonstrates that chronic inhalation of nicotine within e-cigarette aerosols significantly alters the expression of nAChRs and astroglial glutamate transporters in specific mesocorticolimbic brain regions.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Glutamato/metabolismo , Aerossóis , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(1): 67-74, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108615

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Studies have shown consistent associations between youth e-cigarette use and subsequent smoking uptake. However, it remains unclear why, as limited evidence exists regarding the mechanisms underlying these associations. Our study investigated whether having one or more smoking friends mediated the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking onset among a longitudinal sample of Canadian youth who were never smokers at baseline. METHODS: A longitudinal sample of youth that participated in three waves of the COMPASS study (2015-2016 to 2017-2018) was identified (N = 5,535). The product of coefficients method was used to assess whether having one or more smoking friends mediated the association between: (1) past 30-day e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking onset and (2) past 30-day e-cigarette use and subsequent dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes. RESULTS: Having one or more smoking friends did not mediate the association between (1) past 30-day e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking onset (ß = 0.38, 95% CI - 0.12, 0.89) or (2) past 30-day e-cigarette use and subsequent dual use (ß = 0.46, 95% CI - 0.16, 1.07). Post hoc tests indicated that smoking friends significantly predicted past 30-day e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking at wave 3 (aOR 1.68 and 2.29, respectively). CONCLUSION: Having smoking friends did not explain the association between e-cigarette use and smoking uptake despite being a common risk factor for both e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking. Prevention efforts should consider how best to incorporate effective programming to address these social influences.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Canadá , Fumar Cigarros , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Tabaco , Vaping
9.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127874, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297006

RESUMO

In this study, the acute toxicological impacts associated with electronic cigarettes consumption were determined using a novel dynamic exposure methodology. The methodology was deployed to test various e-cigarette generated aerosols in A549 cell cultures. The e-liquid chemical profiling was achieved using GC-MS analysis while toxicity of diluted e-liquids aerosols was reported using numerous cytotoxicity assays. The presented findings pointed to acute aerosol exposure (thirty puffs at 40 W of power and higher) inducing significant cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic induction in exposed cells. These findings highlighted the significant risks posed by e-cigarette usage. The proposed methodology proved to be a useful tool for future screening of e-liquids generated aerosols toxicity. Future research is needed to establish the chronic toxicity resulting from long-term e-cigarette consumption.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Células A549 , Aerossóis/toxicidade , Apoptose , Dano ao DNA
10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243368, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In November 2018, JUUL, Inc. restricted sales of mango, fruit medley, crème brûlée, and cucumber pods to its website. Physical/online sales of tobacco, menthol, and mint pods continued. We examined rates of adolescent JUUL device and flavored pod use before and after restrictions were implemented to examine their potential impact. METHODS: Students from 4 Connecticut high schools completed cross-sectional surveys in 2018 (N = 3170) and 2019 (N = 3074). RESULTS: Compared to 2018, current (past-month) JUUL use decreased in 2019 (30.2-25.6%). Among current JUUL users, restricted flavor use (mango [62.8-36.9%]; cucumber [27.7-11.9%]; fruit [23.5-11.4%]; crème brûlée [12.3-5.0%]) and the total number of flavors used (2.09[SD = 1.71]-1.51[SD = 1.33]) decreased (p-values < .001), while mint pod use increased (62.0-68.6%, p < .01). Tobacco and menthol pod use remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: Following voluntary sales restrictions implemented by JUUL, Inc., restricted flavor use and the total number of flavors used decreased among JUUL users while mint use increased. Results suggest flavor restrictions may impact adolescents' e-cigarette use. While 2020 Food and Drug Administration restrictions on mint pods may further limit youth JUUL use, research is needed to determine where youth acquire restricted flavors and if restrictions prompt increased popularity of unrestricted devices/e-liquids.


Assuntos
Comércio , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Aromatizantes , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Vaping , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD013413, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Populations experiencing homelessness have high rates of tobacco use and experience substantial barriers to cessation. Tobacco-caused conditions are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among people experiencing homelessness, highlighting an urgent need for interventions to reduce the burden of tobacco use in this population. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether interventions designed to improve access to tobacco cessation interventions for adults experiencing homelessness lead to increased numbers engaging in or receiving treatment, and whether interventions designed to help adults experiencing homelessness to quit tobacco lead to increased tobacco abstinence. To also assess whether tobacco cessation interventions for adults experiencing homelessness affect substance use and mental health. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO for studies using the terms: un-housed*, homeless*, housing instability, smoking cessation, tobacco use disorder, smokeless tobacco. We also searched trial registries to identify unpublished studies. Date of the most recent search: 06 January 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials that recruited people experiencing homelessness who used tobacco, and investigated interventions focused on the following: 1) improving access to relevant support services; 2) increasing motivation to quit tobacco use; 3) helping people to achieve abstinence, including but not limited to behavioral support, tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies, contingency management, and text- or app-based interventions; or 4) encouraging transitions to long-term nicotine use that did not involve tobacco. Eligible comparators included no intervention, usual care (as defined by the studies), or another form of active intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methods. Tobacco cessation was measured at the longest time point for each study, on an intention-to-treat basis, using the most rigorous definition available. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for smoking cessation for each study where possible. We grouped eligible studies according to the type of comparison (contingent reinforcement in addition to usual smoking cessation care; more versus less intensive smoking cessation interventions; and multi-issue support versus smoking cessation support only), and carried out meta-analyses where appropriate, using a Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model. We also extracted data on quit attempts, effects on mental and substance-use severity, and meta-analyzed these outcomes where sufficient data were available. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 10 studies involving 1634 participants who smoked combustible tobacco at enrolment. One of the studies was ongoing. Most of the trials included participants who were recruited from community-based sites such as shelters, and three included participants who were recruited from clinics. We judged three studies to be at high risk of bias in one or more domains. We identified low-certainty evidence, limited by imprecision, that contingent reinforcement (rewards for successful smoking cessation) plus usual smoking cessation care was not more effective than usual care alone in promoting abstinence (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.16 to 2.77; 1 trial, 70 participants). We identified very low-certainty evidence, limited by risk of bias and imprecision, that more intensive behavioral smoking cessation support was more effective than brief intervention in promoting abstinence at six-month follow-up (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.69; 3 trials, 657 participants; I2 = 0%). There was low-certainty evidence, limited by bias and imprecision, that multi-issue support (cessation support that also encompassed help to deal with other challenges or addictions) was not superior to targeted smoking cessation support in promoting abstinence (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.61; 2 trials, 146 participants; I2 = 25%). More data on these types of interventions are likely to change our interpretation of these data. Single studies that examined the effects of text-messaging support, e-cigarettes, or cognitive behavioral therapy for smoking cessation provided inconclusive results. Data on secondary outcomes, including mental health and substance use severity, were too sparse to draw any meaningful conclusions on whether there were clinically-relevant differences. We did not identify any studies that explicitly assessed interventions to increase access to tobacco cessation care; we were therefore unable to assess our secondary outcome 'number of participants receiving treatment'. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to assess the effects of any tobacco cessation interventions specifically in people experiencing homelessness. Although there was some evidence to suggest a modest benefit of more intensive behavioral smoking cessation interventions when compared to less intensive interventions, our certainty in this evidence was very low, meaning that further research could either strengthen or weaken this effect. There is insufficient evidence to assess whether the provision of tobacco cessation support and its effects on quit attempts has any effect on the mental health or other substance-use outcomes of people experiencing homelessness. Although there is no reason to believe that standard tobacco cessation treatments work any differently in people experiencing homelessness than in the general population, these findings highlight a need for high-quality studies that address additional ways to engage and support people experiencing homelessness, in the context of the daily challenges they face. These studies should have adequate power and put effort into retaining participants for long-term follow-up of at least six months. Studies should also explore interventions that increase access to cessation services, and address the social and environmental influences of tobacco use among people experiencing homelessness. Finally, studies should explore the impact of tobacco cessation on mental health and substance-use outcomes.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/terapia , Adulto , Viés , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Cotinina/análise , Aconselhamento/métodos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fumar/sangue , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
12.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(10): 1681-1685, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297626

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the awareness, current or past behavior on electronic cigarette smoking (ECS) and associated factors, among adults aged ≥15 years old in Shandong province. Relationship between ECS and cessation of smoking was also studied. Methods: Using the global standard questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 6 401 adults selected by stratified multi-stage cluster sample method. Electronic data was collected by handheld computer. Data were weighted and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 complex program. Results: The prevalence rates of awareness, ever or current smoking of e-cigarettes appeared as 37.6%, 3.8% and 0.6% respectively. Data from logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors for ECS were living in urban area, at younger age, being current or former cigarettes smoker and with knowledge on the risks of smoking or being encouraged to stop smoking. Among the electronic cigarettes smokers, those who tried to quit smoking (30.1%) had a significantly higher rate than that of the non-smokers (19.5%) (P<0.05), however, the successful quitting rate was much lower than that in the non-ECS users (P<0.05). Conclusions: Rates on the awareness and uptake of electronic cigarettes are on the rise. It is necessary to strengthen and standardize the monitoring programs to provide evidence for setting up targeting intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Fumar , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
13.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(12): e639-e649, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of e-cigarettes among adults is increasing globally. Since 2018, policies in China have restricted e-cigarette use; however, little information is available on the national trend in e-cigarette use before regulations were implemented. Therefore, we sought to estimate the trend in e-cigarette use in China before policy implementation and explored associated factors. METHODS: We assessed two nationally representative cross-sectional datasets from the China Chronic Disease and Nutrition Surveillance (CCDNS) surveys initiated in 2015 (June, 2015, to May, 2016) and 2018 (August, 2018, to June, 2019). The surveys were done at 298 national disease surveillance points in 31 provinces in mainland China, and used a multistage, stratified, cluster-randomised sampling design, recruiting community-based Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Within the standard CCDNS survey, face-to-face questionnaire interviews were used to collect self-report data on e-cigarette use in the preceding 30 days. E-cigarette users were those who self-reported e-cigarette use on 1 day or more in the past 30 days. Prevalence estimates of past 30-day e-cigarette use were weighted to represent the Chinese adult population accounting for the complex sampling design. Populations for the years 2015-16 and 2018-19 were standardised with the 2010 population census to gain comparable estimates. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, urban or rural residence, household income, occupation, and education level were applied to identify factors associated with the likelihood of e-cigarette use among the total population, ever smokers (current and former), and never smokers across both surveys. FINDINGS: Our study included 189 306 Chinese adults from the 2015 survey (100 405 [53·0%] women; mean age 43·6 years [SD 14·6]) and 184 475 Chinese adults from the 2018 survey (102 373 [55·5%] women; mean age 43·4 years [13·9]). The weighted prevalence of past 30-day e-cigarette use among Chinese adults increased from 1·3% (95% CI 1·1-1·5%) in 2015-16 to 1·6% (95% CI 1·4-1·8%) in 2018-19 (an increase of 0·3% [95% CI 0·1-0·6]; Rao-Scott χ2 p=0·0086). Based on weighted proportion data, e-cigarette users were predominantly men (97·4% [95% CI 96·7-98·1] in 2015-16 and 97·0% [95·4-98·6] in 2018-19) and current conventional smokers (93·0% [90·7-95·2] in 2015-16 and 96·2% [95·1-97·3] in 2018-19). Across both surveys, the odds of e-cigarette use were significantly associated with obesity (odds ratio 1·6 [95% CI 1·3-2·1]; p=0·0007), awareness of smoking hazards (1·2 [1·0-1·4]; p=0·022), and smoking status (in current smokers, 135·2 [87·7-208·6]; and in former smokers, 33·5 [21·3-52·7]; p<0·0001). Among current smokers, the odds were increased with daily cigarette consumption (2·1 [1·5-2·8]; p<0·0001), smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day (1·8 [1·5-2·3]; p<0·0001), and an attempt to quit smoking (within the past 12 months, 1·9 [1·5-2·4]; and before the past 12 months, 1·5 [1·3-1·9]; p<0·0001). In never smokers, the odds were increased in those aware of the hazards of smoking (2·4 [1·2-4·7]; p=0·011). INTERPRETATION: E-cigarette use in China remains low but has increased substantially between 2015 and 2019. Our study identified increased e-cigarette use among subpopulations, and use patterns, that warrant further attention from public health policy makers in China. FUNDING: Chinese Central Government, National Key Research and Development Program of China.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
S D Med ; 73(10): 484-488, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of e-cigarette use among youth is increasing in an alarming rate nationwide with over 5 million students currently using e-cigarettes in 2019. To better understand e-cigarette use in South Dakota, we examined the prevalence, access, reasons, and harm perception of e-cigarette among South Dakota youth. METHODS: We analyzed a representative sample of sixth to eighth grade students from the 2019 South Dakota Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS). Weighted estimates were computed to account for the complex sampling design and estimates were analyzed by geographic location and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Among the 2,346 students, the prevalence of ever use of e-cigarettes among middle school students was 16.0 percent, a nearly 100 percent increase from 2017 YTS findings (8.2 percent). Approximately, seven percent (6.7 percent) reported use of an e-cigarette in the past 30 days, a nearly threefold increase from 2017 results (2.5 percent). Prevalence of current e-cigarette use was significantly higher among American Indian (12.7 percent) students and rural (8.3 percent) school students. The most common reported reasons for e-cigarette use was having friends/ family members that use them (49.6 percent) but also availability of flavors (18.6 percent). E-cigarette users obtained e-cigarettes predominantly through social sources (e.g., friends and peers). Nearly 30 percent (27.3 percent) reported not having enough information about e-cigarette's harm. CONCLUSIONS: In 2019, e-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among South Dakota middle school students. We found geographic and racial/ethnic disparity in e-cigarette use. Social influence and availability of flavors were important factors in promoting e-cigarette use. Continued efforts to implement population-level strategies to reduce e-cigarette use among youth are needed.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Humanos , Fumar , South Dakota , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2027572, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270127

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding patterns of e-cigarette use and access during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is important because e-cigarettes may put users at risk for more severe respiratory effects and other health problems. Objective: To examine whether underage youth and young adults who ever used e-cigarettes self-reported changes in access and use of e-cigarettes since the COVID-19 pandemic began. Design, Setting, and Participants: A national, cross-sectional online survey study was conducted from May 6 to May 14, 2020. This sample of 4351 participants aged 13 to 24 years across the US included 2167 e-cigarette ever-users. Quota sampling was used to balance for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and 50% having ever used e-cigarettes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Change in e-cigarette use (increase, decrease, quit, no change, and switch to another product) and access to e-cigarettes (easier or harder, and change in point-of-purchase) before and after the COVID-19 pandemic began, reasons for change, number of times e-cigarettes were used, nicotine dependence, and sociodemographic data. Results: This study focused on 2167 e-cigarette ever-users among 4351 participants who completed the survey. Among 2167 e-cigarette users, a total of 1442 were younger than 21 years and 725 were aged 21 years or older; 1397 were female (64.5%) and 438 identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer (20.2%). The survey completion rate was 40%. Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, 1198 of 2125 e-cigarette users (56.4%) changed their use: 388 individuals (32.4%) quit, 422 individuals (35.3%) reduced the amount of nicotine, 211 individuals (17.6%) increased nicotine use, 94 individuals (7.8%) increased cannabis use, and 82 individuals (6.9%) switched to other products. Participants reported that not being able to go to vape shops and product unavailability were the reasons accessing e-cigarettes was difficult after the pandemic began. Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, individuals reported purchasing from alternative retail stores (disposables, 150 of 632 [23.7%]; pod-based, 144 of 797 [18.1%]; and other e-cigarette, 125 of 560 [22.3%], ie, between 18.1% and 23.7%), purchasing online instead of retail (disposables, 115 of 632 [18.2%]; pod-based, 156 of 797 [19.6%]; and other e-cigarette, 111 of 560 [19.8%], ie, between 18.2% to 19.8%), and shifted to retail instead of online (disposables, 11 of 632 [1.7%]; pod-based, 17 of 797 [2.0%]; and other e-cigarette, 13 of 560 [2.3%], ie, between 1.7%-2.3%). Other individuals reported no change: from retail stores (disposables 262 of 632 [41.5%]; pod-based 344 of 797 [43.2%]; and other e-cigarette, 223 of 560 [39.8%], ie, between 39.8% and 43.2%) and online (disposables 94 of 632 [14.9%]; pod-based 136 of 797 [17.1%]; and other e-cigarette, 88 of 560 [15.8%], ie, between 14.9% and 17.1%). Underage youth reported e-cigarette deliveries from vape shops and/or dealers or friends who received such deliveries, and 63 of 229 (27.5%) self-reported accessing e-cigarettes without age verification. e-Cigarette users were 52% less likely to quit or reduce their use if they previously used e-cigarettes between 11 and 99 times (adjusted odds ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.30-0.78), 68% less likely to quit if they previously used e-cigarettes more than 100 times (adjusted odds ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.20-0.51), and 51% were less likely to quit if they were nicotine dependent (adjusted odds ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.35-0.70). Conclusions and Relevance: During the COVID-19 pandemic, youth e-cigarette users reported changes in e-cigarette use, point-of-purchase, and ability to purchase e-cigarettes without age verification. The US Food and Drug Administration and local policy makers may find these data useful to inform policies to prevent e-cigarette sales to underage youth.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch Esp Urol ; 73(10): 872-878, 2020 12.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269706

RESUMO

Bladder cancer is the seventh most frequent cancer on male population and eleventh within the whole inhabitants. Differences in incidence and mortality between countries and regions exist. Those differences depend on variables including epidemiological data, social and cultural features and economics amongst the several populations that are exposed to different risk factors and treatment approaches. Smoking is the strongest risk factor for bladder cancer, representing approximately 50% of the cases. Its alternative, the electronic cigarette does not seem to providea decrease in risk of bladder cancer. Employment exposure to aromatic amines, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and chlorate hydrocarbons, are still important risk factors. Water consumption with high levels of arsenic has also shown an increased risk of bladder cancer. Fast acetylators or genetic predisposition would be tentative risk factors. Some medical treatments with chemotherapy oradiation therapy increase bladder cancer risk. Identifying all these factors allows for progress in the field of prevention and early detection. The main objective is to decrease incidence and mortality related to bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/prevenção & controle
18.
Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir ; 52(6): 483-489, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291165

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The popularity of E-Cigarettes is increasing. Besides addiction and pulmonary health damage, reports of burn injuries from e-cigarette explosions are also increasing. Mostly, explosions of e-cigarettes are attributed to its lithium-ion battery. Due to increasing cases and missing guidelines we want to present three cases of our hospital and publish recommendations for the management of burn injuries caused by e-cigarette explosions. PATIENTS/MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three cases of e-cigarette explosions which occurred between 2016 and 2019, are presented. RESULTS: All three e-cigarette explosions occurred in the trouser pockets. Two patients were male one patient was female. The age ranged from 24 to 64 years, the burned total body surface area (TBSA) from 3 % to 12.5 %. All three patients required skin grafting and the length of stay in hospital ranged from five to eleven days. CONCLUSION: In the synopsis of recent literature, we recommend the following management of burns due to e-cigarette explosions. The guidelines of the Advanced Trauma Life Support should be followed, signs of an inhalation trauma should be checked and litmus test should be performed prior to irrigation with aqueous solutions to prevent exothermic reactions with remaining metals. If litmus test shows alkali pH wounds should be irrigated by mineral oil.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Adulto , Superfície Corporal , Queimaduras/etiologia , Explosões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumaça , Adulto Jovem
19.
Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir ; 52(6): 490-496, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291166

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Be it as a nicotine replacement or a fashionable seduction for young people or casual smokers with or without nicotine additives - the popularity of e-cigarettes in Europe has increased during the past decade. In addition to the potential of long-term pulmonary damage, which is still largely unknown to date, there is a risk of battery explosion with specific injury patterns. Most users are unaware of the danger in their pockets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between February and July 2019, four patients were treated with burns from exploded e-cigarettes in the burn centre at Sana Hospital in Offenbach am Main (Germany). This article describes the cause and extent of the injury and its treatment. RESULTS: In all patients, the cause of the explosion was what is called "thermal runaway" (very rapid discharge of the battery). The average age of the patients, who were exclusively male, was 37 (25-50) years. The combustion depth ranged from grade I to deep grade IIb. The burnt body surface averaged 3 % (0.5-4.5 %) TBSA and affected the body regions that are typically in direct contact with the e-cigarette: thighs, genitals and hands. Conservative treatment was successful in one case and surgical treatment in two cases (two alloplastic covers, one meshed split-skin transplant). One patient discharged himself from hospital against medical advice after initial treatment. The average time in hospital for the three remaining patients was 15.6 days (6-17). CONCLUSION: Burns from an exploding e-cigarette represent a rare new entity. The force of the explosion of the battery body leads to injury patterns that require treatment in specialised centres with the entire spectrum of burn care. Mixed injuries with deep burns occur at the predilection sites due to thermal action, colliquative necrosis due to leaking electrolyte fluid and contamination by foreign bodies (metallic lithium, splinters of the destroyed housing) and require special initial measures. The extinction of fire caused by e-cigarettes also requires special measures. Proper handling of CE-certified devices is essential. Manipulation of the device in the event of defective functions or defective batteries is highly dangerous and should be strictly prohibited. General security requirements must be observed.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Substâncias Explosivas , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Adulto , Queimaduras/etiologia , Queimaduras/cirurgia , Europa (Continente) , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
20.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47962

RESUMO

A venda, importação e propaganda de cigarros eletrônicos no Brasil são proibidas no Brasil por uma resolução da Anvisa, de 2009


Assuntos
Jurisprudência , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina
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