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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1609: 460506, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526637

RESUMO

A high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique hyphenated on-line with an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) was developed by the use of 3 known acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors (galanthamine, huperzine A and tacrine). This bioanalytical device allows qualitative comparison of the inhibitory strengths of AChE inhibitors. The AChE inhibitory strengths were evaluated and compared by the corresponding acetylcholine peak areas (mass signal) obtained after a chromatographic separation and the elution through the IMER. Only one injection of the analytes is needed to get this comparative analysis. This bioanalytical device was then applied to the extract of a natural plant, Lycoris radiata, which is known to contain AChE inhibitors such as galanthamine and lycoramine. Aside from the demonstration of the inhibitory activity of the two known AChE inhibitors, the AChE inhibitory activity of another compound (dihydro-latifaliumin C) was revealed. This is the first report describing the AChE inhibitory activity of this compound.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Sistemas On-Line , Acetilcolina/análise , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Reatores Biológicos , Galantamina/análise , Limite de Detecção , Lycoris/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1609: 460505, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500881

RESUMO

Biochemical and thermochemical processes are two pathways to convert lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals. Both conversion types produce aqueous complex samples containing many oxygenated chemical functions over a wide range of masses. Nowadays, composition of these biomass products is still largely unknown, especially their nonvolatile part (300-1000 Da) mostly made of carbohydrates and their derivatives. In the present study, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) was investigated and applied on water soluble phase of a fast pyrolysis bio-oil (thermochemical conversion) and on aqueous phase of pretreated wheat straw (biochemical conversion). An optimization of mobile phase composition using model molecules was necessary to limit non-steric interactions and elute all chemical families. At the end, separation of carbohydrates, heterosides and aromatic species was performed. The chemical organization of SEC chromatograms was confirmed by coupling SEC with a Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) using electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative mode. On-line SEC-UV/FT-ICR MS hyphenation was a powerful tool to provide exact mass distribution of samples and get molecular formulae classed by chemical family. To go further, the complementarity of SEC with reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) was established with an off-line comprehensive 2D-LC analysis of the two samples. First, 140 fractions were collected physically from SEC separation for each sample, then each fraction was analyzed by RPLC hyphenated to an Ion Trap - Time of Flight mass spectrometer (SEC × RPLC-UV/IT-TOF MS) using ESI in both positive and negative modes. This comprehensive approach combining 2D-LC and high resolution mass spectrometry nearly doubled the number of peaks detected in comparison with 1D RPLC analysis and thus offered well resolved 2D contour plots, considered as relevant analytical fingerprints of the aqueous phase of biomass samples.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Lignina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Sistemas On-Line
3.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 18): 567, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development of e-Health, it plays a more and more important role in predicting whether a doctor's answer can be accepted by a patient through online healthcare community. Unlike the previous work which focus mainly on the numerical feature, in our framework, we combine both numerical and textual information to predict the acceptance of answers. The textual information is composed of questions posted by the patients and answers posted by the doctors. To extract the textual features from them, we first trained a sentence encoder to encode a pair of question and answer into a co-dependent representation on a held-out dataset. After that,we can use it to predict the acceptance of answers by doctors. RESULTS: Our experimental results on the real-world dataset demonstrate that by applying our model additional features from text can be extracted and the prediction can be more accurate. That's to say, the model which take both textual features and numerical features as input performs significantly better than model which takes numerical features only on all the four metrics (Accuracy, AUC, F1-score and Recall). CONCLUSIONS: This work proposes a generic framework combining numerical features and textual features for acceptance prediction, where textual features are extracted from text based on deep learning methods firstly and can be used to achieve a better prediction results.


Assuntos
Pacientes/psicologia , Comportamento , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Sistemas On-Line
5.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(21-22): 9103-9117, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515595

RESUMO

Synthesis of custom de novo DNA sequences is highly demanded by fast-growing field of synthetic biology. Usually DNA sequences with length more than 1 kb are assembled from smaller synthetic DNA fragments (synthons) obtained by PCR assembly. The ability to synthesize longer synthons sufficiently reduces efforts and time for DNA synthesis. We developed a novel rational oligonucleotide design and programmed approach for the assembly of synthetic DNA synthons up to 1550 bp. The developed procedure was thoroughly investigated by synthesis of cholesterol oxidase gene from Streptomyces lavendulae (1544 bp). Our approach is based on combined design, oligonucleotide concentration gradient, and specialized assembly program that directs assembly reaction to full-length gene in a stepwise manner. The process includes conventional thermodynamically balanced assembly, thermodynamically balanced inside-out elongation, and further amplification. The ability of DNA polymerase to perform programmed assembly is highly influenced by the presence of 5' → 3'-exonuclease activity. Oligonucleotide probing of PCR assembly products allowed us to shed light on the nature of high molecular weight spurious by-products and to understand the mechanism of their formation. For the first time, we applied light scattering techniques for tracking of oligonucleotide annealing, analysis of gene assembly products, and even for real-time monitoring of gene assembly process.


Assuntos
DNA/síntese química , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , DNA/química , DNA/genética , Oligonucleotídeos/síntese química , Oligonucleotídeos/química , Oligonucleotídeos/genética , Sistemas On-Line , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Streptomyces/enzimologia , Streptomyces/genética , Biologia Sintética/instrumentação , Termodinâmica
6.
Int J Med Inform ; 131: 103945, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic health information systems (HIS) are critical components of national health systems, and have been identified as a key element in the development and strengthening of health systems globally. Novel approaches are needed to effectively and efficiently train health care workers on the use of HIS. One such approach is the use of digital eLearning programs, either alone or blended with face-to-face learning activities. METHODS: We developed a novel blended eLearning course based on an in-person HIS training package previously developed by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We then conducted a pilot implementation of the eLearning course in Namibia and Tanzania. RESULTS: The blended eLearning pilot program enrolled 131 people, 72 (55%) from Namibia and 59 (45%) from Tanzania. The majority of enrollees were female (n = 88, 67%) and were nurses (n = 66, 50%). Of the 131 people who participated in the in-person orientation, 95 (73%) completed some or all of the eLearning modules. Across all three modules, the mean score on the post-test was significantly greater than on the pre-test (p < 0.001). When comparing results from previous in-person workshops and the blended eLearning course, we found that participants experienced strong learning gains in both, although learning gains were somewhat greater in the in-person course. Blended eLearning course participants reported good to very good satisfaction with the overall content of the course and with the eLearning modules (3.5 and 3.6 out of 5-point Likert scale). We estimate that the total cost per participant is 2.2-3.4 times greater for the in-person course (estimated cost USD $980) than for the blended eLearning course (estimated cost USD $287-$437). CONCLUSION: A blended eLearning course is an effective method with which to train healthcare workers in the basic features of HIS, and the cost is up to 3.4 times less expensive than for an in-person course with similar content.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador/métodos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Aprendizagem , Sistemas On-Line/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Namíbia , Tanzânia
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3968, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481650

RESUMO

The current study uses big data to study prosocial behavior by analyzing donations made on the GoFundMe platform. In a dataset of more than $44 million in online donations, we find that 21% were made while opting to be anonymous to the public, with survey results indicating that 11% of these anonymous donations (2.3% of all donations) are not attributable to any egoistic goal. Additionally, we find that donors gave significantly more to recipients who had the same last name as them. We find evidence that men and women donated more when more donors of the opposite sex were visible on the screen at the time of donating. Our results suggest that men and women were both significantly affected by the average donation amounts visible at the time of their decisions, and men were influenced more. We find that women expressed significantly more empathy than men in messages accompanying their donations.


Assuntos
Instituições de Caridade/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Altruísmo , Instituições de Caridade/economia , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nomes , Sistemas On-Line , Comportamento Social , Mídias Sociais/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0219346, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442228

RESUMO

Bitcoin is the earliest cryptocurrency and among the most successful ones to date. Recently, its dynamical evolution has attracted the attention of the research community due to its completeness and richness in historical records. In this paper, we focus on the detailed evolution of bitcoin trading with the aim of elucidating the mechanism that drives the formation of the bitcoin transaction network. Our empirical investigation reveals that although the temporal properties of the transaction network possesses scale-free degree distribution like many other networks, its formation mechanism is different from the commonly assumed models of degree preferential attachment or wealth preferential attachment. By defining the fitness value of each node as the ability of the node to attract new connections, we have instead uncovered that the observed scale-free degree distribution results from the intrinsic fitness of each node following a power-law distribution. Our finding thus suggests that the "good-get-richer" rather than the "rich-get-richer" paradigm operates within the bitcoin ecosystem. Based on these findings, we propose a model that captures the temporal generative process by means of a fitness preferential attachment and data-driven birth/death mechanism. Our proposed model is able to produce structural properties in good agreement with those obtained from the empirical bitcoin network.


Assuntos
Comércio/métodos , Internet , Sistemas On-Line
9.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3169, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a web software prototype to support retirement planning. METHOD: This is a methodological research, applied and based on the principles of prototyping model, which followed the steps of communication, planning, prototype creation, functional tests and consolidation of web software version 1. RESULTS: The functions of the web software prototype were defined from a flowchart and scope. In the creation stage, the screens that integrated the prototype, composed by interview, were projected from the filling of the Retirement Resources Inventory, screen of access to support planning materials, including lectures, scientific texts, and technical materials, retirement news screen, experiences screen, which allow users to post retirement expectations and comment on other users' posts. After performing tests, the prototype was made available at www.aposentarsecomsaude.com.br . CONCLUSION: the web software prototype consists of an interactive environment in which the user feels active in the reflection process about the retirement along the different screens. With clear language and expressions that are easily understood by the public, they are applicable to users of different professional profiles.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Aposentadoria , Desenho de Programas de Computador , Brasil , Instrução por Computador , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Motivação , Sistemas On-Line , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 179: 104986, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spike sorting is a basic step for implantable neural interfaces. With the growing number of channels, the process should be computationally efficient, automatic,robust and applicable on implantable circuits. NEW METHOD: The proposed method is a combination of fully-automatic offline and online processes. It introduces a novel method for automatically determining a data-aware spike detection threshold, computationally efficient spike feature extraction, automatic optimal cluster number evaluation and verification coupled with Self-Organizing Maps to accurately determine cluster centroids. The system has the ability of unsupervised online operation after initial fully-automatic offline training. The prime focus of this paper is to fully-automate the complete spike detection and sorting pipeline, while keeping the accuracy high. RESULTS: The proposed system is simulated on two well-known datasets. The automatic threshold improves detection accuracies significantly( > 15%) as compared to the most common detector. The system is able to effectively handle background multi-unit activity with improved performance. COMPARISON: Most of the existing methods are not fully-automatic; they require supervision and expert intervention at various stages of the pipeline. Secondly, existing works focus on foreground neural activity. Recent research has highlighted importance of background multi-unit activity, and this work is amongst the first efforts that proposes and verifies an automatic methodology to effectively handle them as well. CONCLUSION: This paper proposes a fully-automatic, computationally efficient system for spike sorting for both single-unit and multi-unit spikes. Although the scope of this work is design and verification through computer simulations, the system has been designed to be easily transferable into an integrated hardware form.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Neuroestimuladores Implantáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Algoritmos , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Eletrodos Implantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sistemas On-Line , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/estatística & dados numéricos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado
11.
Int J Med Inform ; 130: 103939, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Normal users' voluntary behaviors (e.g., knowledge sharing) in virtual communities (VCs) has been well investigated; however, research on health professionals' voluntary behaviors in online health communities (OHCs) is limited. OBJECTIVE: This paper focuses on OHCs for mental health and aims to explore how intrinsic and extrinsic motivations influence mental health service providers' voluntary behaviors. METHODS: Based on motivation theory and prior studies, we incorporated technical competence as intrinsic motivation and online reputation and economic rewards as extrinsic motivations, and proposed five hypotheses. We crawled objective data from YiXinLi, a Chinese OHC for mental health, and tested the hypotheses based on the Poisson regression model. All hypotheses are supported. RESULTS: 1) Technical competence, online reputation, and economic rewards positively influence mental health service providers' voluntary behaviors; 2) the interaction effect between technical competence and online reputation negatively influences mental health service providers' voluntary behaviors; 3) the interaction effect between technical competence and economic rewards negatively influences mental health service providers' voluntary behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Both intrinsic motivations and extrinsic motivations positively influence mental health service providers' voluntary behaviors, and their interaction effects negatively influence mental health service providers' voluntary behaviors. This study first contributes to the literature on health professionals' voluntary behaviors in OHCs by verifying the positive effect of economic rewards. It then contributes to motivation theory by incorporating a situation where intrinsic motivations and extrinsic motivations could negatively interact.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde/tendências , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Saúde Mental/normas , Sistemas On-Line/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Papel Profissional , Saúde Pública
12.
Phys Med ; 65: 84-93, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437603

RESUMO

Particle therapy (PT) can exploit heavy ions (such as He, C or O) to enhance the treatment efficacy, profiting from the increased Relative Biological Effectiveness and Oxygen Enhancement Ratio of these projectiles with respect to proton beams. To maximise the gain in tumor control probability a precise online monitoring of the dose release is needed, avoiding unnecessary large safety margins surroundings the tumor volume accounting for possible patient mispositioning or morphological changes with respect to the initial CT scan. The Dose Profiler (DP) detector, presented in this manuscript, is a scintillating fibres tracker of charged secondary particles (mainly protons) that will be operating during the treatment, allowing for an online range monitoring. Such monitoring technique is particularly promising in the context of heavy ions PT, in which the precision achievable by other techniques based on secondary photons detection is limited by the environmental background during the beam delivery. Developed and built at the SBAI department of "La Sapienza", within the INSIDE collaboration and as part of a Centro Fermi flagship project, the DP is a tracker detector specifically designed and planned for clinical applications inside a PT treatment room. The DP operation in clinical like conditions has been tested with the proton and carbon ions beams of Trento proton-therapy center and of the CNAO facility. In this contribution the detector performances are presented, in the context of the carbon ions monitoring clinical trial that is about to start at the CNAO centre.


Assuntos
Radioterapia com Íons Pesados/instrumentação , Radiometria/instrumentação , Humanos , Sistemas On-Line , Controle de Qualidade
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1672-1673, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438286

RESUMO

Medical centers, hospitals, and health care practices are implementing electronic documentation systems and regularly adding new features to these systems. Training users to effectively use these systems in a scalable way has been a challenge. Learners learn at different rates and have different needs. While traditional face to face instruction has been the gold standard, eLearning technologies can provide acceptable alternatives. This poster will demonstrate three eLearning methodologies for training.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador , Documentação , Aprendizagem , Sistemas On-Line
14.
Tex Med ; 115(8): 38-40, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369131

RESUMO

Eight years ago, when he experienced a rare patient death, McAllen family physician Ruben Aleman, MD, signed the death certificate the way Texas physicians had been doing it for years, and the only way he knew how: using pen and paper. That resulted in the Texas Medical Board (TMB) not only coming after him, but accusing him of "unprofessional or dishonorable conduct that is likely to deceive or defraud the public" - words found in the state Medical Practice Act. The Texas Supreme Court recently decided that was an overreach for a physician who simply hadn't signed up on the state's electronic death registration system, which at the time was relatively new.


Assuntos
Atestado de Óbito/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistemas On-Line/legislação & jurisprudência , Médicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Texas
15.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 26(2): 73-79, mayo-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185034

RESUMO

Objetivos: Explorar las diferencias entre el efecto de un programa presencial u online de reducción del estrés basado en mindfulness (REBM) sobre el malestar psicológico general en población española. Además, se estudia si la adhesión y satisfacción con el programa difiere entre ambas modalidades. Metodología: Estudio cuasiexperimental en el que 373 participantes realizaron un programa REBM de 8 semanas. Se compararon 2modalidades: presencial (n = 109) y online (n = 264). Resultados: Los participantes de ambas modalidades presentaron reducciones significativas de malestar (p < 0,001). No hubo una diferencia significativa en la reducción de malestar entre ambas modalidades (p = 0,314). La adhesión (p < 0,001) y satisfacción (p = 0,024) fueron significativamente superiores en los participantes de la modalidad presencial (p < 0,001) que en los de la modalidad online. Conclusiones: Ambas modalidades de REBM (presencial y online) reducen el malestar psicológico general. Sin embargo, la modalidad presencial tiene mayores niveles de adhesión y satisfacción


Objectives: Explore the reduction in general psychological distress after a face-to-face versus an online mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program in a Spanish population. In addition, we study if program adherence and satisfaction differ between modalities. Methods: We performed an 8-week quasi-experimental study in which 373 participants took part in an MBSR program in which face-to-face (n=109) and online (n=264) modalities were compared. Results: Participants in both modalities showed a significant reduction in distress (P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in this reduction between modalities (P=0.314). Adherence (P<0.001) and satisfaction (P=0.024) were significantly better in face-to-face sessions (P<0.001) compared to online ones. Conclusions: The MBSR program reduces general psychological distress in both modalities (face-to-face and online). However, the face-to-face modality has higher levels of adherence and program satisfaction


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Meditação/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Sistemas On-Line/estatística & dados numéricos , Telepsicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos
16.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 311-318, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185359

RESUMO

Background: The online management of writing processes is an important factor related to the composition of high-quality texts. In the present study we analysed the time that upper-primary students devoted to writing processes, the distribution of those processes during composition and the contribution of both aspects to text quality. Method: 120 upper-primary students were asked to write an argumentative text in pairs under thinking aloud conditions. Verbalizations were analysed considering different writing processes and sub-processes. Results: Upper-primary students rarely used planning and revising processes. Planning, which basically involved content generation, was mostly activated at the beginning of the writing task. Revision, which mainly included reading, appeared at the end. The time devoted to writing processes or the time at which they were activated had no effect on text quality. Conclusions: Not only did upper-primary students make little use of planning and revising processes, it was also ineffective. Thus, there is a need to provide them with high-quality instruction in school from early on


Antecedentes: el manejo temporal de los procesos de escritura es un factor importante que influye en la composición de textos de calidad. En este estudio se analiza el tiempo que los estudiantes de 5º-6º de Primaria dedican a los procesos de escritura, su distribución temporal durante la composición y en qué medida ambos aspectos contribuyen a la calidad textual. Método: 120 estudiantes de 5º-6º de Primaria escribieron un texto argumentativo en parejas usando pensamiento en voz alta. Las verbalizaciones fueron analizadas en base a diferentes procesos y subprocesos de escritura. Resultados: los estudiantes hacen escaso uso de procesos de planificación y revisión textual. La planificación, relacionada principalmente con la generación de información, suele activarse al inicio del proceso de escritura. La revisión, que básicamente implica lectura, aparece al final del proceso escritor. El tiempo empleado por los escritores en los diferentes procesos o el momento en que son activados durante la composición no se relaciona con la calidad textual. Conclusiones: los estudiantes de 5º-6º de Primaria no solo hacen un escaso uso de procesos de planificación y revisión, sino que este es ineficaz. Por ello, es necesario instruir al alumnado en el uso de dichos procesos desde edades tempranas


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Sistemas On-Line , Redação/normas , Leitura , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 29(4): 239-244, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182918

RESUMO

Introducción: En la Comunidad de Madrid existe un 42,7% de retraso diagnóstico de VIH. La atención primaria es la puerta de entrada al sistema sanitario y se desconoce la frecuencia de serologías solicitadas por estos profesionales. Los objetivos fueron conocer la frecuencia y factores asociados a la solicitud de serologías de VIH por profesionales de medicina y de enfermería de atención primaria de la Comunidad de Madrid. Método: Mediante encuesta on-line, se preguntó por la solicitud de serologías para VIH en los últimos 12 meses, a profesionales que participaron en el estudio de evaluación de estrategias de diagnóstico precoz de VIH en consultas de atención primaria de la Comunidad de Madrid (ESTVIH). La asociación entre la solicitud de serologías y las características sociodemográficas y de práctica clínica de los profesionales se cuantificó mediante odds ratio ajustadas (ORa) según regresión logística. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 264 encuestas (59,5% medicina). El 82,2% de profesionales medicina y el 18,7% de enfermería refirieron haber solicitado alguna serología de VIH en los últimos 12 meses (mediana de 15 y 2 serologías solicitadas, respectivamente). En medicina esta petición se asoció con sexo masculino (ORa: 2,95; IC95%: 0,82-10,56) y estar entrenado para dar consejo pre-post prueba de VIH (ORa: 2,42; IC95%: 0,84-6,93); en enfermería se asoció con edad (<50años; ORa: 2,75; IC95%: 0,97-7,75) y tiempo trabajado en atención primaria (>13años; ORa: 3,02; IC95%: 1,07-8,52). Conclusión: Es necesario promover la solicitud de pruebas de VIH y el entrenamiento pre-post prueba de VIH en profesionales de medicina y enfermería de atención primaria


Introduction: In the Community of Madrid there is 42.7% late HIV diagnosis. Primary care is the gateway to the health system and the frequency of serological tests requested by these professionals is unknown. The objectives were to establish the frequency of requests for HIV serology by medical and nursing primary care professionals in the Community of Madrid and the factors associated with these requests. Method: An 'on-line' survey was conducted, asking professionals who participated in the evaluation study of strategies to promote early diagnosis of HIV in primary care in the Community of Madrid (ESTVIH) about the number of HIV-serology tests requested in the last 12 months. The association between HIV-serology requesting and the sociodemographic and clinical practice characteristics of the professionals was quantified using adjusted odds ratios (aOR) according to logistic regression. Results: 264 surveys (59.5% physicians). Eighty-two point two percent of medical and 18.7% of nursing professionals reported requesting at least one HIV-serology in the last 12 months (median: 15 and 2 HIV-serology request, respectively). The doctors associated the request with: being male (aOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 0.82-10.56), being trained in pre-post HIV test counselling (aOR: 2.42; 95% CI: 0.84-6.93) and the nurses with: age (<50 years; aOR: 2.75; 95% CI: 0.97-7.75), and number of years working in primary care (>13 years; aOR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.07-8.52). Conclusion: It is necessary to promote HIV testing and training in pre-post HIV test counselling for medical and nursing professionals in primary care centres


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Pessoal de Saúde , Diagnóstico Precoce , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sistemas On-Line/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Med Phys ; 46(9): 4010-4020, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274193

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evaluation of contour accuracy in radiation therapy planning requires manual interaction and is one of the most limiting bottlenecks for online replanning. This study aims to develop an automatic approach to rapidly evaluate contour quality based on image texture features to facilitate the routine practice of online adaptive replanning (OLAR). METHOD: Fifty-five pancreas cancer patients were selected from a clinical database of patients treated at our institution from 2011 to 2018. For each patient, the pancreas head and duodenum were contoured in five images (one fraction per week) resulting in a total of 275 CT image sets with corresponding ground-truth contours. A second set of inaccurate contours was generated using deformable-image-registration-based contour propagation. Three subregions, core, inner shell and outer shell, were generated from the contour of each organ. Texture features were extracted from each subregion and descriptive features of each subregion were identified using the image set with corresponding ground-truth contours. A three-level decision tree model was constructed based on texture constraints empirically determined for the three subregions. The two datasets containing ground truth and inaccurate contours were merged. Randomized threefold cross-validation was performed and repeated three times. RESULTS: The first level of the decision tree utilizes textures derived from principal component analysis of a subset of extracted features from the core subregion (five PCs for pancreas head, seven PCs for duodenum). The second and third levels of the decision tree use gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM)-based cluster prominence to reject inaccurate contours. The trained model identifies accurate and inaccurate contours with an average sensitivity/specificity of 85%/91% for the pancreas head and 92%/92% for the duodenum contours. The false-positive rate is 9% and 8% for pancreas head and duodenum, respectively. The execution time is less than 15 s using a standard desktop computer. CONCLUSION: Quantitative image features can be used to develop a model to rapidly validate the quality of an organ contour. Our model accurately classifies unseen contours as accurate or inaccurate with high sensitivity and specificity. As auto-segmentation continues to improve in quality and accuracy, this method may be integrated into a fully automatic pipeline for auto-segmentation, contour-quality evaluation and contour correction, which would replace the time-consuming manual review process, thereby facilitating the more routine practice of OLAR.


Assuntos
Abdome/efeitos da radiação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Automação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Sistemas On-Line , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/radioterapia
19.
Psicothema ; 31(3): 311-318, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The online management of writing processes is an important factor related to the composition of high-quality texts. In the present study we analysed the time that upper-primary students devoted to writing processes, the distribution of those processes during composition and the contribution of both aspects to text quality. METHOD: 120 upper-primary students were asked to write an argumentative text in pairs under thinking aloud conditions. Verbalizations were analysed considering different writing processes and sub-processes. RESULTS: Upper-primary students rarely used planning and revising processes. Planning, which basically involved content generation, was mostly activated at the beginning of the writing task. Revision, which mainly included reading, appeared at the end. The time devoted to writing processes or the time at which they were activated had no effect on text quality. CONCLUSIONS: Not only did upper-primary students make little use of planning and revising processes, it was also ineffective. Thus, there is a need to provide them with high-quality instruction in school from early on.


Assuntos
Sistemas On-Line , Redação/normas , Criança , Humanos , Leitura , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1606: 360332, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262513

RESUMO

Electromigration techniques have recently emerged as an alternative analytical tool for nanoparticles characterization. Due to the high throughput capability and separation efficiency their application for detection/quantification of nanomaterials in samples of various origin has attracted much attention. While the electromigration techniques are known to suffer from insufficient detection sensitivity, a number of papers investigating on-line preconcentration of nanoparticles in capillary electrophoresis was addressed to the issue. In this work the available literature on nanoparticles stacking in electrodriven separation techniques was reviewed. The discussion was supported by theoretical background. A special emphasis was put on the stability of nanoparticles dispersion during electrophoretic process. The considerations on future perspectives were included in final remarks.


Assuntos
Eletroquímica/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Sistemas On-Line , Eletrodos , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Micelas
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