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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770336

RESUMO

Diverse forms of artificial intelligence (AI) are at the forefront of triggering digital security innovations based on the threats that are arising in this post-COVID world. On the one hand, companies are experiencing difficulty in dealing with security challenges with regard to a variety of issues ranging from system openness, decision making, quality control, and web domain, to mention a few. On the other hand, in the last decade, research has focused on security capabilities based on tools such as platform complacency, intelligent trees, modeling methods, and outage management systems in an effort to understand the interplay between AI and those issues. the dependence on the emergence of AI in running industries and shaping the education, transports, and health sectors is now well known in the literature. AI is increasingly employed in managing data security across economic sectors. Thus, a literature review of AI and system security within the current digital society is opportune. This paper aims at identifying research trends in the field through a systematic bibliometric literature review (LRSB) of research on AI and system security. the review entails 77 articles published in the Scopus® database, presenting up-to-date knowledge on the topic. the LRSB results were synthesized across current research subthemes. Findings are presented. the originality of the paper relies on its LRSB method, together with an extant review of articles that have not been categorized so far. Implications for future research are suggested.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , COVID-19 , Segurança Computacional , Sistemas de Dados , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 8387382, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475949

RESUMO

Image style transfer can realize the mutual transfer between different styles of images and is an essential application for big data systems. The use of neural network-based image data mining technology can effectively mine the useful information in the image and improve the utilization rate of information. However, when using the deep learning method to transform the image style, the content information is often lost. To address this problem, this paper introduces L1 loss on the basis of the VGG-19 network to reduce the difference between image style and content and adds perceptual loss to calculate the semantic information of the feature map to improve the model's perceptual ability. Experiments show that the proposal in this paper improves the ability of style transfer, while maintaining image content information. The stylization of the improved model can better meet people's requirements for stylization, and the evaluation indexes of structural similarity, cosine similarity, and mutual information value have increased by 0.323%, 0.094%, and 3.591%, respectively.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Dados , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos , Semântica
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(7): e26582, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostics in many low- and middle-income countries are conducted through centralized laboratory networks. Samples are collected from patients at remote point-of-care health facilities, and diagnostic tests are performed at centralized laboratories. Sample transportation systems that deliver diagnostic samples and test results are crucial for timely diagnosis and treatment in such diagnostic networks. However, they often lack the timely and accurate data (eg, the quantity and location of samples prepared for collection) required for efficient operation. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility, adoption, and accuracy of a distributed data collection system that leverages basic mobile phone technology to gather reports on the quantity and location of patient samples and test results prepared for delivery in the diagnostic network of Malawi. METHODS: We designed a system that leverages unstructured supplementary service data (USSD) technology to enable health workers to submit daily reports describing the quantity of transportation-ready diagnostic samples and test results at specific health care facilities, free of charge with any mobile phone, and aggregate these data for sample transportation administrators. We then conducted a year-long field trial of this system in 51 health facilities serving 3 districts in Malawi. Between July 2019 and July 2020, the participants submitted daily reports containing the number of patient samples or test results designated for viral load, early infant diagnosis, and tuberculosis testing at each facility. We monitored daily participation and compared the submitted USSD reports with program data to assess system feasibility, adoption, and accuracy. RESULTS: The participating facilities submitted 37,771 reports over the duration of the field trial. Daily facility participation increased from an average of 50% (26/51) in the first 2 weeks of the trial to approximately 80% (41/51) by the midpoint of the trial and remained at or above 80% (41/51) until the conclusion of the trial. On average, more than 80% of the reports submitted by a facility for a specific type of sample matched the actual number of patient samples collected from that facility by a courier. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a USSD-based system is a feasible, adoptable, and accurate solution to the challenges of untimely, inaccurate, or incomplete data in diagnostic networks. Certain design characteristics of our system, such as the use of USSD, and implementation characteristics, such as the supportive role of the field team, were necessary to ensure high participation and accuracy rates without any explicit financial incentives.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Sistemas de Dados , Humanos , Malaui , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Carga Viral
5.
Endocr Pract ; 27(7): 661-667, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines and 2017 American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging, Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) for their efficacy in predicting malignant thyroid nodules and safety in recommending fine needle aspiration (FNA). METHODS: We reviewed data of 970 thyroid nodules from 908 patients with core needle biopsy pathology. We calculated the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for each guideline to predict malignancies. We compared the areas under the curve and FNA recommendations between the 2 guidelines. RESULTS: According to the core needle biopsy pathology, 59.9% (581/970) of the thyroid nodules were malignant. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value was 68%, 91%, 33%, 67%, and 70%, respectively, for the ATA guidelines and 70%, 84%, 49%, 71%, and 68%, respectively, for the ACR TI-RADS. Areas under the curve (ATA: 0.71 vs ACR TI-RADS: 0.74; P = .054) were similar when predicting malignancies. For the 545 nodules with maximum diameter ≥1.0 cm, the ACR TI-RADS recommended FNA less often than the ATA guidelines (83.3% [454/545] vs 87.7% [478/545]; P = .01). For the 321 malignant nodules with maximum diameter ≥1.0 cm, the proportions of FNA recommendations were not significantly different (ACR TI-RADS: 90.7% [291/321] vs ATA: 92.5% [297/321]; P = .06). CONCLUSION: The 2015 ATA guidelines and 2017 ACR TI-RADS showed a similar ability in predicting malignancies. Reducing FNA recommendations by the ACR TI-RADS would not lead to a significant decrease in the FNA recommendations given for malignancies with maximum diameter ≥1.0 cm.


Assuntos
Radiologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide , Sistemas de Dados , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Estados Unidos
6.
Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am ; 29(3): 375-387, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243924

RESUMO

The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) is a comprehensive system for standardizing the lexicon, technique, interpretation, reporting, and data collection of liver imaging. Developed specifically for assessment of liver observations in patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), LI-RADS classifies hepatic observations on the basis of the probability of their being HCC, from LR-1 (definitely benign) to LR-5 (definitely HCC). This article discusses the technical requirements, major features, and ancillary features of and a systematic approach for using the LI-RADS diagnostic algorithm, with special emphasis on MR imaging.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste , Sistemas de Dados , Humanos , Fígado , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
7.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(9): 1569-1578, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132081

RESUMO

The Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) is an ultrasound-based risk stratification system for thyroid nodules that has been widely applied for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules since 2016. This review article provides an overview of the use of the K-TIRADS compared with other risk stratification systems. Moreover, this review describes the challenges in the clinical application of the K-TIRADS, as well as future development directions toward the personalized management of patients with thyroid nodules.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide , Sistemas de Dados , Humanos , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
8.
Endocr Pract ; 27(11): 1108-1113, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare 2 ultrasound-based risk stratification systems in malignancy risk assessment of thyroid nodules and the clinical applicability of these guidelines in Brazil. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasound findings of 314 patients (473 thyroid nodules) who underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy and/or surgery between February 2018 and March 2019. All nodules were classified using 2 systems: the Thyroid Imaging, Reporting, and Data System (TIRADS) of the American College of Radiology (ACR-TIRADS) and the TIRADS of the European Thyroid Association (EU-TIRADS). Both risk stratification systems were analyzed. We identified the diagnostic predictive values that yielded optimal sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy. RESULTS: Of the 473 nodules, all underwent FNA, and histopathology was performed for 332 nodules. The agreement between the ACR-TIRADS and EU-TIRADS results and that between cytology and histopathology findings was 92.6% (kappa = 0.84) and 86.7% (kappa = 0.73), respectively. The area under the curve for the ACR-TIRADS and EU-TIRADS was 0.871 and 0.828, respectively (P < .001). The EU-TIRADS had the best sensitivity and negative predictive value, whereas the ACR-TIRADS had the best specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy. Of the 473 nodules studied, only 158 (33.4%) followed the FNA size criteria suggested by the ACR-TIRADS. CONCLUSION: ACR-TIRADS and EU-TIRADS had good diagnostic performances. However, most aspirated nodules did not follow the TIRADS indication; thus, the overuse of FNA as a diagnostic tool was observed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide , Brasil , Sistemas de Dados , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Estados Unidos
9.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(7): e445-e454, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biparametric MRI (comprising T2-weighted MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient maps) is increasingly being used to characterise prostate cancer. Although previous studies have combined Prostate Imaging-Reporting & Data System (PI-RADS)-based MRI findings with routinely available clinical variables and with deep learning-based imaging predictors, respectively, for prostate cancer risk stratification, none have combined all three. We aimed to construct an integrated nomogram (referred to as ClaD) combining deep learning-based imaging predictions, PI-RADS scoring, and clinical variables to identify clinically significant prostate cancer on biparametric MRI. METHODS: In this retrospective multicentre study, we included patients with prostate cancer, with histopathology or biopsy reports and a screening or diagnostic MRI scan in the axial view, from four cohorts in the USA (from University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Cleveland Clinic, and Long Island Jewish Medical Center) and from the PROSTATEx Challenge dataset in the Netherlands. We constructed an integrated nomogram combining deep learning, PI-RADS score, and clinical variables (prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, and lesion volume) using multivariable logistic regression to identify clinically significant prostate cancer on biparametric MRI. We used data from the first three cohorts to train the nomogram and data from the remaining two cohorts for independent validation. We compared the performance of our ClaD integrated nomogram with that of integrated nomograms combining clinical variables with either the deep learning-based imaging predictor (referred to as DIN) or PI-RADS score (referred to as PIN) using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). We also compared the ability of the nomograms to predict biochemical recurrence on a subset of patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. We report cross-validation AUCs as means for the training set and used AUCs with 95% CIs to assess the performance on the test set. The difference in AUCs between the models were tested for statistical significance using DeLong's test. We used log-rank tests and Kaplan-Meier curves to analyse survival. FINDINGS: We investigated 592 patients (823 lesions) with prostate cancer who underwent 3T multiparametric MRI at five hospitals in the USA between Jan 8, 2009, and June 3, 2017. The training data set consisted of 368 patients from three sites (the PROSTATEx Challenge cohort [n=204], University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center [n=126], and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai [n=38]), and the independent validation data set consisted of 224 patients from two sites (Cleveland Clinic [n=151] and Long Island Jewish Medical Center [n=73]). The ClaD clinical nomogram yielded an AUC of 0·81 (95% CI 0·76-0·85) for identification of clinically significant prostate cancer in the validation data set, significantly improving performance over the DIN (0·74 [95% CI 0·69-0·80], p=0·0005) and PIN (0·76 [0·71-0·81], p<0·0001) nomograms. In the subset of patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy (n=81), the ClaD clinical nomogram resulted in a significant separation in Kaplan-Meier survival curves between patients with and without biochemical recurrence (HR 5·92 [2·34-15·00], p=0·044), whereas the DIN (1·22 [0·54-2·79], p=0·65) and PIN nomograms did not (1·30 [0·62-2·71], p=0·51). INTERPRETATION: Risk stratification of patients with prostate cancer using the integrated ClaD nomogram could help to identify patients with prostate cancer who are at low risk, very low risk, and favourable intermediate risk, who might be candidates for active surveillance, and could also help to identify patients with lethal prostate cancer who might benefit from adjuvant therapy. FUNDING: National Cancer Institute of the US National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Center for Research Resources, US Department of Veterans Affairs Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development Service, US Department of Defense, US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, The Ohio Third Frontier Technology Validation Fund, Case Western Reserve University, Dana Foundation, and Clinical and Translational Science Collaborative.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Nomogramas , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistemas de Dados , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 47(7): 1737-1746, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838937

RESUMO

A portion of detected breast masses might be overrated by using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System ultrasonography (BI-RADS US) lexicon. A principal component regression-based contrast-enhanced ultrasound (PCR-CEUS) evaluation system was built to quantitatively illustrate whether CEUS could help radiologists to differentiate 4A masses. The PCR-CEUS evaluation system, based on principal component analysis (PCA) and logistic regression, was verified by random assignment into training and test sets and shown to reduce the data dimension and avoid collinearity in CEUS variables. This prospective study consecutively collected 238 patients with 238 4A masses confirmed pathologically. All enrolled patients accepted CEUS examination. The diagnostic performance of senior and junior radiologists, PCR-CEUS and combined methods was compared. The PCR-CEUS system had consistent diagnostic performance in both the training and test sets, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.831 (0.765-0.897), 0.798 (0.7034-0.892) and 0.854 (0.765-0.943) (all P > 0.05). The AUC of the combined diagnostic model (PCR-CEUS + Senior radiologists) was higher than that of senior radiologists, and the combined model had higher sensitivity (0.875 (0.781-0.969) vs. 0.729 (0.603-0.855)) without compromising specificity. Furthermore, the AUC and specificity of the combined model (PCR-CEUS + Junior radiologists) (0.852 (0.787-0.916)) was higher than that of junior radiologists (0.665 (0.592-0.737) (P < 0.00001)). PCR-CEUS demonstrated good ability in differentiating malignant BI-RADS-US 4A masses and was helpful for both senior and junior radiologists.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste , Ultrassonografia Mamária/métodos , Adulto , Sistemas de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa
12.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 45(3): 389-394, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This survey was performed to determine the extent of utilization of Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) since its introduction in 2016 among members of cardiovascular imaging societies. METHODS: A survey regarding use of CAD-RADS was distributed to members of North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging and Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. RESULTS: A total of 246 surveys were completed, and results show that, although most respondents are familiar with CAD-RADS (95%), less than half (45%) report using CAD-RADS for all coronary CTA. Rates of CAD-RADS utilization were similar among physicians who work in a variety of settings. Years of clinical experience did not affect the rates of CAD-RADS utilization; however, a higher weekly volume of cardiac computed tomography was associated with higher rates of CAD-RADS utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Four years after the introduction of CAD-RADS, the reporting system is used by less than half of surveyed members of North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging and Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography regardless of practice model and range of practice experience with cardiac computed tomography.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia , Cardiologia/organização & administração , Competência Clínica , Sistemas de Dados , Humanos , Medicina Nuclear/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 29(2): 152-156, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The global coronavirus pandemic has expedited digitisation in every industry, especially healthcare, and has highlighted the potential for informatics pharmacists to provide valuable input into crisis management. Informatics pharmacists can combine their clinical and information technology skills to help provide essential patient safety services related to medication management, procurement and analytics. The objective of this study was to determine the key opportunities for a pharmacist informatician to improve patient care and outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Fourteen expert informatics professionals involved in the provision of digital health in Queensland, Australia, were invited to participate in a brief semistructured interview. Transcripts were manually coded, through iterative readings of the text to identify participant responses related to opportunities for a pharmacist informatician to assist during COVID-19. Inductive thematic analysis as described by Braun and Clarke, was used to identify groups of text related to the provision of digital health, informatics and change of practice during a pandemic. The relevant codes were then grouped into themes to help answer the research question. KEY FINDINGS: Twelve experts agreed to participate, they included nine informatics pharmacists and three digital health experts from hospital and community. Two key themes and 13 codes related to enabling safer and more efficient workflow and use of data analytics to optimise care were identified. The first theme related to 'social distancing without compromising care' for example, by using the electronic capabilities of digital hospitals and telehealth services. The second theme related to the use of real-time data streaming to optimise patient flow and timely medication procurement and management. Examples of quotes from transcripts were used to provide context and answer the research question. CONCLUSIONS: The experts interviewed identified areas where informatics pharmacists have the potential to assist with maintaining high quality patient care during this pandemic, and in future disasters. Improving awareness, training, and the integration about informatics roles as a result of this global pandemic will likely assist with future patient management in the event of future disasters.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Informática Médica , Modelos Organizacionais , Pandemias , Farmacêuticos , Sistemas de Dados , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente , Distanciamento Físico , Papel Profissional , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Queensland
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1358, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649304

RESUMO

Data storage in DNA is a rapidly evolving technology that could be a transformative solution for the rising energy, materials, and space needs of modern information storage. Given that the information medium is DNA itself, its stability under different storage and processing conditions will fundamentally impact and constrain design considerations and data system capabilities. Here we analyze the storage conditions, molecular mechanisms, and stabilization strategies influencing DNA stability and pose specific design configurations and scenarios for future systems that best leverage the considerable advantages of DNA storage.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Sistemas de Dados , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação
16.
Eur J Radiol ; 137: 109615, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657477

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and determinants of radiologic imaging requests that are of inadequate quality according to the Reason for exam Imaging Reporting and Data System (RI-RADS). METHODS: This study included a random sample of 673 radiologic examinations performed at a tertiary care center. The quality of each imaging request was graded according to RI-RADS. Ordinal regression analysis was performed to determine the association of RI-RADS grade with patient age, gender, and hospital status, indication for imaging, requesting specialty, imaging modality, body region, time of examination, and relationship with previous imaging within the past one year. RESULTS: RI-RADS grades A (adequate request), B (barely adequate request), C (considerably limited request), and D (deficient request) were assigned to 159 (23.6 %), 166 (24.7 %), 214 (31.8 %), and 134 (19.9 %) of cases, respectively. Indication for imaging, requesting specialty, and body region were independently significantly associated with RI-RADS grades. Specifically, routine preoperative imaging (odds ratio [OR]: 3.422, P = 0.030) and transplantation imaging requests (OR: 8.710, P = 0.000) had a higher risk of poorer RI-RADS grades, whereas infection/inflammation as indication for imaging (OR: 0.411, P = 0.002), pediatrics as requesting specialty (OR: 0.400, P = 0.007), and head (OR: 0.384, P = 0.017), spine (OR: 0.346, P = 0.016), and upper extremity (OR: 0.208, P = 0.000) as body regions had a lower risk of poorer RI-RADS grades. CONCLUSION: The quality of radiologic imaging requests is inadequate in >75 % of cases, and is affected by several factors. The data from this study can be used as a baseline and benchmark for further investigation and improvement.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Radiologia , Criança , Sistemas de Dados , Humanos , Prevalência , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Eur Radiol ; 31(8): 6116-6124, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585994

RESUMO

"Node-RADS" addresses the lack of consensus in the radiologic assessment of lymph node involvement by cancer and meets the increasing demand for structured reporting on the likelihood of disease involvement. Node Reporting and Data System 1.0 (Node-RADS) systematically classifies the degree of suspicion of lymph node involvement based on the synthesis of established imaging findings. Straightforward definitions of imaging findings for two proposed scoring categories "size" and "configuration" are combined into assessment categories between 1 ("very low likelihood") and 5 ("very high likelihood"). This scoring system is suitable for assessing likely involvement of lymph nodes on CT and MRI scans. It can be applied at any anatomical site, and to regional and non-regional lymph nodes in relation to a primary tumor location. Node-RADS will improve communication with referring physicians and promote the consistency of reporting for primary staging and in response assessment settings. KEY POINTS: • Node-RADS standardizes reporting of possible cancer involvement of regional and distant lymph nodes on CT and MRI. • Node-RADS proposes the scoring categories "size" and "configuration" for assigning the 5-point Node-RADS score from 1 ("very low likelihood") to 5 ("very high likelihood"). • Node-RADS aims to increase consensus among radiologists for primary staging and in response assessment settings.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Dados , Linfonodos , Humanos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Metástase Linfática , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
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