Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.569
Filtrar
1.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 220(8): 495-500, nov. 2020. mapas, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187746

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: Desde diciembre del 2019, se está detectando en el mundo un incremento de casos de una nueva enfermedad causada por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). El objetivo de este artículo es proporcionar recomendaciones científicas para la prevención y el control de la COVID-19 en todo el mundo. MÉTODOS: Se han recopilado características demográficas generales, antecedentes epidemiológicos y síntomas clínicos de la COVID-19 recogidos en los sitios web de múltiples Comisiones Municipales de Salud en China. Aquí describimos las distribuciones temporales, geográficas y de población de la COVID-19. RESULTADOS: Hasta la medianoche del 10 de febrero del 2020, el número de casos confirmados de COVID-19 en China fue de 42.638, siendo Hubei la provincia con un mayor número de casos confirmados (31.728), seguida por Guangdong (1.177), Zhejiang (1.117) y la provincia de Henan (1.105), en China. El número de casos y la velocidad de confirmación en otras provincias fue más moderada que en la provincia de Hubei. La mediana (rango intecuartílico) de edad de 1.740 pacientes de COVID-19 fue de 44 años (33, 54), con un rango desde los 10 meses a los 89 años. CONCLUSIONES: La epidemia de COVID-19 se ha de considerar como una amenaza mundial, y los pasos encaminados para su control incluyen el diagnóstico temprano y su tratamiento, así como el aislamiento


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Since December 2019, increasing cases of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are being detected worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to provide a scientific reference for the global prevention and control of COVID-19. METHODS: General demographic characteristics, epidemiological history, and clinical symptoms of COVID-19 were collected that had been reported on the websites of multiple Municipal Health Commissions in China. We herein describe distributions in time, place, and population of COVID-19. RESULTS: As of midnight on February 10, 2020, the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in China was 42,638, and the province with the largest number of confirmed cases was Hubei (31728), followed by Guangdong (1177), Zhejiang (1117), and Henan (1105) province. The number of cases and the speed of confirmed cases in provinces other than Hubei were more moderate than those of the Hubei province. The median (interquartile range) age of 1740 patients with COVID-19 was 44 (33, 54) years, with a range of 10 months to 89 years. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 epidemic should be considered a global threat and the steps for control include early diagnosis and treatment, as well as isolation


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Distribuição Temporal , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/organização & administração , Estudos Ecológicos , Ameaças/análise , Isolamento de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico Precoce
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 733, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123779

RESUMO

Human-induced agricultural and developmental activities cause substantial alteration to the natural geography of a landscape; thereby accelerates the geologic soil erosion process. This necessitates quantification of catchment-scale soil erosion under both retrospective and future scenarios for efficient conservation of soil resources. Here, we present a revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) based soil erosion estimation framework at an unprecedentedly high spatial resolution (30 × 30 m) to quantify the average annual soil loss and sediment yield from an agriculture-dominated river basin. The input parameters were derived by using the observed rainfall data, soil characteristics (soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, organic matter content), and topographic characteristics (slope length and percent slope) derived from digital elevation model (DEM) and satellite imageries. The developed approach was evaluated in the Brahmani River basin (BRB) of eastern India, wherein the different RUSLE inputs, viz., rainfall erosivity (R factor), soil erodibility (K factor), topographic (LS factor), crop cover (C factor), and management practice (P factor) factors have the magnitude of 1937 to 4867 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, 0.023 to 0.039 t h ha MJ-1 ha-1 mm-1, 0.03 to 74, 0.16 to 1, and 0 to 1, respectively. The estimated average annual soil loss over the BRB ranged from 0 to 319.55 t ha-1 year-1, and subsequent erosion categorization revealed that 54.2% of basin area comes under extreme soil erosion zones in the baseline period. Similarly, the sediment yield estimates varied in the range of 0.96 to 133.31 t ha-1 year-1, and 35.81% area were identified as high soil erosion potential zones. The extent of erosion under climate change scenario was assessed using the outputs of HadGEM2-ES climate model for the future time scales of 2030, 2050, 2070, and 2080 under the four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5. The severity of soil erosion under climate change is expected to have a mixed impact in the range of -25 to 25% than the baseline scenario. The outcomes of this study will serve as a valuable tool for decision-makers while implementing management policies over the BRB, and can be well extended to any global catchment-scale applications.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Solo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Índia , Modelos Teóricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052916

RESUMO

Drawing on the recent advances in complex network theory, urban mobility flow patterns, typically encoded as origin-destination (OD) matrices, can be represented as weighted directed graphs, with nodes denoting city locations and weighted edges the number of trips between them. Such a graph can further be augmented by node attributes denoting the various socio-economic characteristics at a particular location in the city. In this paper, we study the spatio-temporal characteristics of "hotspots" of different types of socio-economic activities as characterized by recently developed attribute-augmented network centrality measures within the urban OD network. The workflow of the proposed paper comprises the construction of temporal OD networks using two custom data sets on urban mobility in Rome and London, the addition of socio-economic activity attributes to the OD network nodes, the computation of network centrality measures, the identification of "hotspots" and, finally, the visualization and analysis of measures of their spatio-temporal heterogeneity. Our results show structural similarities and distinctions between the spatial patterns of different types of human activity in the two cities. Our approach produces simple indicators thus opening up opportunities for practitioners to develop tools for real-time monitoring and visualization of interactions between mobility and economic activity in cities.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Movimento , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Londres , Roma , Análise Espaço-Temporal
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239326, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long distances to facilities, topographical constraints, inadequate service capacity of institutions and insufficient/ rudimentary road & transportation network culminate into unprecedented barriers to access. These barriers gets exacerbated in presence of external factors like conflict and political disruptions. Thus, this study was conducted in rural, remote and fragile region in India measuring geographical accessibility and modelling spatial coverage of public healthcare network. METHODS: Vector and raster based approaches were used to discern accessibility for various packages of service delivery. Alternative scenarios derived from local experiences were modelled using health facility, population and ancillary data. Based on that, a raster surface of travel time between facilities and population was developed by incorporating terrain, physical barriers, topography and travelling modes and speeds through various land-cover classes. Concomitantly, spatial coverage was modelled to delineate catchment areas. Further, underserved population and zonal statistics were assessed in an interactive modelling approach to ascertain spatial relationship between population, travel time and zonal boundaries. Finally, raster surface of travel time was re-modelled for the conflict situation in villages vulnerable to obstruction of access due to disturbed security scenario. RESULTS: Euclidean buffers revealed 11% villages without ambulatory & immunization care within 2 km radius. Similarly, for 5 km radius, 11% and 12% villages were bereft of delivery and inpatient care. Travel time accessibility analysis divulged walking scenario exhibiting lowest level of accessibility. Enabling motorized travel improved accessibility measures, with highest degree of accessibility for privately owned vehicle (motorcycle and cars). Differential results were found between packages of services where ambulatory & immunization care was relatively accessible by walking; whereas, delivery and inpatient care had a staggering average of three hours walking time. Even with best scenario, around 2/3rd population remained unserved for all package of services. Moreover, 90% villages in conflict zone grapples with inaccessibility when the scenario of heightened border tensions was considered. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated the application of GIS technique to facilitate evidence backed planning at granular level. Regardless of the scenario, the analysis divulged inaccessibility to delivery and inpatient care to be most pronounced and majority of population to be unserved. It was suggested to have concerted efforts to bolster already existing facilities and adapt systems approach to exploit synergies of inter-sectoral development.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Índia , Modelos Teóricos , População Rural , Transportes , Caminhada
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 668, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005999

RESUMO

Watershed morphometric assessment is about measurements and calculations of land surface forms for the purpose of understanding hydro-geomorphological character and patterns. Important natural environment geo-information and summary of the spatial characteristics of Tana River Basin (TRB) in Kenya have been obtained through hydro-geomorphometric analysis. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Digital Elevation Model (ASTERDEM) data and ArcGIS (ESRI Inc., version 10.4.1) together with published mathematical equations were applied to extract morphometric parameters of the drainage basin, which covers a total area of 94,930 km2 and a span of 527.75 km. The quantitative morphometric analysis considered a total of 28 relief, areal, and linear hydro-morphometric characteristics of the TRB. Relief parameters of the basin suggest moderate-to-low overall watershed steepness, upland with rolling land surface patterns, rugged landforms susceptible to erosion and sediment transportation, and a landscape in evolution process tending towards maturity. This means stability of the land surface can be attained with intensive land degradation reversing strategies like erosion control measures. Areal characteristics further support the basin's susceptibility to erosion as shown by stream length, stream drainage density, and circulatory ratio values. Also, the areal aspects portray peak runoffs with short duration flashes. Linear parameter value results such as bifurcation ratio imply that infiltration capacity varies with stream orders across the watershed. This hydro-geomorphometric analysis would be useful to land and water managers, researchers and practitioners of TRB, and other similar systems in designing and planning soil and water conservation and management practices such as soil erosion control, groundwater recharge activities, catchment modelling, runoff and flood studies, prospecting groundwater mapping, and biological applications.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Quênia , Rios , Solo
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 684, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026519

RESUMO

Groundwater quality monitoring is a critical part of water management in all groundwater basins. In order to be effective and to meet the required needs, groundwater quality monitoring networks (GQMNs) must be designed to be able to operate long-term and economically without minimal disruption. The analytical hierarchical process (AHP), a multi-criteria decision-making program, was used to design a GQMN for an alluvial aquifer located in the Islam Abad plain west of Kermanshah province, Iran. This semi-arid area is subject to groundwater depletion and water quality changes. The model used 8 primary criteria sub-divided with 5 sub-criteria based on a combination of empirical data and expert opinion. The primary criteria included density of wells, well discharge, well depth, water quality (conductivity), flow direction, annual groundwater extraction, water level declines, and accessibility. The model showed that 59 of 254 production wells in the basin could provide optimal monitoring locations. When a second screening of the wells was used to determine constraints (physical conditions of the wells and pumps, owner permission of use, type of the pump, etc.), the number of wells was reduced to 13 wells. An initial round of water sampling and chemical analysis demonstrated that the design of the GQMN met the goals of the water management agency of the region.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Água Subterrânea , Monitoramento Ambiental , Irã (Geográfico) , Poços de Água
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2020485, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897373

RESUMO

Importance: A stay-at-home social distancing mandate is a key nonpharmacological measure to reduce the transmission rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), but a high rate of adherence is needed. Objective: To examine the association between the rate of human mobility changes and the rate of confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used daily travel distance and home dwell time derived from millions of anonymous mobile phone location data from March 11 to April 10, 2020, provided by the Descartes Labs and SafeGraph to quantify the degree to which social distancing mandates were followed in the 50 US states and District of Columbia and the association of mobility changes with rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Exposure: State-level stay-at-home orders during the COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the association of state-specific rates of COVID-19 confirmed cases with the change rates of median travel distance and median home dwell time of anonymous mobile phone users. The increase rates are measured by the exponent in curve fitting of the COVID-19 cumulative confirmed cases, while the mobility change (increase or decrease) rates were measured by the slope coefficient in curve fitting of median travel distance and median home dwell time for each state. Results: Data from more than 45 million anonymous mobile phone devices were analyzed. The correlation between the COVID-19 increase rate and travel distance decrease rate was -0.586 (95% CI, -0.742 to -0.370) and the correlation between COVID-19 increase rate and home dwell time increase rate was 0.526 (95% CI, 0.293 to 0.700). Increases in state-specific doubling time of total cases ranged from 1.0 to 6.9 days (median [interquartile range], 2.7 [2.3-3.3] days) before stay-at-home orders were enacted to 3.7 to 30.3 days (median [interquartile range], 6.0 [4.8-7.1] days) after stay-at-home social distancing orders were put in place, consistent with pandemic modeling results. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that stay-at-home social distancing mandates, when they were followed by measurable mobility changes, were associated with reduction in COVID-19 spread. These results come at a particularly critical period when US states are beginning to relax social distancing policies and reopen their economies. These findings support the efficacy of social distancing and could help inform future implementation of social distancing policies should they need to be reinstated during later periods of COVID-19 reemergence.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960920

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of different playing strategies on external and internal loads in female tennis players during match play. Also, the underlying effects on the technical-tactical actions and activity profiles were examined. Twelve well-trained female players (age: 25±5 years; maximum oxygen uptake: 40.9±4.3 ml/kg/min) played points against an opponent of similar ability outdoors on red-clay courts. The players played points over five playing conditions. Before each condition, the players were instructed to apply either a passive, an active, or their own playing strategy (free play) to succeed. The five conditions were played in a randomized order, whereas the condition with the own strategy was always played first and served as control. During play, the external and internal loads were investigated by 10 Hz global positioning system, 100 Hz inertial measurement unit, short-range telemetry, capillary blood, and visual analog scale procedures. A 25 Hz video camera was used to examine the technical-tactical actions and activity profiles. Compared to the control condition, the passive, active, and mixed playing strategy conditions induce up to large effects on the external loads (running distances with high acceleration and deceleration), up to moderate effects on the internal loads (energy expenditures spent with high metabolic power, lactate concentration, and rating of effort), and up to very large effects on the technical-tactical actions (number of ground strokes and errors) and activity profiles (strokes per rally, rally duration, work to rest ratio, and effective playing time). Our study shows that passive, active, and mixed playing strategies have an impact on the external and internal loads, technical-tactical actions, and activity profiles of female tennis players during match play. This finding should be considered for practical purposes like match analyses and training procedures in the tennis environment.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Tênis/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111312, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927188

RESUMO

The research assessed land use/cover changes and their socio-economic impacts on local resident farmers in ward 32 of Mazowe District. A mixed method research design that combines both qualitative and quantitative approaches was adopted. Questionnaires, interviews and observations were employed to gather data from the field. GIS and Remote sensing techniques were used for land use/cover change detection and calculations. Data collected from the field was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0 and Microsoft excel. Arc map 10.5 was used to analyze Remote sensing data. Four major land use/covers namely forest, grassland, water and cultivated were identified as baseline land covers of Mazowe ward 32 in 2000. The research revealed that there has been significant loss in forest, grassland and wetland/water cover and gain in cultivated and bare land cover between 2000 and 2018 in ward 32 of Mazowe District. Scarcity of high energy tree species, fruit trees, construction poles and extinction of wild animals are some of the observed impacts of forest cover loss. The study recommends that Mazowe EMA, RDC and Forestry Commission should cooperate in monitoring natural resources in Mazowe District to ensure sustainable utilization.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Zimbábue
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3631-3641, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893552

RESUMO

Zha-xun is widely used in Tibetan medicine and is also an international traditional medicine. This study believes that the black organic matter constituting Zha-xun is mainly stored in the rocks. The exudation points of Zha-xun mostly distribute on the cliffs of high mountains, which makes it difficult to evaluate its resource distribution and storage area. This paper was aimed at the exudation environment of Tibetan medicine Zha-xun in Sichuan province and 6 ecological environmental factors of the Zha-xun were determined via the field investigation. Combining with these 6 factors as well as the GIS data of Sichuan province, ArcGIS software was used to extract ideal environmental factors which are suitable for exudation of Zha-xun, including geology types, geomorphological types, altitude, slope, vegetation types, and mean annual temperature. The spatial overlay analyses on the extracted environmental factors were carried out to predict the distribution area of Zha-xun in Sichuan province. Afterwards, field investigation was conducted to verify the prediction. The prediction showed that the exudation spots of Zha-xun in Sichuan province mainly located in 29 counties including 12 in Aba Prefecture, 15 in Ganzi Prefecture, and Muli County and Dechang County in Liangshan Prefecture. The deposit areas of Zha-xun were located in the Triassic, Devonian and Silurian strata and were basically distributed in 9 basins, including Dingqu River, Yalong River, Xianshui River, Dadu River, Suomo River, Minjiang River and Baishui River, characterized by a fragmented patch-like distribution along the mountain ranges, and the exudation spots of Zha-xun were mainly scattered among the rain-free cliffs' concavities of river valleys at a certain altitude. The prediction was consistent with the field investigation results, which suggested that it is possible and feasible to predict distribution of Zha-xun resources based on GIS-analysis. The study may provide a scientific basis for comprehensive investigations into Zha-xun's distribution and formation mechanism, thus promoting rational development and utilization of Zha-xun resources.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana , China , Geologia , Medicina Tradicional , Temperatura
11.
Global Health ; 16(1): 85, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Restricting mobility is a central aim for lowering contact rates and preventing COVID-19 transmission. Yet the impact on mobility of different non-pharmaceutical countermeasures in the earlier stages of the pandemic is not well-understood. DESIGN: Trends were evaluated using Citymapper's mobility index covering 2nd to 26th March 2020, expressed as percentages of typical usage periods from 0% as the lowest and 100% as normal. China and India were not covered. Multivariate fixed effects models were used to estimate the association of policies restricting movement on mobility before and after their introduction. Policy restrictions were assessed using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Stringency Index as well as measures coding the timing and degree of school and workplace closures, transport restrictions, and cancellation of mass gatherings. SETTING: 41 cities worldwide. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Citymapper's mobility index. RESULTS: Mobility declined in all major cities throughout March. Larger declines were seen in European than Asian cities. The COVID-19 Government Response Stringency Index was strongly associated with declines in mobility (r = - 0.75, p < 0.001). After adjusting for time-trends, we observed that implementing non-pharmaceutical countermeasures was associated with a decline of mobility of 10.0% for school closures (95% CI: 4.36 to 15.7%), 15.0% for workplace closures (95% CI: 10.2 to 19.8%), 7.09% for cancelling public events (95% CI: 1.98 to 12.2%), 18.0% for closing public transport (95% CI: 6.74 to 29.2%), 13.3% for restricting internal movements (95% CI: 8.85 to 17.8%) and 5.30% for international travel controls (95% CI: 1.69 to 8.90). In contrast, as expected, there was no association between population mobility changes and fiscal or monetary measures or emergency healthcare investment. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the effect of public policy on mobility in the early stages is crucial to slowing and reducing COVID-19 transmission. By using Citymapper's mobility index, this work provides the first evidence about trends in mobility and the impacts of different policy interventions, suggesting that closure of public transport, workplaces and schools are particularly impactful.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Política Pública , Fatores de Tempo , Viagem/legislação & jurisprudência , Voluntários
12.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 26(6): 622-631, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate predictors of stay-at-home order adoption among US states, as well as associations between order enactment and residents' mobility. DESIGN: We assess associations between state characteristics and adoption timing. We also assess associations between enactment and aggregate state-level measures of residents' mobility (Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports). SETTING: The United States. PARTICIPANTS: Adoption population: 50 US states and District of Columbia. Mobility population: state residents using devices with GPS tracking accessible by Google. INTERVENTION AND EXPOSURES: State characteristics: COVID-19 diagnoses per capita, 2016 Trump vote share, Republican governor, Medicaid expansion status, hospital beds per capita, public health funding per capita, state and local tax revenue per capita, median household income, population, percent residents 65 years or older, and percent urban residents. Mobility exposure: indicator of order enactment by March 29, 2020 (date of mobility data collection). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Order adoption timing: days since adoption of first order. Mobility: changes in mobility to 6 locations from February 6 to March 29, 2020. RESULTS: In bivariate models, order adoption was associated with COVID-19 diagnoses (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.01), Republican governor (HR = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.44), Medicaid expansion (HR = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.40 to 4.48), and hospital capacity (HR = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.70), consistent with findings in the multivariate models. Order enactment was positively associated with time at home (beta (B) = 1.31; 95% CI, 0.35 to 2.28) and negatively associated with time at retail and recreation (B = -7.17; 95% CI, -10.89 to -3.46) and grocery and pharmacy (B = -8.28; 95% CI, -11.97 to -4.59) locations. Trump vote share was associated with increased mobility for 4 of 6 mobility measures. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: While politics influenced order adoption, public health considerations were equally influential. While orders were associated with decreased mobility, political ideology was associated with increased mobility under social distancing policies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Política Pública , Quarentena , Viagem , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Distância Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237863, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986700

RESUMO

The green development of coastal urban agglomerations, which are strategic core areas of national economic growth in China, has become a major focus of both academics and government agencies. In this paper, China's coastal urban agglomeration is taken as the research area, aiming at the serious air pollution problem of coastal urban agglomeration, geographic information system (ArcGIS10.2) spatial analysis and the spatial Dubin model were applied to National Aeronautics and Space Administration atmospheric remote sensing image inversion fine particulate matter (PM2.5) data from 2010-2016 to reveal the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics and Influence mechanism of PM2.5 in China's coastal urban agglomerations, with a view to providing a reference value for coordinating air pollution in the coastal cities of the world. From 2010-2016, the PM2.5 concentration in China's coastal urban agglomerations decreased as a whole, and large spatial differences in PM2.5 concentration were observed in China's coastal urban agglomerations; the core high-pollution areas were the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Shandong Peninsula, and Yangtze River Delta urban agglomerations. Large spatial differences in PM2.5 concentration were also observed within individual urban agglomerations, with higher PM2.5 concentrations found in the northern parts of the urban agglomerations. Significant spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity were observed among PM2.5-polluted cities in China's coastal urban agglomerations. The northern coastal urban agglomerations formed a relatively stable and continuous high-pollution zone. The spatial Dubin model was used to analyze the driving factors of PM2.5 pollution in coastal urban agglomerations. Together, meteorological, socioeconomic, pollution source, and ecological factors affected the spatial characteristics of PM2.5 pollution during the study period, and the overall effect was a mixed effect with significant spatial variation. Among them, meteorological factors were the greatest driver of PM2.5 pollution. In the short term, the rapid increase in population density, industrial emissions, industrial energy consumption, and total traffic emissions were the important driving factors of PM2.5 pollution in the coastal urban agglomerations of China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Ecossistema , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Urbanização , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Algoritmos , China , Análise Fatorial , Produto Interno Bruto , Modelos Teóricos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Tempo
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238711, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966287

RESUMO

Winter recreation and tourism continue to expand worldwide, and where these activities overlap with valuable wildlife habitat, there is greater potential for conservation concerns. Wildlife populations can be particularly vulnerable to disturbance in alpine habitats as helicopters and snowmachines are increasingly used to access remote backcountry terrain. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) have adapted hibernation strategies to survive this period when resources and energy reserves are limited, and disturbance could negatively impact fitness and survival. To help identify areas of potential conflict between helicopter skiing and denning brown bears in Alaska, we developed a model to predict alpine denning habitat and an associated data-based framework for mitigating disturbance activities. Following den emergence in spring, we conducted three annual aerial surveys (2015-2017) and used locations from three GPS-collared bears (2008-2014) to identify 89 brown bear dens above the forest line. We evaluated brown bear den site selection of land cover, terrain, and climate factors using resource selection function (RSF) models. Our top model supported the hypothesis that bears selected dens based on terrain and climate factors that maximized thermal efficiency. Brown bears selected den sites characterized by steep slopes at moderate elevations in smooth, well-drained topographies that promoted vegetation and deep snow. We used the RSF model to map relative probability of den selection and found 85% of dens occurred within terrain predicted as prime denning habitat. Brown bear exposure to helicopter disturbance was evident as moderate to high intensities of helicopter flight tracking data overlapped prime denning habitat, and we quantified where the risk of these impact was greatest. We also documented evidence of late season den abandonment due to disturbance from helicopter skiing. The results from this study provide valuable insights into bear denning habitat requirements in subalpine and alpine landscapes. Our quantitative framework can be used to support conservation planning for winter recreation industries operating in habitats occupied by denning brown bears.


Assuntos
Clima , Ecossistema , Esqui , Ursidae/fisiologia , Alaska , Animais , Intervalos de Confiança , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Geografia , Modelos Teóricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238660, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886720

RESUMO

As many other wild living species, black grouse Tetrao tetrix has to cope with anthropogenic disturbances in many habitats. Impacts of tourism and outdoor recreation on grouse species Tetraoninae have been subject to several studies in mountainous habitats in Central Europe and the United Kingdom. The geographically isolated and critically endangered black grouse population of Lower Saxony (North Germany) has been consistently monitored but beyond that poorly studied. This also applies to the key habitats of the nature reserve Lüneburg Heath (Lüneburger Heide) which, in turn, serves as a recreational area as well. In this study, the impact of tourism activity on habitat use of black grouse was investigated using data of GPS-tracked individuals. Additionally, visitor numbers on public and (usually undisturbed) closed routes were monitored using infrared light barriers. The spatio-temporal distribution of locations and the recreational activity were evaluated by linear mixed-effects models. Tagged individuals avoided the vicinity of public routes and avoiding distances were directly related to intensity of human activity. There was no seasonal change of black grouse habitat use alongside public routes. However, towards closed routes, significantly higher distances appeared during peak phases of visitor numbers (August and September), implying temporary increased disturbance levels within a key refuge area. Diurnal adaptation of habitat use was strongly dependent on the route density within the home range. Individuals used the vicinity of public trails at night and dawn but evaded these habitats during peak human activity around noon and afternoon. Recreational disturbances appeared to significantly affect the effective habitat availability for black grouse in the nature reserve. Visual cover by vegetation, however, seemed to diminish negative effects emerging from hiking trails. This provides an effective protective measure which requires minimal effort for the local conservation management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Galliformes/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Geografia , Alemanha , Atividades Humanas , Modelos Lineares , Estações do Ano , Telemetria , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899619

RESUMO

Keeping the dynamic nature of Coronaviruses (COVID-19) pandemic in mind, we have opted to explore the importance of the decentralization of COVID-19 testing centers across the country of Bangladesh in order to combat the pandemic. In doing so, we considered quantitative, qualitative, and geographic information systems (GIS) datasets to identify the location of existing COVID-19 testing centers. Moreover, we attempted to collect data from the existing centers in order to demonstrate testing times at the divisional level of the country. Results show that the number of testing centers is not enough to cater to the vast population of the country. Additionally, we found that the number of days it takes to receive the results from the COVID-19 testing centers is not optimal at divisional cities, let alone the remote rural areas. Finally, we propose a set of recommendations in order to enhance the existing system to assist more people under a testing range of COVID-19 viruses at the local level.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Pandemias
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 652, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964332

RESUMO

Location selection for offshore wind farms is a major challenge for renewable energy policy, marine spatial planning, and environmental conservation. This selection constitutes a multi-criteria decision-making problem, through which parameters like wind velocity, water depth, shorelines, fishing areas, shipping routes, environmental protection areas, transportation, and military zones should be jointly investigated. The aim of the present study was thus to develop an integrated methodology for assessing the siting of bottom-fixed offshore wind farms in two different countries (with different legal, political, and socio/economic characteristics). Our methodology combined multi-criteria decision-making methods and geographical information systems and was implemented in Cyclades (Greece) and in the sea area of Izmir region (Turkey). Experts used fuzzy sets and linguistic terms to achieve more consistent and independent rankings and results. In the Turkish region, the results showed that 519 km2 (10.23%) of the study area is suitable for offshore wind farms, while in the Greek region, only 289 km2 (3.22%) of the study area was found to be suitable. This spatial suitability analysis may contribute to provide some useful recommendations for the spatial marine planning at the regional scale, as well as for the preliminary assessment of new offshore wind farms in both countries.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Monitoramento Ambiental , Grécia , Centrais Elétricas , Turquia , Vento
18.
Sci Adv ; 6(37)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917709

RESUMO

Mistrust of scientific evidence and government-issued guidelines is increasingly correlated with political affiliation. Survey evidence has documented skepticism in a diverse set of issues including climate change, vaccine hesitancy, and, most recently, COVID-19 risks. Less well understood is whether these beliefs alter high-stakes behavior. Combining GPS data for 2.7 million smartphone users in Florida and Texas with 2016 U.S. presidential election precinct-level results, we examine how conservative-media dismissals of hurricane advisories in 2017 influenced evacuation decisions. Likely Trump-voting Florida residents were 10 to 11 percentage points less likely to evacuate Hurricane Irma than Clinton voters (34% versus 45%), a gap not present in prior hurricanes. Results are robust to fine-grain geographic controls, which compare likely Clinton and Trump voters living within 150 m of each other. The rapid surge in media-led suspicion of hurricane forecasts-and the resulting divide in self-protective measures-illustrates a large behavioral consequence of science denialism.


Assuntos
Negação em Psicologia , Política , Confiança/psicologia , Movimento contra Vacinação , Betacoronavirus , Mudança Climática , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Florida , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Governo , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Texas , Estados Unidos , Recusa de Vacinação
19.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 24(10): 2755-2764, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750960

RESUMO

The fast evolving and deadly outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed grand challenges to human society. To slow the spread of virus infections and better respond for community mitigation, by advancing capabilities of artificial intelligence (AI) and leveraging the large-scale and up-to-date data generated from heterogeneous sources (e.g., disease related data, demographic, mobility and social media data), in this work, we propose and develop an AI-driven system (named α-Satellite), as an initial offering, to provide dynamic COVID-19 risk assessment in the United States. More specifically, given a point of interest (POI), the system will automatically provide risk indices associated with it in a hierarchical manner (e.g., state, county, POI) to enable people to select appropriate actions for protection while minimizing disruptions to daily life. To comprehensively evaluate our system for dynamic COVID-19 risk assessment, we first conduct a set of empirical studies; and then we validate it based on a real-world dataset consisting of 5,060 annotated POIs, which achieves the area of under curve (AUC) of 0.9202. As of June 18, 2020, α-Satellite has had 56,980 users. Based on the feedback from its large-scale users, we perform further analysis and have three key findings: i) people from more severe regions (i.e., with larger numbers of COVID-19 cases) have stronger interests using our system to assist with actionable information; ii) users are more concerned about their nearby areas in terms of COVID-19 risks; iii) the user feedback about their perceptions towards COVID-19 risks of their query POIs indicate the challenge of public concerns about the safety versus its negative effects on society and the economy. Our system and generated datasets have been made publicly accessible via our website.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Benchmarking , Betacoronavirus , Biologia Computacional , Sistemas Computacionais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Bases de Dados Factuais , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
20.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 96, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has reported associations between features of the residential built environment and physical activity but these studies have mainly been cross-sectional, limiting inference. This paper examines whether changes in a range of residential built environment features are associated with changes in measures of physical activity in adults. It also explores whether observed effects are moderated by socio-economic status. METHODS: Data from the Examining Neighbourhood Activity in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) study were used. A cohort of 1278 adults seeking to move into social, intermediate, and market-rent East Village accommodation was recruited in 2013-2015, and followed up after 2 years. Accelerometer-derived steps (primary outcome), and GIS-derived measures of residential walkability, park proximity and public transport accessibility were obtained both at baseline and follow-up. Daily steps at follow-up were regressed on daily steps at baseline, change in built environment exposures and confounding variables using multilevel linear regression to assess if changes in neighbourhood walkability, park proximity and public transport accessibility were associated with changes in daily steps. We also explored whether observed effects were moderated by housing tenure as a marker of socio-economic status. RESULTS: Between baseline and follow-up, participants experienced a 1.4 unit (95%CI 1.2,1.6) increase in neighbourhood walkability; a 270 m (95%CI 232,307) decrease in distance to their nearest park; and a 0.7 point (95% CI 0.6,0.9) increase in accessibility to public transport. A 1 s.d. increase in neighbourhood walkability was associated with an increase of 302 (95%CI 110,494) daily steps. A 1 s.d. increase in accessibility to public transport was not associated with any change in steps overall, but was associated with a decrease in daily steps amongst social housing seekers (- 295 steps (95%CI - 595, 3), and an increase in daily steps for market-rent housing seekers (410 95%CI -191, 1010) (P-value for effect modification = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Targeted changes in the residential built environment may result in increases in physical activity levels. However, the effect of improved accessibility to public transport may not be equitable, showing greater benefit to the more advantaged.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Ambiente Construído , Exercício Físico , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Características de Residência , Caminhada , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Londres , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parques Recreativos , Transportes , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA