Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.172
Filtrar
1.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e92, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928567

RESUMO

AIMS: Research from high-income countries has implicated travel distance to mental health services as an important factor influencing treatment-seeking for mental disorders. This study aimed to test the extent to which travel distance to the nearest depression treatment provider is associated with treatment-seeking for depression in rural India. METHODS: We used data from a population-based survey of adults with probable depression (n = 568), and calculated travel distance from households to the nearest public depression treatment provider with network analysis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). We tested the association between travel distance to the nearest public depression treatment provider and 12 month self-reported use of services for depression. RESULTS: We found no association between travel distance and the probability of seeking treatment for depression (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.98-1.02, p = 0.78). Those living in the immediate vicinity of public depression treatment providers were just as unlikely to seek treatment as those living 20 km or more away by road. There was evidence of interaction effects by caste, employment status and perceived need for health care, but these effect sizes were generally small. CONCLUSIONS: Geographic accessibility - as measured by travel distance - is not the primary barrier to seeking treatment for depression in rural India. Reducing travel distance to public mental health services will not of itself reduce the depression treatment gap for depression, at least in this setting, and decisions about the best platform to deliver mental health services should not be made on this basis.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 71, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894417

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between bioclimatic comfort and land use in Trabzon by using geographical information systems and remote sensing technologies. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the bioclimatic conditions of the years 1985, 1994, 2005, and 2018 with the use of land in the same years in the province of Trabzon in seasonal and annual periods. Physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index, which takes into consideration the physiological characteristics of humans, was used when determining bioclimatic comfort zones. The meteorological parameters used in the calculation of this index are as follows: daily average temperature values reduced to sea level, daily average relative humidity, and wind speed. The inverse distance weighting (IDW) method was preferred in the calculation of the spatial distribution of the obtained values at sea level. Using DEM data, height-dependent PET values were obtained and bioclimatic comfort maps were generated. According to the years of the bioclimatic comfort maps produced, land use maps were created by using CORINE land cover data. Then, the relationship between bioclimatic comfort zones and land use was examined.


Assuntos
Clima , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Temperatura Ambiente , Vento
3.
Waste Manag ; 102: 613-623, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783197

RESUMO

Waste collection is an important functional element in a modern waste management system; and may account for up to half of the total expenditure on waste management in industrialized nations. Most optimization of waste collection studies include truck route distance and fuel consumption considerations without explicitly considering the inter-relationships of the model parameters. This study however delineates the complex inter-relationships of waste composition, collection frequency, collection type, and truck compartment configurations in a small waste collection zone in Austin, Texas. A total of 48 different scenarios are modelled and investigated. Truck travel distances are found sensitive to collection frequency, truck capacity, volume ratio of truck compartment, and waste density. The results showed that the increase in waste density and waste collection frequency helped to save up to 18.2% in travel distances and 41.9% in travel time. Waste composition is significant in travel distance, regardless of truck design. Increasing truck capacity by 25% helped to save 4.1-24.4% of truck travel distances. Optimal volume ratio of truck compartments was 50:50 (50% volume for garbage and 50% volume for recyclables); a finding that is different than what is currently reported in the literature; pointing to the site-specific nature of studies of this type. The use of dual compartment trucks helps to reduce travel distances by up to 23.0% and travel time by up to 14.3%. It appears that the minimization of operation time within the collection area is key to an efficient system.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Veículos Automotores , Texas
4.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 266-273, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424577

RESUMO

Colombian forensic investigators required assistance locating clandestine burials of missing persons related to human right atrocities from 14 years ago. Geoscientific search methods were trialled, including a predictive spatial statistical model, using various input and database information, to select the most likely grave locations in difficult mountainous terrain. Groundwork using forensic geomorphology, near-surface geophysics (ERT) and subsequent probing identified suspect burial positions. One site was in mountainous terrain and the other in former school grounds, both difficult to access and in poor weather conditions. In the mountainous area, a negative resistivity anomaly area was identified and intrusively investigated, found to be a buried rock. In school grounds, after MESP and intelligence were used to identify a burial site, surface depressions were identified, and ERT datasets collected over the highest priority depression; intrusive investigations discovered a hand-dug pit containing animal bones. This approach is suggested for Latin American searches.


Assuntos
Sepultamento , Colômbia , Impedância Elétrica , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Estatísticos , Software
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134327, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522045

RESUMO

The focus of this novel study was to determine the comparative suitability of intertidal macroalgae production along the coast of the contiguous United States and determine the optimal locations to consider commercial cultivation using geographic information systems (GIS) software. Intertidal macroalgae cultivation represents an immense opportunity in the United States. The market demand for macroalgae has been growing and is expected to continue with the discovery of new uses. Currently, the coastal waters of the United States are extremely underutilized, particularly for macroalgae production. This study considered economic and environmental factors at a national scale, finally assessing the viability in a representative body of water with in-situ water sampling. The results of this study suggest that intertidal macroalgae cultivation is most ideally suited for the southeastern United States, primarily due to lower costs of production and more hospitable coastlines. Based on a limited water quality samples, it is feasible for macroalgae cultivation. However, due to the informational deficits, as acknowledged in this study, more work is required to refine and enhance the assessment model. This paper identifies these gaps and lists recommendations to overcome these knowledge gaps.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Água do Mar , Estados Unidos , Água , Qualidade da Água
6.
Waste Manag ; 102: 919-931, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841984

RESUMO

The analysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) selective collection (SC) scenarios is compulsory for planning future policies and actions towards circular economy. The use of geographic information system (GIS) is appropriated for obtaining reliable data about SC yields and management costs. However, in low-middle income countries, advanced assessments are difficult to introduce due to the lack of technical knowledge, financial support and the presence of the informal recycling sector. This research aims to assess the main potentialities of the introduction of SC systems in a Bolivian developing city taking into account the informal SC system in place. The study was conducted with QGIS3.8 software in order to evaluate the main advantages of the implementation of formal and informal recycling chains. Results reported that, comparing the implementation of formal SC of MSW with the scenario that considered the inclusion of the informal recycling, the activity of waste pickers allows reducing the expenses of about 10%, increasing the recycling rate of about 3.5%, and reducing the distances traveled with compactor trucks of about 7%. It means that, the annual path traveled by the collection trucks for gathering about 16,000ty-1, is reduced by 2734kmy-1, reducing the waste disposed to landfill of about 543.6ty-1 and the expenses of about €59,000 per year. The presentation of these results to policy-makers can support decision-making boosting the implementation of recycling activities including waste pickers. The study provided a contribution to the scientific literature assessing the main challenges and opportunities for implementing the circular economy in developing regions.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Bolívia , Cidades , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 2, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792634

RESUMO

Water and land both are limited resources. Current management strategies are facing multiple challenges to meet food security of an increasing population in numerous South Asian countries, including Pakistan. The study of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) and land surface temperature (LST) is important as both provide critical information for policymaking of natural resources. We spatially examined LCLU and LST changes in district Multan, Pakistan, and its impacts on vegetation cover and water during 1988 to 2017. The LCLUC indicate that rice and sugarcane had less volatility of change in comparison with both cotton and wheat. Producer's accuracy (PA) is the map accuracy (the producer of map), but user's accuracy (UA) is the accuracy from the point of view of a map user, not the map maker. Average overall producer's and user's accuracy for the region was 85.7% and 87.7% for Rabi (winter) and Kharif (summer) seasons, respectively. The results of this study showed that 'built-up area' increased with 7.2% of all the classes during 1988 to 2017 in the Multan district. Anthropogenic activities decreased the vegetation, leading to an increase in LST in study area. Changes on LCLU and LST during the last 30 years have shown that vegetation pattern has changed and temperature has increased in the Multan district.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Paquistão , Plantas , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente , Urbanização
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between sociodemographic characteristics of census tracts and the presence/quality of public open spaces and physical activity facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 643 census tracts in Florianópolis, Brazil, the presence and quality of public open spaces and physical activity facilities were objectively analyzed and the data by census tracts using Geographic Information Systems was treated. Outcomes were analyzed considering the census tracts as having: ≥ 1 public open spaces; ≥ 1 public open spaces with high quality; ≥ 2 physical activity facilities and high-quality physical activity facilities. Sociodemographic characteristics were the independent variables. Logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Census tracts with a medium-income (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.1-3.0) and high-income (OR = 2.4; 95%CI 1.4-4.0), in those with medium (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0-2.7) and high residential density (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1,2-3.3), and with higher proportions of older adults (OR = 3.3; 95%CI 1.9-5.7) had a higher proportion of public open spaces. Census tracts with higher proportions of children/adolescents (OR = 0.3; 95%CI 0.2-0.6) and non-white residents (OR= 0.6; 95%CI 0.3-0.9) were less likely to contain public open spaces. The tracts with medium (OR = 4.0; 95%CI 1.4-11.3) and high-income (OR = 3.6; 95%CI 1.2-10.2) were more likely to contain public open spaces with ≥ 2 structures for physical activity, compared with those with low-income. We observed the inverse in sectors with a high proportion of non-white residents (OR = 0.3; 95%CI 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Census tracts with higher proportions of children or adolescents, non-white individuals and those in the low-income strata had lower odds of containing public open spaces and physical activity facilities.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Logradouros Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações Esportivas e Recreacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Censos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Meio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 9, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802257

RESUMO

Solid waste is one of the important causes of the environmental crisis that negatively impacts human health throughout the world and is fast approaching a disaster level that will pose a direct threat to human life. As with all other environmental problems, the increase in solid waste production that goes hand in hand with growing population and rising consumption has become a focus of great concern. Along with these rising levels, the investment, management and maintenance of solid waste collection and transport vehicles is seeing a continual increase in financial outlay. It is clear from the budgets of local authority solid waste management systems, 65 to 80% of which are accounted for by domestic waste, that the collection and transport of solid waste is a high-cost process and that this expenditure can be significantly reduced by the reorganisation of solid waste collection routing schedules and the minimization of collection frequency. This study demonstrates a linear programming model in order to develop an optimal routing schedule for solid waste collection and transportation, thereby reducing costs to a minimum. The neighbourhood of Veysel Karani in the Haliliye District of Sanliurfa Province, Turkey, was specifically selected for this case study, having the suitable socio-economic and demographic variables to be representative of a metropolitan urban area. Firstly, the data regarding the municipal solid waste collection and transport routes were obtained from the local authority. Analysis and verification of these data were then performed. With the field study, these data were verified on-site, and the missing data were completed. Linear programming and geographic information system (GIS) analysis were used to determine the best route. Consequently, it is concluded that it is possible to save the route by 28% with GIS analysis and 33% with linear programming analysis according to the existing municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Programação Linear , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos Sólidos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Cidades , Custos e Análise de Custo , Desastres/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos/economia , Eliminação de Resíduos/normas , Transportes , Turquia , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/economia
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1414-1419, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838814

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the spatial distribution of low birth weight (LBW) and the potential environmental risk factors and provide the evidence for the prevention and intervention of LBW. Methods: Data were from a surveillance system for newly born population and adverse pregnancy outcome between 2007 and 2012 in Pingding county, Shanxi province. The data from 313 villages were analyzed. Spatial hierarchical Bayesian model was used to adjust the risk of LBW at village level, Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* were used to analyze the difference in distribution of LBW risk area. Spatial negative binomial model was used to evaluate the association between the risk of LBW and chemical fertilizer application. Results: A total of 18 749 new births were recorded between 2007 and 2012, including 911 LBW cases, the total incidence of LBW was 4.86%. The result of the spatial hierarchical Bayesian model showed that high-risk area of LBW was in the southeast of Pingding and low-risk area was in the middle west of Pingding. The result of Moran's I showed that there was a clustering pattern of LBW risk, and Getis-Ord Gi* found a high risk (hot spot) area in the south area. Moreover, the findings of association analysis showed that the risk of LBW increased with the increased chemical fertilizer application at village level. Conclusions: There were area specific differences in the risk of LBW, and dose-response relationship between chemical fertilizer application and the risk of LBW. Our findings suggest that maternal exposure to chemical fertilizer during pregnancy might be a potential risk factor for LBW in rural area.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Fertilizantes/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/etnologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espacial
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 47, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844993

RESUMO

The present study aimed to estimate soil erosion in Machados County, Brazil. Rainfall erosivity was calculated using monthly and annual precipitation averages over a 30-year interval, soil erodibility was obtained with a granularity-based equation, and topography and land cover were obtained from DEM data and Sentinel - 2B imagery, respectively. A GIS interface was used to spatialize parameter results and for topography and land cover analysis. The achieved results allowed surmising that the soil loss for the study region risk is low, but significant, with a mean value of 8.11 t/ha year. About a quarter of the total area presented high soil loss, above 20 t/ha year. The biggest influential factors were soil erodibility, with a mean value of 0.028, and land cover, averaging 0.1409. The topographic factor averaged 3.414 and rain erosivity, found to be 2747.22 mm/year, is considered low for the region. Given a lack of conservative practices observed during field work, the soil stewarship P factor was considered 1 for the assessment. The use of orbital images to obtain C factor and the expression applied to calculate soil erodibility provided adequate results. In addition, there is a need for research to monitor and quantify erosion processes in Brazilian semiarid, as well as their erosion tolerance.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Chuva , Solo
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 776, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776793

RESUMO

In order to fill a gap in the monitoring of water quality in Brazil, the objective of this study was to propose a methodology to support the allocation of water quality monitoring stations in river basins. To achieve this goal, eight criteria were selected and weighted according to their degree of importance. It was taken into account the opinion of water resources management experts. In addition, a decision support system was designed so that the methodology could be used in the allocation of water quality monitoring stations by researchers and management bodies of water resources, to be fully implemented in geographic information system environment. In order to demonstrate the potential of the proposed methodology, which can be used in places that have or not existing monitoring networks, it has been applied in the Minas Gerais portion of the Doce river basin. Because the area already has a monitoring network with 65 stations in operation under the responsibility of the Minas Gerais Water Management Institute (IGAM), an expansion of the network was suggested and a simulation of a scenario was performed considering that the study area did not have an established network. The results of the analyses consisted of maps of suitability, indicating the locations with greater and lesser suitability for the establishment of the stations. With the application of the methodology, seven new sites were proposed so that the study area had the density recommended by the National Water Agency (ANA), and it was verified that the Caratinga River Water Resources Management Unit (UGRH5 Caratinga) has the most deficiency of stations among the six units evaluated in the Minas Gerais portion of the Doce river basin. In the simulated scenario considering the non-existence of a network, the adequacy map obtained was compared with the existing monitoring network and it was possible to classify the stations according to the purpose for which they were established, such as monitoring environments under anthropic activities or establishing benchmarks for the water bodies. Overall, the proposed methodology proved itself robust, and although the results were specific to one basin, the criteria and decision support system used are fully applicable to other areas of study.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Monitoramento Ambiental , Alocação de Recursos , Rios , Qualidade da Água , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água/normas
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 768, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761967

RESUMO

Deterioration of groundwater quality due to the introduction of pollutants from natural and anthropic sources has become a major environmental issue. We tested three methodologies in assessing groundwater quality and intrinsic aquifer vulnerability in the Agro-Aversano area (Southern Italy). A geographic information system (GIS)-based groundwater quality index (GQI) was realized to assess groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use and, in parallel, standard SINTACS was applied to evaluate the intrinsic vulnerability of the aquifer. Nitrate concentrations and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) in groundwater samples were used to verify the reliability of vulnerability data. GQI analysis pointed to a general poor quality of groundwater both for drinking and irrigation use, especially in sub-urban areas. The spatial pattern of water quality from GQI analysis was positively related to nitrate and fluoride concentrations for drinking use and to bicarbonate and sodium concentrations for irrigation use, whose levels exceeded the WHO and FAO recommended thresholds, respectively. Standard SINTACS was found to be inadequate for describing the aquifer state, its results showing no correlation with nitrate concentration or SAR. Because of this inconsistency, we tested a novel approach combining GQI with SINTACS analysis. Results showed positive correlation with nitrate (r = 0.63) and SAR (r = 0.64) contents, thus pointing to combined SINTACS-GQI as a more reliable approach than standard methodologies.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Água Potável , Água Subterrânea , Qualidade da Água , Água Potável/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluoretos/análise , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Água Subterrânea/análise , Água Subterrânea/normas , Itália , Minerais/análise , Nitratos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/normas
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 925, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ruili is a border city in southwest China along the heroin trafficking route. In recent decades, the city has witnessed increased in HIV transmission. The current study aims to explore the spatiotemporal trends in HIV prevalence identify and map the spatial variation and clustering of factors associated with HIV transmission through drug use and heterosexual contact transmissions at the village level from 1989 through 2016. METHODS: Geographic information system-based spatiotemporal analyses, including global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses and space-time scanning statistics, were applied to detect the location and extent of HIV/AIDS high-risk areas. RESULTS: Drug use and heterosexual contact were identified as the major transmission routes causing infection in Ruili. Results of global spatial analysis showed significant clustering throughout the city caused by transmission via drug use in the early phase of the epidemic and transmission via heterosexual contact in the late phase of the epidemic during the study period. Hotspots of transmission from drug use were randomly distributed throughout the city. However, the hotspots of transmission by heterosexual contact were located in the central area only around the Jiegao China-Myanmar land port. Space-time scanning showed that transmission from drug use clustered in the southwest area between 1989 and 1990, while transmission by heterosexual contact clustered in the central area between 2004 and 2014. CONCLUSIONS: Heterosexual contact has become the dominant mode of transmission. Interventions should focus on highly clustered area where is around the Jiegao land port.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Análise por Conglomerados , Epidemias , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Mianmar , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/virologia
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1426, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A rapidly growing body of research suggests that qualities of the built environment can promote active living among children and youth. Nevertheless, shortcomings in the current evidence for understanding which built environment characteristics provide opportunities for taking part in activities in childhood remain. This study aimed to examine whether population density, green spaces, and facilities/amenities are associated with participation in leisure-time physical activity (PA), organized activities, and social activities with friends and peers in Norwegian 8-year-olds. METHODS: Data from a sample of 23,043 children from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) were linked with geospatial data about the built environment. The questionnaire data reported by mothers provided information on the children's leisure activities. We computed exposure to neighborhood population density and access to green spaces and facilities/amenities within 800- and 5000-m radii of the participants' home addresses using geographic information systems. Associations were estimated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: We found beneficial associations between having a park within 800-m and more leisure-time PA during the summer. Furthermore, children living in neighborhoods with higher proportions of green space participated in more PA during the winter. More densely populated areas and access to facilities were associated with participation in organized and social activities. Specifically, we observed that more playgrounds/sport fields in the neighborhood were the strongest and most consistent correlate of activity participation in Norwegian 8-year-olds by being related to more socialization with friends and peers. CONCLUSION: This population-based study underscores the importance of access to a variety of venues and opportunities for different activities in the immediate neighborhood surroundings and in the greater community to support participation in physical activity and organized and social activities in childhood.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Planejamento Ambiental , Exercício , Parques Recreativos , Densidade Demográfica , Características de Residência , Esportes , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Planejamento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mães , Noruega , Jogos e Brinquedos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 726, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701315

RESUMO

Social forestry policies grant local communities the right to access protected forest areas contingent upon certain governmental criteria. However, the adoption of social forestry is known to alter land-cover patterns and promote soil erosion. This study assessed the water quality of Sekampung Hulu and Sangharus Rivers in Lampung, Indonesia, based on their total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations. Subsequently, the extent of soil erosion in the two watersheds was determined, and best management practices (BMPs) were recommended for the study area. Water sampling was conducted in 2016 to estimate TSS levels in the two watersheds. Additionally, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was integrated with an ArcGIS model to evaluate soil erosion in the watersheds. The results indicated that TSS concentrations in the Sekampung Hulu and Sangharus Rivers ranged from 36-813 mg L-1 and 16-146 mg L-1, respectively. Further, the average soil erosion rates in the Sekampung Hulu and Sangharus watersheds were 12.5 Mg ha-1 year-1 and 5.6 Mg ha-1 year-1, respectively. The results indicated that young coffee trees increased soil erosion rates, especially in areas characterized by vulnerable soil. The USLE results concurred with the TSS analysis and indicated higher erosion rates for the Sekampung Hulu watershed than the Sangharus watershed. The application of BMPs, including conversion to agroforestry coffee, cover crops, and contour systems, was effective in reducing soil erosion in both the Sekampung Hulu and Sangharus watersheds.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Florestas , Fenômenos Geológicos , Solo , Produtos Agrícolas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Agricultura Florestal , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Indonésia , Rios , Árvores
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 731, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705311

RESUMO

Seawater intrusion into the Indus Delta, Pakistan, has spoiled groundwater aquifers in the area. In the delta, the groundwater is widely used by residents for drinking. Considering the gravity of the problem, and concerns expressed by affected communities, the present study was conducted to assess and map the quality of groundwater, based on the physico-chemical properties of 180 samples, using two standard numerical indices, geospatial and statistical techniques. The analysis of water samples revealed that several parameters exceeded the drinking water quality guidelines suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). The water quality index (WQI) identified that about 1.7%, 1.1%, 27.8%, 42.8%, and 26.6% of the water samples were excellent, good, poor, very poor, and unsuitable for drinking purposes, respectively. However, the synthetic pollution index (SPI) ranked the quality of 2.8%, 2.2%, 23.9%, 41.7%, and 29.4% as suitable, slightly polluted, moderately polluted, highly polluted, and unsuitable, respectively. Though the numerical model's input is different, the proportionate ranking revealed a fair correlation (R2 = 0.75) between the outcomes of both indices. The results of the numerical indices and the interpolated geographical information system (GIS) mapping revealed that the quality of groundwater in most of the delta does not meet WHO guidelines for potable water. Hence, it is recommended that the groundwater of the delta should be properly treated before its use for domestic purposes. The study highlights the significance of using numerical indices and geospatial techniques for water quality evaluation in the Indus Delta and similar deltaic regions throughout the world.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Qualidade da Água/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Paquistão , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 730, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705330

RESUMO

Sanitary landfill is still the most significant and reasonable and the least expensive waste disposal method. The process of selecting a landfill site with minimal adverse effects on the environment is a complex task, in which numerous criteria need to be taken into account. In the present research, the AHP (analytical hierarchy process) and TOPSIS (technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution) models were used to weigh the layers and prioritize the identified regions, respectively. In the present study, the following criteria were considered: (1) environmental criteria consisting of groundwater depth and distance from rivers, streams, and wetland/dam/lake; (2) physical criteria consisting of geology, slope percentage, distance from faults, heights, soil depth, and aspect; (3) social-economic criteria including the subcriteria land uses and distance from urban centers and villages; and finally, (4) access factors with the subcriteria distance from roads and power lines. After the preparation phase, the maps corresponding to each subscale were weighed in GIS by means of AHP. To weigh the layers and evaluate the inconsistency rate of pairwise comparisons, the Expert Choice software, in which the AHP model can be run, was used. On the output map, 11 highly suitable areas for landfill were identified via the integration of layers and the identified options and were ranked using the TOPSIS technique and five secondary criteria based on experts' views. Ultimately, area no. 12 was selected as the proposed site for the landfill in Naqadeh County. The results indicated that the combination of multicriteria decision-making models including AHP and TOPSIS can be properly utilized for the purpose of locating.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Irã (Geográfico) , Rios , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 734, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707592

RESUMO

The quality of drinking water source remains as a major concern in areas of developing and underdeveloped countries worldwide. The treatment and supply of drinking water in Rwanda are carried out by Water and Sanitation Corporation, a state-owned public company. However, it is not able to supply water to all households. Consequently, the non-serviced households depend on natural water sources, like springs, to meet their water requirements. Nevertheless, the water quality in these springs is scarcely known. Therefore, this study assessed and compared metal elements in drinking water sources in the dry and rainy seasons in 2017 using the contamination degree, metal index, and geographic information systems to reveal the spatial distribution of water quality within the considered water sources of springs in Rwanda. The samples were collected monthly from nine water sources of springs and the measured elements are aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. The metal index indicated that during the dry season and rainy season, the sites of Kibungo (1.10 and 1.26) and Kinigi (1.01 and 1.54) have assessed a metal index which is higher than 1. Thus, the water quality of those sites was getting the threshold of warning. The analysis indicated that pollutants are easily transported into water bodies during the rainy season in urban and rural areas to a greater extent than during the dry season .


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Cádmio/análise , Cobre/análise , Ferro/análise , Metais/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Chuva , Ruanda , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas , Qualidade da Água , Zinco/análise
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 721, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691862

RESUMO

Though temperature over the past three decades has shown an asynchronous warming trend between daytime and nighttime, the response of vegetation activity to such non-uniform warming is still not very clear. In this study, the least squares linear trend analysis and geographic information system spatial analysis were conducted to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of the daytime and nighttime warming based on the daily temperature data from 1982 to 2015 in Northwest China. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System and vegetation type data were used to investigate the responses of vegetation activity to the daytime and nighttime warming using the partial correlation analysis. Our results suggested that (1) there was a very significant increasing trend in both daytime and nighttime temperatures in Northwest China from 1982 to 2015; night temperatures increased about 1.2 times faster than daytime temperatures, showing diurnal asymmetric warming; (2) the responses of vegetation activity to daytime and nighttime warming in Northwest China showed a distinct spatial pattern; the change in night temperatures had a more significant (positive in most regions) effect on vegetation; (3) various types of vegetation responded differently to asymmetric daytime and nighttime warming. Grassland NDVI, broad-leaved, and coniferous forest NDVI significantly responded to daytime warming. Shrub NDVI and desert NDVI significantly responded to night warming. These findings can deepen the understanding of the effects of the daytime and nighttime warming on vegetation activities in arid regions in the context of the current asymmetric warming.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Temperatura Ambiente , China , Ecossistema , Florestas , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Pradaria , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA