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2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 378-381, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030457

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obesity and pediatric fatty liver related to modern lifestyle are getting epidemic characteristics and present the world public health problem. Fatty liver with obesity is especially important clinical entity which cautions on the possibility of chronic diseases development not only of the liver but the other organs as well. Fatty liver has the important influence on mental and physical development of children. Disease has asymptomatic clinical course so primary prevention and screening in early childhood are the best way to prevent the beginning and expansion of the disease. Primary prevention is focused on the entire population of children to enable them to adopt healthy lifestyles. To determine the frequency of obesity and fatty liver disease in children aged 6-14 years and the possibility of primary prevention. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Investigations were carried out in children ages between 6-14 years in two elementary schools in Gracanica, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Anthropometric measurements of 1499 children were performed as well as the ultrasonic scan of the abdomen in 300 children. RESULTS: BMI with percentile distribution indicates that 17% of children are overweight and 10% are obesity. 7% of children have fatty liver. 90% of children do not apply healthy diet. There are no school kitchens that apply the standard for a healthy diet of children of this school age. Only 20% of children are moderately physically active. CONCLUSION: Fatty liver or steatosis occurs in a significant percentage of school age children. The implementation of the primary prevention program could largely prevent this trend and enable healthy growth and quality of life.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida
3.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1668-1670, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To evaluate the effect of overweight on the quality of life of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients GOLD III. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 65 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD GOLD III) were examined in different phases of pathological process. The pulmonary function (PF) test was performed by means of "SPIROKOM" device (Ukraine). The degree of overweight was determined by calculating the body mass index (BMI) using the formula І = m/h² (m - body mass in kilograms, h - height, square of the height in meters (kg/m²). Patients' quality of life was evaluated with the help of standardized St.George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). RESULTS: Results: The study revealed changes in the PF indices and the decrease in quality of life in overweight patients, especially in case of destabilization of the pathological process. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The obtained results show that overweight is the underlying condition for more severe course of the pathology and requires further study of its impact on the health and quality of life of patients in order to improve the effectiveness of treatment.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Sobrepeso/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ucrânia
4.
Evid Based Dent ; 21(3): 114-115, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978548

RESUMO

Data sources PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Study selection Papers reporting a primary study in non-syndromatic preschool children aged 0-6 years, reporting body weight and dental caries experience as outcomes.Data extraction and synthesis Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts of the identified citations for relevance. The full text articles were subsequently assessed for eligibility for both qualitative and quantitative review. Body weight outcomes were standardised into four groups; 'underweight' (BMI-for-age percentile less than five), 'normal weight' (BMI-for-age percentile between five and 85), 'overweight' (BMI-for-age percentile between 85 and 95), and 'obese' (BMI-for-age percentile greater than 95). Dental caries outcomes were based on decayed, missing, and filled teeth/surfaces (dmft/dmfs) index. The risk of bias in individual studies were assessed based on the National Institute of Health Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. The GRADE system was used to perform quality assessment for each outcome reported.Results Following screening of 293 articles, a total of 32 studies qualified for qualitative review and 12 of them reported data that was used to conduct a meta-analysis. All included studies were cross-sectional in nature and presented a high risk of bias. Findings from meta-analysis showed that children who are overweight have a significantly higher dmft index (95% CI -0.64 to -0.14, P = 0.002, I2 equals 62 percent). The quality of evidence was found to be moderate.Conclusions Overweight and obese preschool children are at a greater risk of developing caries. Public health prevention programmes must target both conditions together to reduce their burden and effectiveness of prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Sobrepeso , Magreza
5.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the effect on mortality of a higher body mass index (BMI) can be compensated for by adherence to a healthy diet and whether the effect on mortality by a low adherence to a healthy diet can be compensated for by a normal weight. We aimed to evaluate the associations of BMI combined with adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our longitudinal cohort design included the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC) and the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM) (1997-2017), with a total of 79,003 women (44%) and men (56%) and a mean baseline age of 61 years. BMI was categorized into normal weight (20-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obesity (30+ kg/m2). Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet was assessed by means of the modified Mediterranean-like diet (mMED) score, ranging from 0 to 8; mMED was classified into 3 categories (0 to <4, 4 to <6, and 6-8 score points), forming a total of 9 BMI × mMED combinations. We identified mortality by use of national Swedish registers. Cox proportional hazard models with time-updated information on exposure and covariates were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our HRs were adjusted for age, baseline educational level, marital status, leisure time physical exercise, walking/cycling, height, energy intake, smoking habits, baseline Charlson's weighted comorbidity index, and baseline diabetes mellitus. During up to 21 years of follow-up, 30,389 (38%) participants died, corresponding to 22 deaths per 1,000 person-years. We found the lowest HR of all-cause mortality among overweight individuals with high mMED (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90, 0.98) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. Using the same reference, obese individuals with high mMED did not experience significantly higher all-cause mortality (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.96-1.11). In contrast, compared with those with normal weight and high mMED, individuals with a low mMED had a high mortality despite a normal BMI (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.48-1.74). We found similar estimates among women and men. For CVD mortality (12,064 deaths) the findings were broadly similar, though obese individuals with high mMED retained a modestly increased risk of CVD death (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.16-1.44) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. A main limitation of the present study is the observational design with self-reported lifestyle information with risk of residual or unmeasured confounding (e.g., genetic liability), and no causal inferences can be made based on this study alone. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that diet quality modifies the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in women and men. A healthy diet may, however, not completely counter higher CVD mortality related to obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Suécia
6.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126763, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957263

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies suggest that circulating metals from the natural environment are linked with cardiometabolic health. However, few studies examined the relationship between multiple metals exposure and metabolic phenotypes, especially in obese individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association between 23 urinary metals and metabolic phenotypes in 1392 overweight and obese individuals (592 males, 800 females, mean age 43.1 ± 9.8 years). Participants were classified as metabolically unhealthy if they had ≥2 of the following metabolic abnormalities: elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting blood glucose, elevated triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Odds ratios (ORs) of unhealthy metabolic phenotypes for metal levels categorized into tertiles were assessed using logistic regression models. Five metals (barium, copper, iron, uranium, and zinc) were associated with unhealthy metabolic phenotypes in single-metal models, while in the multiple-metal model, only zinc and zinc-copper ratio remained significant. The ORs (95% CIs) comparing extreme tertiles were 2.57 (1.69, 3.89) for zinc and 1.68 (1.24, 2.27) for zinc-copper ratio after adjustment for confounders (both p-trends were <0.001). The numbers of metabolic abnormalities significantly increased with the levels of zinc and the zinc-copper ratio increased. Similar associations were observed with metabolic syndrome risk. High levels of urinary zinc were positively associated with elevated fasting blood glucose (p-trend < 0.001) and elevated triglycerides (p-trend = 0.003). The results suggest that urinary zinc and zinc-copper ratio are positively associated with increased risk of unhealthy metabolic phenotype. Further prospective studies with a larger sample size are required to verify these findings.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Metais/urina , Obesidade , Adulto , HDL-Colesterol , Cobre , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Zinco
7.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(1): 73-84, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908083

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has killed many people worldwide since December 2019, and Iran has been among the most affected countries. In this retrospective study, we aimed to determine the prognostic factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients by analyzing 396 survived and 63 non-survived patients in Shahid Modarres Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from January 30th until April 5th, 2020. As the results, the BMI > 35 (p = 0.0003), lung cancer (p = 0.007), chronic kidney disease (p = 0.002), Immunocompromised condition (p = 0.003), and diabetes (p = 0.018) were more frequently observed in the expired group. The history of statins use was more common in the discharged group (p = 0.002), while there was no significant difference in the drug history of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, and/or steroids, and in the past-year influenza vaccination. Multivariable regression demonstrated rising odds of in-hospital death related with age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.055, p = 0.002), levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR = 2.915, p < 0.001), creatinine (OR = 1.740, p = 0.023), lymphocyte count (OR = 0.999, p = 0.008), and magnesium level (OR = 0.032, p < 0.001) on admission. In conclusion, the patients with older age and higher BMI with lymphopenia, hypomagnesemia, elevated CRP and/or raised creatinine on admission are at higher risk of mortality due to the COVID-19 infection, which requires the physicians to use timely and strong therapeutic measures for such patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Prognóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Avaliação de Sintomas
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012415, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide and are considered to be a major public health issue of the 21st century. Introducing taxation of the fat content in foods is considered a potentially powerful policy tool to reduce consumption of foods high in fat or saturated fat, or both. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of taxation of the fat content in food on consumption of total fat and saturated fat, energy intake, overweight, obesity, and other adverse health outcomes in the general population. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, and 15 other databases and trial registers on 12 September 2019. We handsearched the reference lists of all records of included studies, searched websites of international organizations and institutions (14 October 2019), and contacted review advisory group members to identify planned, ongoing, or unpublished studies (26 February 2020). SELECTION CRITERIA: In line with Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) criteria, we included the following study types: randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (nRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, and interrupted time series studies. We included studies that evaluated the effects of taxes on the fat content in foods. Such a tax could be expressed as sales, excise, or special value added tax (VAT) on the final product or an intermediary product. Eligible interventions were taxation at any level, with no restriction on the duration or the implementation level (i.e. local, regional, national, or multinational). Eligible study populations were children (zero to 17 years) and adults (18 years or older) from any country and setting. We excluded studies that focused on specific subgroups only (e.g. people receiving pharmaceutical intervention; people undergoing a surgical intervention; ill people who are overweight or obese as a side effect, such as those with thyroiditis and depression; and people with chronic illness). Primary outcomes were total fat consumption, consumption of saturated fat, energy intake through fat, energy intake through saturated fat, total energy intake, and incidence/prevalence of overweight or obesity. We did not exclude studies based on country, setting, comparison, or population. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods for all phases of the review. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the criteria of Cochrane's 'Risk of bias' tool and the EPOC Group's guidance. Results of the review are summarized narratively and the certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. These steps were done by two review authors, independently. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 23,281 records from searching electronic databases and 1173 records from other sources, leading to a total of 24,454 records. Two studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Both included studies investigated the effect the Danish tax on saturated fat contained in selected food items between 2011 and 2012. Both studies used an interrupted time series design. Neither included study had a parallel control group from another geographic area. The included studies investigated an unbalanced panel of approximately 2000 households in Denmark and the sales data from a specific Danish supermarket chain (1293 stores). Therefore, the included studies did not address individual participants, and no restriction regarding age, sex, and socioeconomic characteristics were defined. We judged the overall risk of bias of the two included studies as unclear. For the outcome total consumption of fat, a reduction of 41.8 grams per week per person in a household (P < 0.001) was estimated. For the consumption of saturated fat, one study reported a reduction of 4.2% from minced beef sales, a reduction of 5.8% from cream sales, and an increase of 0.5% to sour cream sales (no measures of statistical precision were reported for these estimates). These estimates are based on a restricted number of food types and derived from sales data; they do not measure individual intake. Moreover, these estimates do not account for other relevant sources of fat intake (e.g. packaged or processed food) or other food outlets (e.g. restaurants or cafeterias); hence, we judged the evidence on the effect of taxation on total fat consumption or saturated fat consumption to be very uncertain. We did not identify evidence on the effect of the intervention on energy intake or the incidence or prevalence of overweight or obesity. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Given the very low quality of the evidence currently available, we are unable to reliably establish whether a tax on total fat or saturated fat is effective or ineffective in reducing consumption of total fat or saturated fat. There is currently no evidence on the effect of a tax on total fat or saturated fat on total energy intake or energy intake through saturated fat or total fat, or preventing the incidence or reducing the prevalence of overweight or obesity.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Impostos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinamarca , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle
9.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003332, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether a healthy lifestyle impacts longevity in the presence of multimorbidity is unclear. We investigated the associations between healthy lifestyle and life expectancy in people with and without multimorbidity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 480,940 middle-aged adults (median age of 58 years [range 38-73], 46% male, 95% white) were analysed in the UK Biobank; this longitudinal study collected data between 2006 and 2010, and participants were followed up until 2016. We extracted 36 chronic conditions and defined multimorbidity as 2 or more conditions. Four lifestyle factors, based on national guidelines, were used: leisure-time physical activity, smoking, diet, and alcohol consumption. A combined weighted score was developed and grouped participants into 4 categories: very unhealthy, unhealthy, healthy, and very healthy. Survival models were applied to predict life expectancy, adjusting for ethnicity, working status, deprivation, body mass index, and sedentary time. A total of 93,746 (19.5%) participants had multimorbidity. During a mean follow-up of 7 (range 2-9) years, 11,006 deaths occurred. At 45 years, in men with multimorbidity an unhealthy score was associated with a gain of 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.3 to 3.3; P = 0.102) additional life years compared to very unhealthy score, though the association was not significant, whilst a healthy score was significantly associated with a gain of 4.5 (3.3 to 5.7; P < 0.001) life years and a very healthy score with 6.3 (5.0 to 7.7; P < 0.001) years. Corresponding estimates in women were 3.5 (95% CI 0.7 to 6.3; P = 0.016), 6.4 (4.8 to 7.9; P < 0.001), and 7.6 (6.0 to 9.2; P < 0.001) years. Results were consistent in those without multimorbidity and in several sensitivity analyses. For individual lifestyle factors, no current smoking was associated with the largest survival benefit. The main limitations were that we could not explore the consistency of our results using a more restrictive definition of multimorbidity including only cardiometabolic conditions, and participants were not representative of the UK as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis of data from the UK Biobank, we found that regardless of the presence of multimorbidity, engaging in a healthier lifestyle was associated with up to 6.3 years longer life for men and 7.6 years for women; however, not all lifestyle risk factors equally correlated with life expectancy, with smoking being significantly worse than others.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Multimorbidade/tendências , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Reino Unido
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4643, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938935

RESUMO

Time-restricted feeding (TRF) improves metabolism independent of dietary macronutrient composition or energy restriction. To elucidate mechanisms underpinning the effects of short-term TRF, we investigated skeletal muscle and serum metabolic and transcriptomic profiles from 11 men with overweight/obesity after TRF (8 h day-1) and extended feeding (EXF, 15 h day-1) in a randomised cross-over design (trial registration: ACTRN12617000165381). Here we show that muscle core clock gene expression was similar after both interventions. TRF increases the amplitude of oscillating muscle transcripts, but not muscle or serum metabolites. In muscle, TRF induces rhythmicity of several amino acid transporter genes and metabolites. In serum, lipids are the largest class of periodic metabolites, while the majority of phase-shifted metabolites are amino acid related. In conclusion, short-term TRF in overweight men affects the rhythmicity of serum and muscle metabolites and regulates the rhythmicity of genes controlling amino acid transport, without perturbing core clock gene expression.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/sangue , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Jejum , Lipídeos/sangue , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adulto , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Estudos Cross-Over , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo
11.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(supl. 2): 67-68, mayo - ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122909

RESUMO

Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), de los 57 millones de muertes globales/ año, en el mundo, el 71% se debe a enfermedades no transmisibles y, dentro de ellas, más de la mitad a enfermedad cardiovascular. La hipertensión, el tabaquismo, la glucemia alta, la inactividad física, el sobrepeso y la obesidad, y los niveles altos de colesterol se encuentran entre los principales factores de riesgo de muerte a nivel mundial. La mayoría de estos factores se asocia con la incidencia de enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) y diabetes mellitus (DM), y los pacientes con DM tienen una alta prevalencia de la mayoría de los factores de riesgo


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Tabagismo , Diabetes Mellitus , Sobrepeso
12.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 30(2): 266-273, May-Aug. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1114935

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifactorial etiology, brought about by a set of genetic, environmental and psychological factors. This may generate comorbidities that affect the quality of life and involve other risks to healthOBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children and adolescents in Porto Velho - Rondônia, Brazil in the period 2013-2016METHODS: This study included 4165 schoolchildren aged 9 to 18 years. The students were classified as overweight and obese, according to the z score of the body mass index (BMI) for age and calculated according the WHO AnthroPlus program. Subsequently, BMI for age was categorized according to the criteria proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2007): overweight (≥ score z +1 ≤ z + 2) and obese (≥ score z +2). Prevalence calculations were performed using the SPSS version 20.0 programRESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of overweight was 27.1%, being overweight 18.8% and obese 8.3%, in private schools 21.4% and 9.8%, public schools 17.0% and 7.2% respectively. The east zone predominated in both education networks 18.8% and 8.3% respectively. In males, the highest prevalence was at nine years old, 30.7% and 23.0%, and female, 24.3% and 13.8%CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the prevalence of overweight and obesity was high and worrying among schoolchildren and adolescents in the city of Porto Velho, which demonstrates the need for public health actions aimed at the family unit, regardless of the social segment


INTRODUÇÃO: A obesidade é uma doença crônica com etiologia multifatorial, provocada por um conjunto de aspectos genéticos, ambientais e psicológicos. Esta pode gerar comorbidades que afetam a qualidade de vida e implicam em outros riscos à saúdeOBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em crianças e adolescentes escolares em Porto Velho - RO, Brasil. 2013-2016MÉTODO: Este estudo incluiu 4165 escolares de 9 a 18 anos. Os escolares foram classificados como sobrepeso e obeso, de acordo com o escore z do índice de massa corporal (IMC) para idade e calculado com auxílio do programa WHO AnthroPlus. Posteriormente, o IMC para idade foi categorizado conforme os critérios propostos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS, 2007): sobrepeso (≥escore z +1 ≤ z + 2) e obeso (≥ escore z +2). Os cálculos de prevalências foram feitos com o auxílio do programa SPSS versão 20.0RESULTADOS: As prevalências de excesso de peso foram elevadas de 27,1%, sobrepeso 18,8% e obeso 8,3%, escolas particulares 21,4% e 9,8%, públicas 17,0% e 7,2% respectivamente. A zona leste predominou em ambas as redes de ensino 18,8% e 8,3% respectivamente. No sexo masculino a maior prevalência foi aos nove anos 30,7% e 23,0% e feminino 24,3% e 13,8%CONCLUSÃO: A magnitude da prevalência de sobrepeso e obeso foi elevada e preocupante em escolares da cidade de Porto Velho, o que demonstra a necessidade de ações de saúde pública voltadas à unidade familiar, independentemente do segmento social


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Sobrepeso , Obesidade
13.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 30(2): 209-215, May-Aug. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1114929

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The nutritional transition in Brazil is reaching the child population. In this context, studies have shown high prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren. : To analyze the nutritional and anthropometric status of children in a public school between the years 2013 and 2015METHODS: This is a longitudinal research using a study from 2013 as a baseline. The sample consisted of 73 students aged between 3 and 9 years old. Socioeconomic, anthropometric and school feeding information were collected using questionnaires according to the age of the student. The nutritional status was determined by collecting weight and height measurements, which were later used to express Weight/Age and Height/Age scores. Statistical analysis was done with the SPSS programRESULTS: The results showed that a significant portion of the students remained overweight and obese according Weight/Age index (21.8%) and at risk of low weight by the Height/Age and Weight/Age indexes (4.1% and 3.6%). These students had growth and weight gain within the normal range and most of them with an appropriate weight for their age, however there was a significant portion of students underweight and overweight/obeseCONCLUSION: The early identification of factors, which affect the growth and weight gain in childhood, may contribute to design strategies between the health team and the school crew to promote healthy eating habits among this audience


INTRODUÇÃO: A transição nutricional no Brasil vem alcançando também a população infantil. Neste âmbito, estudos tem demostrado altas prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade em crianças em idade escolarOBJETIVO: Analisar o estado nutricional e antropométrico de crianças de uma escola pública entre os anos de 2013 e 2015MÉTODO: Foi desenvolvido um estudo longitudinal utilizando um estudo de 2013 como baseline. A amostra final foi composta de 73 escolares com idade inicial entre 3 e 9 anos. Foram coletadas informações socioeconômicas, antropométricas e de prática de alimentação escolar utilizando questionários de acordo com a idade do escolar. O estado nutricional for determinado pela coleta de medidas de peso e altura, posteriormente estas foram utilizadas para expressão z escores de Peso/Idade e Altura/Idade. Utilizou-se o SPSS para análises estatísticasRESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que uma expressiva parcela dos escolares se manteve em sobrepeso e obesidade a partir do índice Peso/Idade (21,8%) e em risco de baixo peso pelos índices Altura/Idade e Peso/Idade (4,1% e 3,6%). Estes escolares apresentaram um crescimento e ganho de peso dentro dos padrões de normalidade e a maioria apresentou peso adequado para a idade, no entanto existiu uma parcela expressiva de escolares que apresentam baixo peso e sobrepeso/obesidadeCONCLUSÃO: O estado nutricional de crianças está relacionado a diversos fatores que devem ser trabalhados por meio de ações de desenvolver ações de vigilância alimentar e nutricional e de educação alimentar e nutricional com os escolares para promover hábitos alimentares saudáveis


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Alimentação Escolar , Vigilância Nutricional , Criança , Estado Nutricional , Desnutrição , Sobrepeso
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1229, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between high BMI and sleep duration and chronic illness are recognised. Short sleep is an accepted predictor of high BMI for children, including Indigenous Australian children. Short sleep has also been associated with high BMI in Australian adults, although not specifically in Indigenous Australian adults. This study aims to determine whether the relationship between sleep duration and BMI observed in non-Indigenous adults holds for Indigenous adults. METHODS: Data collected from 5204 non-Indigenous and 646 Indigenous participants aged over 18 years in a nationally representative Australian Health Survey 2011-2013 were analysed. Sleep duration was self-reported as the time between going to bed and time waking up; BMI was derived from measurement and categorised into normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9) and overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25). Logistic regression was performed for the non-Indigenous and Indigenous groups separately to examine the association between sleep duration and BMI in each group. RESULTS: Proportionally more Indigenous people were classified as overweight/obese than non-Indigenous (χ2 = 21.81, p < 0.001). Short sleep was reported by similar proportions in both groups (Indigenous 15% vs non-Indigenous 17%) whereas long sleep of > 9 h was reported by proportionally more Indigenous than non-Indigenous people (41% vs 26%). Without accounting for possible confounders, the association between sleep duration and BMI for the Indigenous group was not significant but a possible dose-response relationship was evident, with the odds of overweight/obesity being greatest for those who typically slept < 7 h (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 0.38-3.94) and < 6 h (OR = 1.55, 95%CI = 0.58-4.14). The same model for the non-Indigenous group was significant, with the odds of overweight/obesity being greatest for those who typically slept < 6 h (OR = 1.67, 95%CI 1.25-2.25). The risk of overweight/obesity diminished for both groups with sleep > 7 h. Accounting for a range of socioeconomic and personal confounders attenuated the strength of these relationships marginally. CONCLUSION: Adding to reports relating sleep duration and BMI for Australian adults, this study provides evidence for an inverse relationship in non-Indigenous adults and suggests a similar trend for Indigenous adults. This trend was non-significant but is consistent with previous results for Indigenous children.


Assuntos
Povos Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sono , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(8): 19-23, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738835

RESUMO

Objective: Leptin levels are increased in obesity and have been found to be strongly associated with obesity, increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and morbidity. While, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is measured to predict atherosclerosis in early phase. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the leptin levels and CIMT in overweight and obese individuals. Methods: This cross-sectional study involving 95 subjects, was performed over a period of 1 year in the Department of Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and BMI (Kg/m2). Baseline investigations were fasting blood glucose and lipid profile. Quantitative estimation of leptin was done by leptin ELISA, and CIMT was measured using a high-resolution B-mode ultrasound scanner with a 7 MHz linear transducer. Unpaired t-test or ANNOVA was used to compare quantitative variables, and chi-square or fisher's exact test was used to compare categorical variables. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test the strength of correlation. A p value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Based on both BMI and WC, mean leptin levels were significantly increased in overweight and obese subjects (p < 0.05) as compared to normal subjects. Similarly, based on both BMI and WC, significantly higher proportion of overweight and obese subjects had increased CIMT values (p < 0.05), as compared to normal subjects. Mean leptin levels were positively and significantly correlated with weight, WC, BMI, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and CIMT. Similarly, CIMT values were positively and significantly correlated with age, weight, WC, BMI, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol. Conclusion: Findings of this study indicates that overweight and obesity results in significant increase in both leptin levels and CIMT values. Furthermore, increased leptin levels and CIMT values are positively correlated with increase in BMI and WC.


Assuntos
Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Leptina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Fatores de Risco
16.
West Afr J Med ; 37(4): 407-411, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a vulnerable period of transition and a time for establishing healthy or risky behaviours. Adolescents constitute the strategic link between a nation's past and the future. Adolescent obesity is an epidemic of global proportions which has affected both industrialized and developing countries. Identifying factors that influence adolescent obesity in our environment would help to strengthen preventive measures, reduce the disease burden, and ultimately improve adult health. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, North-West Nigeria. The participants were selected using systematic sampling method. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty adolescents were recruited into the study. This consisted of 85(56.7%) girls and 65(43.3%) boys. The mean age of the participants was 14.1 ± 2.3 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 21.3% and 14.0% respectively. Factors identified to be associated with the development of obesity included lack of sporting activities (c2 = 8.18, p= 0.04) and the number of hours of sleep daily (c2 = 17.91, p= 0.01). All except one of the obese adolescents consumed snacks/soft drinks, though the relationship between adolescent obesity and consumption of snacks/soft drinks was not statistically significant (c2 = 5.58, p= 0.13). CONCLUSION: Addressing the risk factors associated with adolescent obesity is a key to reversing this global epidemic. Health education on appropriate sleep pattern and engaging in sporting activities should be emphasized in secondary schools.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Sobrepeso , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236716, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess network-based weight loss interventions in the Chinese setting using agent-based simulation. METHODS: An agent-based model incorporating social, environmental and personal influence is developed to simulate the obesity epidemic through an interconnected social network among a population of 2197 individuals from the nationally representative survey. Model parameters are collected from literature and existing database. To ensure the robustness of our findings, the model is validated against empirical observations and sensitivity analyses are performed on calibrated parameters. RESULTS: When compared with the baseline model, significant weight difference is detected using paired samples t tests for network-based intervention strategies (p<0.05) but no difference is observed for the two conventional intervention strategies including choosing random or high-risk individuals (p>0.05). Targeting the most connected individuals minimizes the average population weight, average BMI, and generates a reduction of 2.70% and 1.38% in overweight and obesity prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: The simulations shows that targeting individuals on the basis of their social network attributes outperforms conventional targeting strategies. Future work needs to focus on how to further leverage social networks to curb obesity prevalence and enhance interventions for other chronic conditions using agent-based simulation.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Análise de Sistemas , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso , Rede Social
19.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756458

RESUMO

The present study aimed to identify patterns of dietary changes during the COVID-19 pandemic and their associations with sociodemographics, body mass index (BMI) before pandemic, and lifestyle changes in Polish adults and to examine the effects of lockdowns on dietary-lifestyle changes. This study used a cross-sectional online survey to collect data. The k-means algorithm was used to determine of patterns of dietary changes, and logistic regression analyses were performed. During the study period, 43% of respondents decreased physical activity (PA), 49%-increased screen time, and 34%-increased food consumption. Among the three dietary changes patterns, two opposite patterns were found: Prohealthy (28% participants) and Unhealthy (19% participants).The adherence to the Prohealthy pattern was negatively associated with age, but positively with being overweight (aOR 1.31) or obese before pandemic (aOR 1.64). Residing in a macroeconomic region with GDP > 100% decreased adherence to the Prohealthy (aOR 0.73) but increased adherence to the Unhealthy pattern (aOR 1.47). Adults over 40 years old, those living with children, unemployed, those living in a region with a higher GDP, and those not consuming homemade meals could be more exposed to unhealthy behaviors. From a public health perspective, enhancing the message "to be active" during the compulsory isolation period should be prioritized.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polônia , Isolamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 176-186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and Parkinson disease (PD) has been repeatedly reported, to our knowledge, the relationship between BMI and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) has rarely been studied in patients with schizophrenia. Our study aimed to evaluate the relationship between BMI and EPS in patients with schizophrenia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Using data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antipsychotics (REAP-AP) study, we compared the prevalence of EPS in 1448 schizophrenia patients stratified as underweight, normal range, overweight pre-obese, overweight obese I, overweight obese II, and overweight obese III according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system for body weight status, and with underweight, normal range, overweight at risk, overweight obese I, and overweight obese II according to the Asia-Pacific obesity classification. RESULTS: In the first step of the WHO classification system for body weight status, adjusting for the potential effects of confounding factors, the multinomial logistic regression model revealed that underweight was significantly associated with greater rates of bradykinesia and muscle rigidity, and a lower rate of gait disturbance. In the second step of the Asia-Pacific obesity classification, adjusting for the potential effects of confounding factors, the multinomial logistic regression model revealed that underweight was significantly associated with a higher rate of muscle rigidity. CONCLUSION: Findings of the present study consistently revealed that underweight was associated with a greater rate of muscle rigidity in a stepwise pattern among Asian patients with schizophrenia. Although the mechanism underlying the inverse relationship between BMI and muscle rigidity cannot be sufficiently explained, it is speculated that low BMI may contribute to the development of muscle rigidity regardless of antipsychotic "typicality" and dose in patients with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Ásia , Humanos , Sobrepeso , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Magreza
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