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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 922863, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091521

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to explore the relationship between iron markers and metabolic obesity phenotypes and the role of age. Methods: Data were from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. Metabolic obesity phenotypes included metabolically healthy with normal weight (MHNW), metabolically unhealthy with normal weight (MUNW), metabolically healthy with overweight/obesity (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy with overweight/obesity (MUO). Iron markers including ferritin, transferrin, and soluble transferrin receptor were calculated as Log and quartered. The linear regression and multinomial logistic regression were used to explore the association of iron markers with age and metabolic obesity phenotypes, respectively. Results: Ferritin was linearly related with age, with ß (95% confidence interval, CI) of 0.029 (0.027 to 0.032) and -0.005 (-0.007 to -0.002) for women and men. Transferrin was negatively associated with age in both men and women (ß < -0.011). Furthermore, compared with participants in the quartile 1 ferritin group, those in the quartile 4 had increased odds of MUNW, MHO, and MUO, with odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (OR, 95% CI) of 3.06 (2.20 to 4.25), 1.66 (1.35 to 2.05), and 5.27 (4.17 to 6.66). Transferrin showed similar relationships with MUNW, MUO, and MHO; whereas transferrin receptor showed no significance. We also found joint associations of ferritin and transferrin with MUNW, MUO, and MHO. The interactive effect of ferritin and transferrin on MUO was significant (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Increased ferritin and transferrin were associated with MUNW, MHO, and MUO. Age should be considered when investigating iron.


Assuntos
Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna , Sobrepeso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ferritinas , Humanos , Ferro , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Receptores da Transferrina , Transferrina
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 986954, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091568

RESUMO

Objective: Undoubtedly, the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and obesity is less data for Chinese patients with obesity. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of hyperuricemia (HUA) and the association between SUA and patients with obesity. Methods: All participants were categorized as overweight, obesity I, obesity II, and obesity III. In addition, based on SUA concentration, the participants were stratified into four quartiles. The authors used descriptive analysis, independent t-test, ANOVA, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression models to verify the SUA level and obesity among Chinese adults. Results: Overall, the estimated prevalence of HUA was 69.8%. In the BMI categories, the prevalence of HUA was 5.1% in overweight, 15.2% in obesity I, 16.9% in obesity II, and 32.5% in obesity III. Correlation analysis shows that SUA is strongly correlated with BMI, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC). Multiple linear regression analysis shows that high density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a protective predictor of serum uric acid levels in patients with obesity. Compared with the overweight, obesity I, obesity II, and obesity III were more likely to have higher levels in the SUA levels. Conclusion: We mainly showed that the serum uric acid levels in Chinese patients with severe obesity declined slightly as age increased.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia , Obesidade Mórbida , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácido Úrico
3.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(9): 1042-1046, 2022.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the correlation between neck circumference and body mass index and the value of neck circumference in identifying overweight and obesity in preschool children. METHODS: The stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit 3 719 children under 7 years from 10 kindergartens in Urumqi, China. General data were collected, and physical measurements were performed. A Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and body mass index. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the accuracy of neck circumference in identifying overweight/obesity. The Kappa consistency test was used to assess the consistency of neck circumference and body mass index in identifying overweight/obesity. RESULTS: There was a positive correlation between neck circumference and body mass index in boys and girls of all ages (r≥0.50, P<0.001). According to body mass index as the criteria for overweight/obesity, the children were divided into an overweight/obesity group and a non-overweight/obesity group, and the analysis showed that the overweight/obesity group had a significantly larger neck circumference than the non-overweight/obesity group (P<0.001). The ROC curve analysis showed that neck circumference had an area under the ROC curve of >0.7 in identifying overweight/obesity for boys and girls. The Kappa consistency test showed that the neck circumference and body mass index had a Kappa value of >0.40 in identifying overweight/obesity in boys and girls of all ages. CONCLUSIONS: Neck circumference is positively correlated to body mass index, and neck circumference can be used to identify overweight/obesity in preschool children.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1762, 2022 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the impact of weight change on mortality in a population-based cohort setting. METHODS: We conducted two weight measurements for 5436 participants aged ≥ 30 years with an approximate 3-year interval. Based on their weight change, we categorized participants to: > 5% weight loss, 3-5% weight loss, stable weight (± < 3%), 3-5% weight gain, > 5% weight gain. We followed participants for mortality annually up to March 20th 2018. We applied the multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of weight change categories for all-cause, cardiovascular (CV), and cancer mortality, considering stable weight as reference. The Cox models was adjusted for age, sex, educational level, body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 14.4 years, 629 deaths (247 CV and 126 cancer deaths) have occurred. Over 5% weight loss and gain were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality in multivariable analysis with HRs of 1.47 [95% CI: 1.17-1.85] and 1.27 [1.02-1.57], respectively; however, a 3-5% loss or gain did not alter the risk of all-cause mortality significantly. These significant risks for wight change > 5% were not modified by the presence of diabetes, obesity, and smoking status; however, the unfavorable impact of weight change on mortality events was more prominent in those older than > 65 years (P-value for interaction: 0.042). After excluding those with history of CVD, diabetes, and cancer during the weight measurements period, these associations significantly attenuated (HR: 1.29 [0.89-1.87] for > 5% weight loss and 1.12 [0.84-1.50] for > 5% weight gain). Additionally, a > 5% weight loss was also associated with about 60% higher risk for CV mortality (HR: 1.62 [1.15-2.28]), and a 3-5% weight loss was associated with about 95% higher risk of cancer mortality (HR: 1.95 [1.13-3.38]). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed a U-shaped association across weight change categories for all-cause mortality risk with over 5% weight gain and loss causing higher risk. Moreover, weight loss can have adverse impact on CV and cancer mortality events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Neoplasias , Adulto , Seguimentos , Glucose , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Lipídeos , Neoplasias/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Aumento de Peso , Redução de Peso
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1764, 2022 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body image variables such as body size perception (BSP) and body size dissatisfaction (BSD) can influence health-related behaviors. However, few studies have investigated these body image variables in adolescent girls participating in a physical activity intervention. Therefore, the study objectives were to examine the 1) associations between health-related behaviors (physical activity, screen-time, eating habits and sleep duration) and BSP and BSD among girls participating in FitSpirit, a physical activity intervention for girls; and 2) influence of weight control practices on the association between health-related behaviors and BSP and BSD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed a sample of 545 adolescent girls (mean age: 15.0±1.5 years) from 240 schools. Body mass index, health-related behaviors, perceived actual body size and desired body size variables were self-reported and collected via an online questionnaire at the end of the FitSpirit intervention. A negative BSP score [perceived actual body size - calculated BMI z-score] indicates an underestimation of body size. A positive BSD score [perceived actual body size - desired body size] indicates a desire to reduce body size. A multiple linear regression analysis examined the effects of age, zBMI and health behaviors on BSP and BSD. A second multiple linear regression analysis examined the independent associations between BSP and BSD by weight control practice. The linear relationships between BSP and BSD were evaluated with Pearson's correlations. RESULTS: Underestimation and dissatisfaction of body size are more prevalent in participants living with overweight/obesity. Screen-time and sleep duration were independently associated with BSP score (Beta=0.02; P<0.05 and Beta=-0.07; P<0.05, respectively), whereas only screen-time was associated with the BSD score (Beta=0.07; P<0.001). Physical activity was independently associated with the BSP score only in participants trying to control (maintain) their weight (Beta=-0.18; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Body size overestimation and dissatisfaction are associated with health-related behaviors, specifically with more screen-time and less optimal sleeping habits. Physical activity level does not appear to be associated with body image in girls engaged in a physical activity intervention and who want to lose or gain weight. Health promotion interventions could include screen-time and sleep components as they may influence body image.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1170, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indonesia is in the middle of a rapid epidemiological transition with an ageing population and increasing exposure to risk factors for chronic conditions. This study examines the relative impacts of obesity, tobacco consumption, and physical inactivity, on non-communicable diseases multimorbidity, health service use, catastrophic health expenditure (CHE), and loss in employment productivity in Indonesia. METHODS: Secondary analyses were conducted of cross-sectional data from adults aged ≥ 40 years (n = 12,081) in the Indonesian Family Life Survey 2014/2015. We used propensity score matching to assess the associations between behavioural risk factors and health service use, CHE, employment productivity, and multimorbidity. RESULTS: Being obese, overweight and a former tobacco user was associated with a higher number of chronic conditions and multimorbidity (p < 0.05). Being a former tobacco user contributed to a higher number of outpatient and inpatient visits as well as CHE incidences and work absenteeism. Physical inactivity relatively increased the number of outpatient visits (30% increase, p < 0.05) and work absenteeism (21% increase, P < 0.06). Although being underweight was associated with an increased outpatient care utilisation (23% increase, p < 0.05), being overweight was negatively associated with CHE incidences (50% decrease, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Combined together, obesity, overweight, physical inactivity and tobacco use contributed to an increased number of NCDs as well as medical costs and productivity loss in Indonesia. Interventions addressing physical and behavioural risk factors are likely to have substantial benefits for individuals and the wider society in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Magreza , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Comportamento Sedentário , Fumar/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia
7.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 6120908, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120664

RESUMO

Purpose: To explore the prevalence of risk factors of retinal diseases among patients seeking services from Madang Provincial Hospital Eye Clinic in Papua New Guinea. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted at the only eye clinic serving the entire Madang province of Papua New Guinea. Purposive sampling was used to obtain data from patients' record cards at the eye clinic from January to June 2021. The data collected included gender, age, presenting visual acuity, blood pressure, blood sugar level, body mass index, smoking habits, and history of cataract surgery. The data was analyzed using the International Business Machines Corporation's Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Two hundred and fifty-five (255) patients went through diabetes and hypertension screening during the period of the study (January to June 2021). The mean age of the patients was 53.14 ± 11.20 years and there were more males (56.86%) than females. Nearly half of the patients (43.6%) were either visually impaired or blind. More than half (52.6%) had diabetes mellitus. Majority of the patients (73.3%) were hypertensive and more than half (57.0%) of the patients had unhealthy body mass index (BMI <18.525 kg/m2 or > 25 kg/m2). Overweight was significantly associated with hypertension (p < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus (p < 0.001). A few of them were smokers or had a history of cataract surgery (13.7% and 2.0%, respectively). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and overweight among ophthalmic patients in Madang. It is important that measures are put in place to eliminate barriers to health care and to strengthen eye care services in Papua New Guinea.


Assuntos
Catarata , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Doenças Retinianas , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 933921, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36105407

RESUMO

Background: The association between glioma risk and body mass index (BMI) remains obscure. Methods: This study aimed to assess the association between glioma risk and BMI in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The onset of a total of 269 gliomas was observed during a median follow-up period of 12.04 years. Compared with the normal weight, overweight (HR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.39) and obesity (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.56, 1.39) were not significantly associated with glioma risk. Further analysis showed a nonlinear relationship between glioma risk and BMI in men but not women. The multivariable-adjusted HRs per unit increase in BMI were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.00; P = 0.037) in men with BMI >25 kg/m2 and 1.16 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.38; P = 0.075) in men with BMI <25 kg/m2. Conclusion: The present data provide evidence that there may be a nonlinear association between BMI and glioma risk in men. The risk of glioma decreased with increasing BMI among men with BMI >25 kg/m2. Future studies are needed to validate our observation.


Assuntos
Glioma , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Glioma/epidemiologia , Glioma/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 983180, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111291

RESUMO

Introduction: Obesity is a global public health concern that is now on the rise, especially in low- and middle-income nations. Despite the fact that there are several studies reporting the prevalence of central obesity among adults in Ethiopia, there is a lack of a systematic review and meta-analysis synthesizing the existing observational studies. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence of central obesity and its associated factors in Ethiopia. Methods: Online libraries such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, and Addis Ababa University were searched. Data were extracted using Microsoft Excel and analyzed using STATA statistical software (v. 16). Forest plots, Begg's rank test, and Egger's regression test were all used to check for publication bias. To look for heterogeneity, I2 was computed, and an overall estimated analysis was carried out. Subgroup analysis was done by region and study setting. In addition, the pooled odds ratio for related covariates was calculated. Results: Out of 685 studies assessed, 20 met our criteria and were included in the study. A total of 12,603 people were included in the study. The prevalence of central obesity was estimated to be 37.31% [95% confidence interval (CI): 29.55-45.07]. According to subgroup analysis by study region and setting, the highest prevalence was observed in the Dire Dawa region (61.27%) and community-based studies (41.83%), respectively. Being a woman (AOR = 6.93; 95% CI: 3.02-10.85), having better socioeconomic class (AOR = 5.45; 95% CI: 0.56-10.34), being of age 55 and above (AOR = 5.23; 95% CI: 2.37-8.09), being physically inactive (AOR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.37-2.24), being overweight (AOR = 4.00; 95% CI: 2.58-5.41), being obese (AOR = 6.82; 95% CI: 2.21-11.43), and having hypertension (AOR = 3.84; 95% CI: 1.29-6.40) were the factors associated with central obesity. Conclusion: The prevalence of central obesity was high in Ethiopia. Being a woman, having a higher socioeconomic class, being older, being physically inactive, being overweight or obese, and having hypertension were all associated. Therefore, it is vital for the government and health organizations to design and implement preventive measures like early detection, close monitoring, and positive reversal of central obesity in all patients and the general population. High-quality investigations on the prevalence of central obesity in the Ethiopian people are required to better understand the status of central obesity in Ethiopia. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO, identifier: CRD42022329234.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(9): 1357-1363, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117339

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the association between body mass index (BMI) and coronary heart disease. Methods: The data for the present study were from the prospective cohort study of China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) in Qingdao, a total of 33 355 participants aged 30-79 years were included in the study. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between BMI and coronary heart disease. Results: During the follow-up for an average 9.2 years, a total of 2 712 cases of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 420 cases of major coronary events (MCE) were found. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that, compared with participants with normal BMI, the participants who were overweight had a 41% and 87% higher risk of IHD and MCE, the adjusted HR were 1.41 (95%CI: 1.27-1.56) and 1.87 (95%CI: 1.43-2.44), respectively. The participants who were obesity had 91% and 143% higher risk of IHD and MCE, the adjusted HR were 1.91 (95%CI: 1.72-2.13) and 2.43 (95%CI: 1.82-3.24), respectively. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity might increase the risk for IHD and MCE.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Isquemia Miocárdica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(9): 1441-1447, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117352

RESUMO

Objective: BMI may play a protective role in reducing the mortality rate of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its effect on acute exacerbation of COPD remain unclear. Methods: Subjects were selected from the COPD patients registration system established in 2014 in Pudong new district, Shanghai. COPD patients from 8 communities were selected by cluster sampling and follow up was conducted prospectively for 18 months. Basic information and BMI were obtained from baseline survey, and acute exacerbations were collected during follow-up. The association between BMI and risk of acute exacerbation was evaluated by using multiple negative binomial regression. Results: Among 328 community COPD patients, 295 who completed the follow up were included in the analysis, in whom 96.3% (284/295) were mild COPD patients. During the follow-up, 11.1% (33/295) of the patients reported acute exacerbation. The results of multiple negative binomial regression suggested that, the risk for acute exacerbation decreased with the increase of BMI (IRR=0.85, 95%CI:0.73-0.98), overweight patients with BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2 (IRR=0.36, 95%CI:0.13-0.91) or moderate BMI (T2 vs. T1, IRR=0.31, 95%CI:0.11-0.77) had lower risk for acute exacerbation compared with the patients with normal or low BMI. BMI had a linear correlation with the risk of acute exacerbation. Conclusion: The risk for acute exacerbation in patients with mild or moderate COPD in communities decreased with the increase of BMI, and being overweight might be a protective factor for the acute exacerbation of COPD.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Sobrepeso/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações
12.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(5): 422-432, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117580

RESUMO

Background: The rising prevalence of obesity, as well as its detrimental effects on the brain, has drawn attention to specific dietary patterns. This study aimed to examine the effect of the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) pattern on anthropometric parameters, hunger hormones, and brain structures in overweight and obese women. Methods: This randomized trial was conducted in Shiraz between October 2018 and March 2019. We analyzed 37 healthy women with a mean age of 48±5.38 years and a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 32±0.69 Kg/m2. Participants were randomly allocated to a hypocaloric modified MIND diet or a hypocaloric control diet. Differences in anthropometric, laboratory analysis, and brain structure were determined at baseline and three-month follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0. Independent and paired sample t test were used to determine between and within differences. We also used mixed-model ANOVA to compare the mean differences between two-factor groups. Results: A more significant weight reduction (P<0.0001), BMI (P<0.0001), percentage of body fat (P=0.03), waist circumference (P=0.01), and Leptin concentration (P=0.03) were found in the MIND diet group. The results also showed a significant increase in Ghrelin (P=0.002) and GLP-1 (P=0.01) levels in the MIND diet group. The findings revealed no differences in the whole and regional brain structures between the two groups. Conclusion: For the first time, this study showed that the MIND diet intervention could improve the devastating effect of obesity on metabolic profiles and anthropometric parameters. However, we could not find its effect on brain structures.Trial registration number: IRCT20190427043387N1.A preprint of this study was published at https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.28.20142018v1.


Assuntos
Leptina , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Grelina , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Humanos , Fome , Leptina/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/terapia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1668, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056304

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nutritional problems in children cause major morbidity and mortality in the world. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of under six years old children in Kalar city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, data from 403 Iraqi Kurdish children aged 0-72 months and their mothers were extracted from Health Centre in Kalar city undertaken between 2013 and 2019. The children`s growth data were obtained at birth time, 6, 12, 24, and 72 months. Epi Info was used to classify the children of nutritional status by converting the anthropometric measurements into Z-scores. Data were analyzed using SPSS 25 software. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity rose from birth to age 6 years old, from 19.6% and 7.4% to 52.2% and 30.5%, respectively. At 24 month, children had the highest rates of being overweight (56.1%) and obesity (34%). At 6 month, the highest prevalence of wasting exists (9.5%). At 6 month boys and girls had the highest frequency of stunting, 17.2% and 7.2% respectively. Considering the association of all characteristic variables and growth data at birth time, only mothers with academic education had children with significantly higher BMI for age compared to illiterate mothers after adjusting for all potential confounders (ß: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.105, 1.04, P: 0.017). CONCLUSION: The study suggests that some analysed factors that accounted for malnutrition in Kalar city's children are preventable. Therefore, to reduce the burden of malnutrition, community-based education and targeted nutritional interventions are required.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Estado Nutricional , Criança , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Iraque/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 527, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chitosan is one of dietary fiber that has received great attention in improving obesity-related markers, but little is known on its effects on adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of chitosan supplementation on obesity-related cardiometabolic markers and appetite-related hormones in adolescents with overweight or obesity. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomized clinical trial was performed on 64 adolescents with overweight and obesity, who were randomly allocated to receive chitosan supplementation (n = 32) or placebo as control (n = 32) for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measures, lipid and glycemic profiles, and appetite-related hormones were examined. RESULTS: Sixty-one participants completed study (chitosan = 31, placebo = 30). Chitosan supplementation significantly improved anthropometric indicators of obesity (body weight: - 3.58 ± 2.17 kg, waist circumference: - 5.00 ± 3.11 cm, and body mass index: - 1.61 ± 0.99 kg/m2 and - 0.28 ± 0.19 Z-score), lipid (triglycerides: - 5.67 ± 9.24, total cholesterol: - 14.12 ± 13.34, LDL-C: - 7.18 ± 10.16, and HDL-C: 1.83 ± 4.64 mg/dL) and glycemic markers (insulin: - 5.51 ± 7.52 µIU/mL, fasting blood glucose: - 5.77 ± 6.93 mg/dL, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance: - 0.24 ± 0.44), and appetite-related hormones (adiponectin: 1.69 ± 2.13 ng/dL, leptin - 19.40 ± 16.89, and neuropeptide Y: - 41.96 ± 79.34 ng/dL). When compared with the placebo group, chitosan supplementation had greater improvement in body weight, body mass index (kg/m2 and Z-score), waist circumference, as well as insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels. Differences were significant according to P-value < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Chitosan supplementation can improve cardiometabolic parameters (anthropometric indicators of obesity and lipid and glycemic markers) and appetite-related hormones (adiponectin, leptin, and NPY) in adolescents with overweight or obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Quitosana , Adiponectina , Adolescente , Apetite , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Quitosana/farmacologia , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Leptina , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Triglicerídeos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1693, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate annual health care and lost productivity costs associated with excess weight among the adult population in Belgium, using national health data. METHODS: Health care costs and costs of absenteeism were estimated using data from the Belgian national health interview survey (BHIS) 2013 linked with individual health insurance data (2013-2017). Average yearly health care costs and costs of absenteeism were assessed by body mass index (BMI) categories - i.e., underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25 kg/m2), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). Health care costs were also analysed by type of cost (i.e. ambulatory, hospital, reimbursed medication). The cost attributable to excess weight and the contribution of various other chronic conditions to the incremental cost of excess weight were estimated using the method of recycled prediction (a.k.a. standardisation). RESULTS: According to BHIS 2013, 34.7% and 13.9% of the Belgian adult population were respectively affected by overweight or obesity. They were mostly concentrated in the age-group 35-65 years and had significantly more chronic conditions compared to the normal weight population. Average total healthcare expenses for people with overweight and obesity were significantly higher than those observed in the normal weight population. The adjusted incremental annual health care cost of excess weight in Belgium was estimated at €3,329,206,657 (€651 [95% CI: €144-€1,084] and €1,015 [95% CI: €343-€1,697] per capita for individuals with overweight and obesity respectively). The comorbidities identified to be the main drivers for these incremental health care costs were hypertension, high cholesterol, serious gloom and depression. Mean annual incremental cost of absenteeism for overweight accounted for €242 per capita but was not statistically significant, people with obesity showed a significantly higher cost (p < 0.001) compared to the normal weight population: €2,015 [95% CI: €179-€4,336] per capita. The annual total incremental costs due to absenteeism of the population affected by overweight and obesity was estimated at €1,209,552,137. Arthritis, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, was the most important driver of the incremental cost of absenteeism in individuals with overweight and obesity, followed by hypertension and low back pain. CONCLUSIONS: The mean annual incremental cost of excess weight in Belgium is of concern and stresses the need for policy actions aiming to reduce excess body weight. This study can be used as a baseline to evaluate the potential savings and health benefits of obesity prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença Crônica , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Aumento de Peso
16.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273833, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition among women disproportionately exists across socioeconomic classes of Bangladesh. According to our knowledge, studies which attempted to identify determinants and their contributions to explain BMI-based nutritional gap between the poorest and the richest categories of Wealth Index are still scarce. OBJECTIVES: To identify the nutritional gap of women between the richest-poorest classes in Bangladesh, and to determine how much of this gap are attributed to differences in predictors and differences in coefficients. STUDY POPULATION: Reproductive-aged (15-49 years) women of Bangladesh. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We utilized the latest round (2017-2018) data of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Body mass index (BMI) has been used to measure the nutritional status of women. The kernel density was used to visualize the nutritional gap. The Oaxaca-Blinder (OB) decomposition method was used to ascertain influential determinants and their contributions to the existing gap between the richest-poorest classes of women. RESULTS: We analyzed the data of 18,682 reproductive-aged women. There was a significant mean BMI gap of 4.1 unit (95% CI: 3.90-4.35) between the poorest-richest (25.6 vs 21.5) women. The overall prevalence of underweight, overweight and obese were 11.8%, 33.8% and 15.4%, respectively. The richest women were less underweight (7.5%) but more overweight (23.7%) and obese (42.2%). In contrast, the poorest women were more underweight (32.0%) but less overweight (13.9%) and obese (7.0%). According to results of OB decomposition method, all predictors combinedly can explain 1.62 units (95% CI: 1.31-1.93) of the total mean BMI gap (equivalent to 40%). Some of the major predictors were women years of education (0.45 units, 95% CI: 0.27-0.64), spouse years of education (0.16 units, 95% CI: -0.02-0.34), current working status (0.17 units, 95% CI: 0.10-0.34), access to Television (0.50 units, 95% CI: 0.28-0.72), and place of residence (0.37 units, 95% CI: 0.22-0.72). The unexplained part of the poorest-richest gap was 2.51 units (95% CI: 2.13-2.89), which means that this particular gap will remain unchanged even though the mean difference of the predictors was diminished. CONCLUSIONS: A large part of the nutritional gap (approximately 60%) between the poorest and richest classes of women are found to be unchanged by the predictors of the study. Therefore, further predictors should be identified to minimize such gap. Moreover, policy makers and relevant stakeholders should implement feasible strategies to minimize the existing differences in the major predictors.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Magreza , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/epidemiologia
17.
N Engl J Med ; 387(7): 599-610, 2022 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early treatment to prevent severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is an important component of the comprehensive response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we used a 2-by-3 factorial design to test the effectiveness of three repurposed drugs - metformin, ivermectin, and fluvoxamine - in preventing serious SARS-CoV-2 infection in nonhospitalized adults who had been enrolled within 3 days after a confirmed diagnosis of infection and less than 7 days after the onset of symptoms. The patients were between the ages of 30 and 85 years, and all had either overweight or obesity. The primary composite end point was hypoxemia (≤93% oxygen saturation on home oximetry), emergency department visit, hospitalization, or death. All analyses used controls who had undergone concurrent randomization and were adjusted for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and receipt of other trial medications. RESULTS: A total of 1431 patients underwent randomization; of these patients, 1323 were included in the primary analysis. The median age of the patients was 46 years; 56% were female (6% of whom were pregnant), and 52% had been vaccinated. The adjusted odds ratio for a primary event was 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.09; P = 0.19) with metformin, 1.05 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.45; P = 0.78) with ivermectin, and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.66 to 1.36; P = 0.75) with fluvoxamine. In prespecified secondary analyses, the adjusted odds ratio for emergency department visit, hospitalization, or death was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.94) with metformin, 1.39 (95% CI, 0.72 to 2.69) with ivermectin, and 1.17 (95% CI, 0.57 to 2.40) with fluvoxamine. The adjusted odds ratio for hospitalization or death was 0.47 (95% CI, 0.20 to 1.11) with metformin, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.19 to 2.77) with ivermectin, and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.33 to 3.76) with fluvoxamine. CONCLUSIONS: None of the three medications that were evaluated prevented the occurrence of hypoxemia, an emergency department visit, hospitalization, or death associated with Covid-19. (Funded by the Parsemus Foundation and others; COVID-OUT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04510194.).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fluvoxamina , Ivermectina , Metformina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluvoxamina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 40: e2020479, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the relationship between sleep, nutritional status and eating behavior, as well as mechanisms associated with these elements in children. DATA SOURCE: The literature research was conducted in the PubMed, LILACS and Scopus databases, using the following terms: "Child"; "Nutritional status"; "Sleep"; "Physical activity OR Physical activities OR Exercise". The articles included were those that met the research objective. Review articles, letters to authors, or guidelines were excluded. DATA SYNTHESIS: 402 articles were initially found in the literature search. After careful analyses of the title and abstract, and application of inclusion criteria, only 24 studies were included in the present review. Most studies (n=13) suggest that short sleep duration (<9-10 hours/night) is associated with overweight/obesity in children. Only three studies did not show associations between overweight/obesity and sleep variables. Short sleep duration is also associated with poor food quality, higher intake of soft drinks and stimulant beverages before bedtime, as well as micronutrient deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep duration is related to overweight and obesity development in infants. Changes in dietary pattern are also related to sleep debt, being one of the mechanisms that contribute to excessive weight gain. It is necessary that health professionals understand the importance of sleep quality in the nutritional status maintenance in children.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
19.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e71, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106089

RESUMO

This study on adolescents was intended to assess the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes and the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia. Disordered eating attitudes and behaviour were assessed using the EAT-26. The type of eating disorder (ED) was determined using Diagnostic statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition. The nutritional status of the adolescent girls was determined by measuring their weight and height twice using standard protocols. The BMI-for-age and height-for-age were defined using WHO growth charts. Comparisons between adolescent girls with and without EDs were conducted using SPSS version 26. Eating disorders (EDs) were prevalent among 10⋅2 % of these girls. Other specified feeding or EDs were the most prevalent ED (7⋅6 %), followed by unspecified feeding or eating disorder (2⋅4 %). Anorexia nervosa was common among 0⋅3 % of the girls. The eating disordered adolescents were either overweight (7⋅7 %), obese (10⋅3 %), stunted (7⋅7 %) or severely stunted (2⋅6 %). ANOVA revealed that the BMI-for-age was influenced by age (P = 0⋅028), the type of ED (P = 0⋅019) and the EAT-26 (P < 0⋅0001). Pearson's correlation showed that the EAT-26 score increased significantly with the BMI (r 0⋅22, P = 0⋅0001), height (r 0⋅12, P = 0⋅019) and weight (r 0⋅22, P = 0⋅0001). The early detection of EDs among adolescents is highly recommended to reduce the risk associated with future impaired health status. Nutrition professionals must target adolescents, teachers and parents and provide nutritional education about the early signs and symptoms of ED and the benefits of following a healthy dietary pattern.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 945609, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060969

RESUMO

Objective: To observe the effect of metformin (MET) monotherapy versus MET plus liraglutide (LIRA) on gonadal and metabolic profiles in overweight patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: Sixty overweight patients with PCOS were recruited from January 2021 to January 2022 in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University and were randomly assigned to the MET or combination (COM) group to receive 12 weeks of MET monotherapy or MET plus LIRA therapy. Anthropometric measurements, menstrual cycle changes, gonadal profiles, and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were conducted at baseline and after the 12-week treatment. Results: Fifty-two subjects completed the trial while eight were lost during the follow-up. Both MET and COM improved menstrual cycles, anthropometric parameters, and glucose metabolism after the 12-week treatment; however, there was no statistical difference between the two groups. MET plus LIRA therapy improved hyperandrogenemia, including TT (total testosterone), SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin) and FAI (free androgen index), whereas MET monotherapy only improved SHBG and FAI when compared with baseline. Furthermore, both MET monotherapy and MET plus LIRA therapy improved E2 (estradiol) while only MET plus LIRA therapy improved LH (luteinizing hormone), FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and Prog (progesterone) more effectively than baseline. Additionally, MET plus LIRA therapy may improve TT, SHBG, FAI, LH and Prog more effectively than MET monotherapy; however, there were no significant differences on E2, FSH and LH/FSH between the two groups. Conclusions: In overweight patients with PCOS, both MET monotherapy and MET plus LIRA therapy improved glucose metabolism and relieved insulin resistance (IR). Additionally, MET plus LIRA therapy was more effective than MET monotherapy in improving reproductive abnormalities and hyperandrogenemia, potentially by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis.


Assuntos
Metformina , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Glucose , Humanos , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Metaboloma , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo
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