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2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4643, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938935

RESUMO

Time-restricted feeding (TRF) improves metabolism independent of dietary macronutrient composition or energy restriction. To elucidate mechanisms underpinning the effects of short-term TRF, we investigated skeletal muscle and serum metabolic and transcriptomic profiles from 11 men with overweight/obesity after TRF (8 h day-1) and extended feeding (EXF, 15 h day-1) in a randomised cross-over design (trial registration: ACTRN12617000165381). Here we show that muscle core clock gene expression was similar after both interventions. TRF increases the amplitude of oscillating muscle transcripts, but not muscle or serum metabolites. In muscle, TRF induces rhythmicity of several amino acid transporter genes and metabolites. In serum, lipids are the largest class of periodic metabolites, while the majority of phase-shifted metabolites are amino acid related. In conclusion, short-term TRF in overweight men affects the rhythmicity of serum and muscle metabolites and regulates the rhythmicity of genes controlling amino acid transport, without perturbing core clock gene expression.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/sangue , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Jejum , Lipídeos/sangue , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adulto , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Estudos Cross-Over , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo
3.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 443-449, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193850

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES: los hábitos alimentarios y los patrones de actividad física (AF) juegan un papel crucial en el desarrollo integral de niños y adolescentes. OBJETIVO: comparar según frecuencia de AF (es decir, 0, 1, 2, 3 o 4 veces/semana) y estatus corporal (es decir, normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad) la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea (DM), la insatisfacción por la imagen corporal y la condición física relacionada con la salud (CF), y, como segundo objetivo, determinar la asociación entre estas variables. MÉTODOS: participaron 481 escolares, 166 mujeres y 315 hombres, de entre 8 y 15 años (12,10 ± 1,10 años) pertenecientes a escuelas públicas de la ciudad de Temuco (Chile). Se clasificaron en 3 grupos según la frecuencia de AF: grupo 1, no realiza AF; grupo 2, AF 1-2 veces/semana, y grupo 3: AF 3-4 veces/semana. Se midió la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria (CRF), el salto de longitud a pies juntos (SJT), la fuerza prensil, la adherencia a la DM y la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal. RESULTADOS: los escolares con más días de AF/semana reportaron mayor adherencia a la DM (p = 0,020), VO2MAX (p < 0,001) y mayor SJT (p < 0,001). Asimismo, los escolares con normopeso presentaron más adherencia a la DM (p < 0,001) y menor grado de insatisfacción con la imagen corporal (p < 0,001). Se aprecia una asociación positiva entre la AF y la CRF (B; 1,28, p < 01001). El género presentó asociación con la insatisfacción de la imagen corporal (B; 25,51, p = 01019). CONCLUSIÓN: los escolares con mayor frecuencia de AF/semana presentaron mayor adherencia a la DM y mejor CF relacionada a la salud


BACKGROUND: dietary habits and physical activity (PA) patterns play a crucial role in the integral development of children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: to compare according PA frequency (i.e., 0,1,2,3 or 4 times / week) and weight status (i.e., normal weight, overweight and obesity), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), body image dissatisfaction and the physical fitness related to health, and as second objective to determine the association between these variables. METHODS: 481 schoolchildren, 166 women and 315 men aged between 8 and 15 years (12.10 ± 1.10 years) belonging to public schools of Temuco, Chile participated. They were classified in three groups according PA frequency: group 1, without PA; group 2, PA 1-2 times/week, and group 3, PA 3-4 times/week. Cardio respiratory fitness (CRF), standing jump long test (SJT), handgrip strength, adherence to MD and body image dissatisfaction were measured. RESULTS: Schoolchildren with more days of PA / week reported higher adherence to MD (p = 0.020), VO2max (p < 0.001) and SJT (p < 0.001) than peers. Likewise, schoolchildren with normal weight show more adherence to MD (P <0.001) and lower body image dissatisfaction (p < 0.001). There is a positive association between PA with VO2MAX (B, 1.28, p < 0.001). The gender presented association with body image dissatisfaction (B, 25.51, p = 0.019). CONCLUSION: the schoolchildren with greater frequency of PA/week, presenting greater adherence to MD and better physical fitness related to health


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Comportamento Alimentar , Imagem Corporal , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Chile , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Destreza Motora , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Estudos Transversais , Antropometria
4.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 497-505, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193857

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: el objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el tiempo de respuesta, definido como pérdida del 10 % del peso, al tratamiento con un método multidisciplinar de pérdida de peso que incluye dieta (inicialmente cetogénica), ejercicio físico y soporte emocional. MÉTODOS: los datos se obtuvieron a partir del registro de pacientes reclutados en el estudio Promet Lipoinflamación, un estudio observacional de práctica clínica real en pacientes obesos o con sobrepeso tratados con el método multidisciplinar, basado inicialmente en una dieta cetogénica de muy bajas calorías. La velocidad se valoró mediante un análisis de supervivencia Kaplan-Meier y los factores asociados mediante regresión de Cox. RESULTADOS: la muestra estudiada fue de 6369 sujetos. El 74,4 % consiguió alcanzar una pérdida de peso del 10 % en una media de tiempo de 57,64 días (IC 95 %: 56,95-58,33]. Los factores asociados a mayor probabilidad de alcanzar pérdida del 10 % o más fueron género masculino (RR: 1,37; p < 0,001), obesidad de tipos I, II y III frente a sobrepeso (RR: 1,24; p < 0,001; 1,26; p < 0,001 y 1,22; p < 0,001, respectivamente) y edad joven frente a mayor de 55 años (RR: 2,17; p < 0,001). CONCLUSIONES: los resultados obtenidos a través de la práctica clínica real muestran que el método produce una pérdida de peso rápida e intensa. Tres de cada cuatro pacientes perdieron, como mínimo, el 10 % del peso corporal en una media de 58 días


OBJECTIVE: the aim of the current work was to evaluate the response time to a method of weight loss that includes dietary guidelines, physical exercise and emotional support. The response was defined as a loss of 10 % of the baseline weight. METHODS: data was obtained from the patients' record recruited in Promet Lipoinflamación, an observational study of real world data in obese or overweight patients treated with a multidisciplinary method and based initially on a very-low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diet. Weight loss rate was evaluated through a survival analysis Kaplan-Meier and related factors through Cox regression). RESULTS: 6,369 subjects were included and 74.4 % managed to reach a weight loss of 10 % in a mean time of 57.64 days (IC 95 %: 56.95-58.33). The factors associated with a greater probability of reaching a loss of 10 % or more were male gender (RR: 1.37, p < 0.001), obesity types I, II and III vs. overweight (RR: 1.24, p < 0.001, 1.26, p < 0.001 and 1.22, p < 0.001, respectively) and young age vs. more than 55 years old (RR: 2.17, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: results obtained through real clinical practice show that the method produces fast and intense weight loss. Three out of four patients lost at least 10 % of body weight in an average of 58 days


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dieta Cetogênica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Análise de Sobrevida , Perda de Peso , Exercício Físico , Peso Corporal , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier
5.
J Nutr ; 150(7): 1859-1870, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The composition of diets consumed following weight loss (WL) can have a significant impact on satiety and metabolic health. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to test the effects of including a nondigestible carbohydrate to achieve weight maintenance (WM) following a period of WL. METHODS: Nineteen volunteers [11 females and 8 males, aged 20-62 y; BMI (kg/m2): 27-42] consumed a 3-d maintenance diet (15%:30%:55%), followed by a 21-d WL diet (WL; 30%:30%:40%), followed by 2 randomized 10-d WM diets (20%:30%:50% of energy from protein:fat:carbohydrate) containing either resistant starch type 3 (RS-WM; 22 or 26 g/d for females and males, respectively) or no RS (C-WM) in a within-subject crossover design without washout periods. The primary outcome, WM after WL, was analyzed by body weight. Secondary outcomes of fecal microbiota composition and microbial metabolite concentrations and gut hormones were analyzed in fecal samples and blood plasma, respectively. All outcomes were assessed at the end of each dietary period. RESULTS: Body weight was similar after the RS-WM and C-WM diets (90.7 and 90.8 kg, respectively), with no difference in subjectively rated appetite. During the WL diet period plasma ghrelin increased by 36% (P < 0.001), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) decreased by 33% (P < 0.001), and insulin decreased by 46% (P < 0.001), but no significant differences were observed during the RS-WM and C-WM diet periods. Fasting blood glucose was lower after the RS-WM diet (5.59 ± 0.31 mmol/L) than after the C-WM diet [5.75 ± 0.49 mmol/L; P = 0.015; standard error of the difference between the means (SED): 0.09]. Dietary treatments influenced the fecal microbiota composition (R2 = 0.054, P = 0.031) but not diversity. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolic benefits, for overweight adults, from WL were maintained through a subsequent WM diet with higher total carbohydrate intake. Inclusion of resistant starch in the WM diet altered gut microbiota composition positively and resulted in lower fasting glucose compared with the control, with no apparent change in appetite. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01724411.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Dieta Redutora , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
6.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520932372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an independent risk factor for many diseases. Many studies have investigated the benefits of losing weight as well as the best methods for weight loss. This research evaluated the impact of various weight loss programs on health enhancement among overweight women aged 40-60 years. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study that analyzed data from 145 overweight women in weight loss programs. Each woman joined one of four programs: 8 weeks of exercise plus diet (exe + nutr), 8 weeks of diet only (nutrition), 8 weeks of exercise only, or a control group. Women completed a psychological questionnaire and also underwent anthropometric tests, blood pressure checks, a predicted maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) test on an ergometer bicycle, a one-leg balance test, straight leg test, and a sit and reach test, both before and after the program. Participants also provided a blood sample. RESULTS: All of the measured variables improved in the exe + nutr and nutrition programs when compared with the control group; the exe + nutr group improved the most: body mass index, -1.3 kg/m2; body fat, -2.9%; lean body mass, +1.1; VO2 max, +4.8; body image, +1.02; and p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: The hypothesis-generating findings showed that weight loss programs improved anthropometric, biochemical, physiological, physical, and psychological variables in women aged 40-60 years. The program that included diet restriction with exercise, guidance, and regular counseling showed the best results.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/normas , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Res Vet Sci ; 131: 194-205, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388022

RESUMO

One option for controlled weight loss for dogs and cats in overweight condition could be to modestly restrict caloric intake using a reduced-energy ('light') maintenance diet, but there is no prior research on the safety and efficacy of such an approach. A prospective observational cohort study was performed in 67 overweight dogs and 17 overweight cats undergoing weight loss using reduced-energy maintenance diets from one manufacturer. Diets were fed at approximately 80% of maintenance energy requirements for ideal bodyweight for a period of 8 weeks. Essential nutrient intake was estimated for each dog and cat and compared with minimum requirement (MR) or adequate intake (AI, when no MR had been demonstrated) as set by the National Research Council in 2006. Weight loss was seen in 56/67 dogs (84%), losing a median of 4.7% (range 15.2% loss to 10.0% gain) of their starting body weight (SBW). Weight loss was also seen in all 17 cats, losing a median of 6.4% (range 2.0 loss to 15.2% loss) of SBW. Of the essential nutrients examined, only selenium, choline, potassium, and riboflavin were less than NRC recommendations in a minority of animals. However, no signs of any nutrient deficiency were observed in any of the dogs or cats during the study. In summary, modestly energy restricting overweight dogs and cats when feeding a low-energy maintenance diet can induce weight loss and might be a useful initial step for weight management. Although no adverse effects were seen, borderline intake of some micronutrients warrants further consideration.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Restrição Calórica/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/dietoterapia , Dieta Redutora/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Estudos de Coortes , Cães , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Selênio , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
J Altern Complement Med ; 26(6): 508-514, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434372

RESUMO

Objectives: Chronic sciatica is a common condition. According to Traditional Persian Medicine and recent studies, calorie reduction is thought to be helpful for this condition. The purpose of this work is to evaluate a short-term low-calorie diet (LCD) for ameliorating chronic sciatica in the context of pain relief and reduced disability for patients. Design: In this randomized controlled trial, 96 candidates for the nonsurgical treatment of chronic sciatica were randomly assigned to two groups to receive a 1-month LCD (intervention) or ordinary diet (control), both in combination with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Afterward, patients were visited at baseline and on days 15, 30, and 60 after treatment. Pain and disability were evaluated using the short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SFMPQ) and the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), respectively. Results: Both mean RMDQ scores and SFMPQ scores decreased significantly in the LCD group compared to the control group. SFMPQ descriptor scale scores at baseline and on days 15, 30, and 60 in the LCD group were 7.71 ± 1.69, 6.63 ± 1.61, 5.54 ± 1.87, and 4.96 ± 2.02, respectively, and in the control group were 6.63 ± 1.44, 6.69 ± 1.32, 6.64 ± 1.98, and 6.62 ± 2.53, respectively (p = 0.001). RMDQ scores at baseline and on days 15, 30, and 60 in LCD group were 11.17 ± 3.90, 8.60 ± 1.97, 7.50 ± 2.71, and 6.77 ± 3.06, respectively, and in the control group, 10.00 ± 2.20, 9.98 ± 2.29, 9.94 ± 2.94, and 9.85 ± 3.32, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion: A short-term (1-month) LCD is effective in decreasing pain and disability in candidates for nonsurgical treatment of chronic sciatica.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Ciática/dietoterapia , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Medição da Dor , Ciática/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(2): 222-226, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the relationship of intermittent fasting in the bodyweight of overweight and obese individuals through a systematic literature review. METHODS: This is a systematic review based on randomized controlled trials. The articles were consulted in the databases: Science Direct, PubMed e BVS. This review was evaluated through the PRISMA recommendation. RESULTS: After the selection process, four articles were included in this review, comparing intermittent fasting (IF) with calorie restriction diet (CRD) as a control group. In 2 studies using similar protocols, there was no significant reduction in body weight of overweight or obese subjects. In the other two studies using different protocols, weight loss was significant in the IF group compared to the CRD group. CONCLUSIONS: Results did not provide evidence of the effect of intermittent fasting on weight loss in overweight or obese individuals.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120832

RESUMO

Compared to lean counterparts, overweight/obese individuals rely less on lipid during fasting. This deficiency has been implicated in the association between overweight/obesity and blunted insulin signaling via elevated intramuscular triglycerides. However, the capacity for overweight/obese individuals to use lipid during exercise is unclear. This review was conducted to formulate a consensus regarding the influence of overweight/obesity on exercise lipid use. PubMed, ProQuest, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Articles were included if they presented original research on the influence of overweight/obesity on exercise fuel use in generally healthy sedentary adults. Articles were excluded if they assessed older adults, individuals with chronic disease, and/or exercise limitations or physically-active individuals. The search identified 1205 articles with 729 considered for inclusion after duplicate removal. Once titles, abstracts, and/or manuscripts were assessed, 24 articles were included. The preponderance of evidence from these articles indicates that overweight/obese individuals rely on lipid to a similar extent during exercise. However, conflicting findings were found in eight articles due to the outcome measure cited, participant characteristics other than overweight/obesity and characteristics of the exercise bout(s). We also identified factors other than body fatness which can influence exercise lipid oxidation that should be controlled in future research.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Insulina/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Músculos/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
11.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019154

RESUMO

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism associated with body fat accumulation could possibly trigger an inflammatory process by elevating homocysteine levels and increasing cytokine production, causing several diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of food intervention, and not folate supplements, on the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in overweight and obese women with the MTHFR C677T polymorphism. A randomized, double-blind eight-week clinical trial of 48 overweight and obese women was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. They received 300 g of vegetables daily for eight weeks containing different doses of folate: 95 µg/day for Group 1 and 191 µg/day for Group 2. MTHFR C677T polymorphism genotyping was assessed by digestion with HinfI enzyme and on 12% polyacrylamide gels. Anthropometric measurements, 24-h dietary recall, and biochemical analysis (blood folic acid, vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy), TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) were determined at the beginning and end of the study. Group 2 had a significant increase in folate intake (p < 0.001) and plasma folic acid (p < 0.05) for individuals with the cytosine-cytosine (CC), cytosine-thymine (CT), and thymine-thymine (TT) genotypes. However, only individuals with the TT genotype presented reduced levels of Hcy, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß (p < 0.001). Group 1 showed significant differences in folate consumption (p < 0.001) and folic acid levels (p < 0.05) for individuals with the CT and TT genotypes. Food intervention with folate from vegetables increased folic acid levels and reduced interleukins, TNF-α, and Hcy levels, mainly for individuals with the TT genotype.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Obesidade/genética , Sobrepeso/genética , Verduras , Adulto , Dieta/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Genótipo , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrigenômica , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Polimorfismo Genético , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Vitamina B 12/sangue
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(5): 1079-1086, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inconsistent link observed between salivary amylase gene copy number (AMY1 CN) and weight management is likely modified by diet and microbiome. OBJECTIVE: Based on analysis of a previously published study, we investigated the hypothesis that interaction between diet, Prevotella-to-Bacteriodes ratio (P/B ratio), and AMY1 CN influence weight change. METHODS: Sixty-two people with increased waist circumference were randomly assigned to receive an ad libitum New Nordic Diet (NND) high in dietary fiber, whole grain, intrinsic sugars, and starch or an Average Danish (Western) Diet (ADD) for 26 weeks. All foods were provided free of charge. Before subjects were randomly assigned to receive the NND or ADD diet, blood and fecal samples were collected, from which AMY1 CN and P/B ratio, respectively, were determined. Body weight change was described by using linear mixed models, including biomarker [log10(P/B ratio) and/or AMY1 CN] diet-group interactions. RESULTS: Baseline means ± SDs of log10(P/B ratio) and AMY1 CN were -2.1 ± 1.8 and 6.6 ± 2.4, respectively. Baseline P/B ratio predicted a 0.99-kg/unit (95% CI: 0.40, 1.57; n = 54; P < 0.001) higher weight loss for those subjects on the NND compared with those on the ADD diet, whereas AMY1 CN was not found to predict weight loss differences between the NND and ADD groups [0.05 kg/CN (95% CI: -0.40, 0.51; n = 54; P = 0.83)]. However, among subjects with low AMY1 CN (<6.5 copies), baseline P/B ratio predicted a 2.12-kg/unit (95% CI: 1.37, 2.88; n = 30; P < 0.001) higher weight loss for the NND group than the ADD group. No such differences in weight loss were found among subjects in both groups with high AMY1 CN [-0.17 kg/unit (95% CI: -1.01, 0.66; n = 24; P = 0.68)]. CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of low AMY1 CN and pretreatment P/B ratio for weight loss prediction led to highly individualized weight loss results with the introduction of more fiber, whole grain, intrinsic sugars, and starch in the diet. These preliminary observations suggest that more undigested starch reaches the colon in individuals with low AMY1 CN, and that the fate of this starch depends on the gut microbiota composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01195610.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sobrepeso/enzimologia , Sobrepeso/microbiologia , Prevotella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , alfa-Amilases Salivares/genética , Adulto , Bacteroides/genética , Bacteroides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/genética , Prevotella/genética , Prognóstico , Circunferência da Cintura , Perda de Peso
13.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079327

RESUMO

We determined the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF; 8 h/d) versus extended feeding (EXF; 15 h/d) on 24-h and postprandial metabolism and subjective opinions of TRF in men with overweight/obesity. In a randomized crossover design, 11 sedentary males (age 38 ± 5 y; BMI: 32.2 ± 2.0 kg/m2) completed two isoenergetic diet protocols for 5 days, consuming meals at 1000, 1300 and 1700 h (TRF) or 0700, 1400 and 2100 h (EXF). On Day 5, participants remained in the laboratory for 24 h, and blood samples were collected at hourly (0700-2300 h) then 2-hourly (2300-0700 h) intervals for concentrations of glucose, insulin and appetite/incretin hormones. Structured qualitative interviews were conducted following completion of both dietary conditions and investigated thematically. Total 24-h area under the curve (AUCtotal) [glucose] tended to be lower for TRF versus EXF (-5.5 ± 9.0 mmol/L/h, P = 0.09). Nocturnal glucose AUC was lower in TRF (-4.2 ± 5.8 mmol/L/h, P = 0.04), with no difference in waking glucose AUC or AUCtotal for [insulin]. Attitudes towards TRF were positive with improved feelings of well-being. Barriers to TRF were work schedules, family commitments and social events. Compared to extended feeding, short-term TRF improved nocturnal glycemic control and was positively perceived in men with overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Jejum , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Humanos , Incretinas/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Refeições/fisiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/complicações , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(1): 86-92, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-187578

RESUMO

Background: the prevalence of overweight and obesity showed and increasing trend over the past few years. The burden of this epidemic represents a public health issue worldwide. Spain, and especially the Canary Islands, are not exempt. Pregnancy is a situation of weight gain, and the amount of such increase during gestation can affect the health status of both the mother and her baby. Thus, an optimal dietary style becomes of importance. Aim: given the benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on various health outcomes, we aimed to study the adherence to this dietary pattern in a sample of Canarian pregnant women, and to investigate its association with their newborn's weight. Methods: adherence to MD as well as clinical history and anthropometrics were assessed in a sample of pregnant women followed at a Canarian hospital. Similarly, their newborn characteristics were studied. Results: our findings showed an overall low adherence to MD, with no association between this trend and birthweight. Conclusions: in conclusion, specific tools should be tailored to the target population to assess adherence to MD, and further efforts should be made to promote a healthy eating pattern and lifestyle among the pregnant population


Introducción: la prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad presentó una tendencia al alza en los últimos años. La carga de esta epidemia supone un problema de salud pública en todo el mundo. España, y especialmente las Islas Canarias, no es una excepción. El embarazo es una situación en la que se gana peso y la cantidad de peso que se gana durante la gestación puede afectar al estado de salud tanto de la madre como del niño. Por tanto, adquiere importancia seguir un tipo de dieta óptimo. Objetivo: dados los beneficios de la dieta mediterránea (DM) sobre varios resultados de salud, nos propusimos estudiar la adherencia a este patrón dietético en una muestra de embarazadas canarias e investigar su asociación con el peso neonatal. Métodos: la adherencia a la DM, al igual que la historia clínica y la antropometría, se evaluó en una muestra de mujeres embarazadas seguidas en un hospital canario. También se estudiaron las características de los neonatos. Resultados: nuestros hallazgos mostraron una adherencia general baja a la DM, sin ninguna asociación entre esta tendencia y el peso al nacer. Conclusiones: en conclusión, se deben adaptar a la población objeto de este estudio herramientas específicas que sirvan para evaluar la adherencia a la DM, y se deben realizar nuevos esfuerzos para fomentar un patrón alimenticio y un estilo de vida saludables entre la población gestante


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Dieta Mediterrânea , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Antropometria , Estilo de Vida
15.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 4851671, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090119

RESUMO

Objective: This study is aimed at investigating the efficacy of a very low-energy diet (VLED) in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: We thoroughly searched eight electronic resource databases of controlled studies concerning the efficacy and acceptability of intermittent or continuous VLEDs in patients with T2DM compared with other energy restriction interventions. Results: Eighteen studies (11 randomized and seven nonrandomized controlled trials) with 911 participants were included. The meta-analyses showed that compared with a low-energy diet (LED) and mild energy restriction (MER), VLED is superior in the reduction of body weight (mean difference (MD) MDLED = -2.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) CILED = -4.81 to - 0.72, P LED = 0.008; MDMER = -6.72, 95%CIMER = -10.05 to - 3.39, P LED = 0.008; MDMER = -6.72, 95%CIMER = -10.05 to - 3.39, P LED = 0.008; MDMER = -6.72, 95%CIMER = -10.05 to - 3.39, P LED = 0.008; MDMER = -6.72, 95%CIMER = -10.05 to - 3.39, P LED = 0.008; MDMER = -6.72, 95%CIMER = -10.05 to - 3.39, P LED = 0.008; MDMER = -6.72, 95%CIMER = -10.05 to - 3.39, P LED = 0.008; MDMER = -6.72, 95%CIMER = -10.05 to - 3.39, I 2 = 0%) and TG level (MD = -0.25, 95%CI = -0.55 to 0.06, P LED = 0.008; MDMER = -6.72, 95%CIMER = -10.05 to - 3.39, I 2 = 0%) and TG level (MD = -0.25, 95%CI = -0.55 to 0.06, P LED = 0.008; MDMER = -6.72, 95%CIMER = -10.05 to - 3.39, P LED = 0.008; MDMER = -6.72, 95%CIMER = -10.05 to - 3.39, P LED = 0.008; MDMER = -6.72, 95%CIMER = -10.05 to - 3.39, P LED = 0.008; MDMER = -6.72, 95%CIMER = -10.05 to - 3.39, P LED = 0.008; MDMER = -6.72, 95%CIMER = -10.05 to - 3.39. Conclusion: Dietary intervention through VLEDs is an effective therapy for rapid weight loss, glycemic control, and improved lipid metabolism in overweight and obese individuals with T2DM. Thus, VLEDs should be encouraged in overweight and obese individuals with T2DM who urgently need weight loss and are unsuitable or unwilling to undergo surgery. As all outcome indicators have low or extremely low quality after GRADE evaluation, further clinical trials that focus on the remission effect of VLEDs on T2DM are needed.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
16.
J Med Food ; 23(3): 224-232, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928474

RESUMO

Childhood obesity is a medical condition of major public health concern. Chia seeds are used to treat certain noncommunicable diseases, and they are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which contribute to the absorption of vitamins. A randomized double-blind clinical trial of 30 obese children was performed. The sample was composed of prepubertal 5- to 10-year-old children of both sexes with body mass indexes equal to or above the 95th percentile who were recruited through the Pediatric Department of the Faculdade de Medicina do ABC. Blood samples were drawn, the children were weighed and measured, and a 24-h dietary recall was obtained before and after the treatment. Not only were significant differences observed for fibrinogen (P = .011) but a correlation between the changes in markers and the presence of fibers was also observed for two inflammatory parameters: tumor necrosis factor-α (P = .027) and nuclear factor-κß (P = .059). These results indicate that chia seeds may have anti-inflammatory effects related to their fiber content in the context of childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Salvia/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/genética , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Salvia/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
J Med Food ; 23(3): 319-325, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928490

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation are considered key factors linking obesity with its associated complications. Epigallo catechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and oleoylethanolamide, together with its phospholipid precursor N-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (NOPE), are nutritional compounds that might improve the oxidative stress status of obese people. Unfortunately, the bioavailability of these compounds is low; however, the coadministration of NOPE with EGCG has been shown to ameliorate both the plasma availability of EGCG and the intestinal levels of NOPE in rats. This double-blind placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of 2 months' supplementation with EGCG complexed with NOPE, combined with moderate energy restriction, on plasma oxidative status of overweight and class I obese subjects. A total of 138 subjects (body mass index: 25-35 kg/m2) were recruited and randomized into two groups: the first (n = 67) received caps of placebo and the second (n = 71) caps of an oily dispersion of EGCG complexed with NOPE for 2 months. Subjects' supplementation was combined with moderate energy restriction (-800 kcal/day). Plasma oxidative status was determined by measuring the levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen metabolites, and by calculating the lag time and the slope of Cu-induced lipid peroxidation kinetics. In total 116 subjects (27 M/89 F) completed the supplementation period, 49 in the placebo group and 67 in the treated group. Treatment induced a similar significant weight reduction in the two groups. Moreover, we found the mean changes of Ox-LDL significantly lower and the mean changes of antioxidant capacity (lag time) significantly higher in NOPE-EGCG group than in placebo group (treatment effect mean difference: -3.15 UL, P < .044 and +5.37 min, P < .0347, respectively). EGCG plasma levels were detectable only after 2 months of NOPE-EGCG diet. The NOPE-EGCG integration to a low-energy diet seems, therefore, useful for ameliorating oxidative stress-related markers, which are concomitant causes of obesity-induced disorders.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Etanolamina/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Restrição Calórica , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Método Duplo-Cego , Etanolamina/química , Feminino , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 148: 13-24, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Excess adiposity increases risk for cognitive impairment. Consumption of avocado, a highly bioavailable source of the xanthophyll lutein, has been shown to improve retinal lutein accumulation and cognitive function. Thus, we evaluated the influence of avocado consumption on cognitive function and lutein status among adults with overweight and obesity using a randomized-controlled trial with matching design for pertinent study outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 84 adults (25-45 years, 31 males) were randomized to a treatment group (N = 47) that received a 12-week daily meal with fresh Hass avocado or a control group (N = 37) that received an isocaloric meal (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02740439). Serum lutein and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) were used to assess xanthophyll status. Attention and inhibition were assessed using the Flanker, Oddball and Nogo tasks with accompanying electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. RESULTS: Participants in the treatment group exhibited improvements in serum lutein and accuracy in the Flanker task. However, there were no relationships between performance and changes in lutein status, nor neuroelectric variables. No significant changes in MPOD were observed. CONCLUSION: Daily avocado intake over 12 weeks, after controlling for covariates, improved attentional inhibition and increased serum lutein concentrations among adults with overweight and obesity. However, the cognitive benefits were independent of changes in lutein concentrations. Additional work is necessary to determine non-carotenoid, or carotenoid interactive, mechanisms by which avocados may influence cognitive function.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Persea , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Luteína/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Xantofilas/metabolismo
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 503-514, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) and Paleolithic (Paleo) diets produce weight loss in controlled trials, but minimal evidence exists regarding long-term efficacy under free-living conditions without intense dietetic support. OBJECTIVES: This exploratory, observational analysis examined adherence, dietary intake, weight loss, and metabolic outcomes in overweight adults who could choose to follow Mediterranean, IF, or Paleo diets, and standard exercise or high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs, as part of a 12-mo randomized controlled trial investigating how different monitoring strategies influenced weight loss (control, daily self-weighing, hunger training, diet/exercise app, brief support). METHODS: A total of 250 overweight [BMI (in kg/m2) ≥27] healthy adults attended an individualized dietary education session (30 min) relevant to their self-selected diet. Dietary intake (3-d weighed diet records), weight, body composition, blood pressure, physical activity (0, 6, and 12 mo), and blood indexes (0 and 12 mo) were assessed. Mean (95% CI) changes from baseline were estimated using regression models. No correction was made for multiple tests. RESULTS: Although 54.4% chose IF, 27.2% Mediterranean, and 18.4% Paleo diets originally, only 54% (IF), 57% (Mediterranean), and 35% (Paleo) participants were still following their chosen diet at 12 mo (self-reported). At 12 mo, weight loss was -4.0 kg (95% CI: -5.1, -2.8 kg) in IF, -2.8 kg (-4.4, -1.2 kg) in Mediterranean, and -1.8 kg (-4.0, 0.5 kg) in Paleo participants. Sensitivity analyses showed that, due to substantial dropout, these may be overestimated by ≤1.2 kg, whereas diet adherence increased mean weight loss by 1.1, 1.8, and 0.3 kg, respectively. Reduced systolic blood pressure was observed with IF (-4.9 mm Hg;  -7.2, -2.6 mm Hg) and Mediterranean (-5.9 mm Hg; -9.0, -2.7 mm Hg) diets, and reduced glycated hemoglobin with the Mediterranean diet (-0.8 mmol/mol; -1.2, -0.4 mmol/mol). However, the between-group differences in most outcomes were not significant and these comparisons may be confounded due to the nonrandomized design. CONCLUSIONS: Small differences in metabolic outcomes were apparent in participants following self-selected diets without intensive ongoing dietary support, even though dietary adherence declined rapidly. However, results should be interpreted with caution given the exploratory nature of analyses. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12615000010594 at https://www.anzctr.org.au.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta Paleolítica , Terapia por Exercício , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Austrália , Pressão Sanguínea , Exercício Físico , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
20.
Br J Nutr ; 123(5): 553-563, 2020 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813388

RESUMO

We assessed the effects of increased Ca consumption from fat-free milk in an energy-restricted diet and educational activities in the metabolic control of overweight type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Fourteen subjects with T2DM (BMI 29·4 (sd 4·5) kg/m2, low habitual Ca consumption (<600 mg/d)) were included in this randomised, crossover clinical trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of the two interventions: drink containing 700 mg of Ca (DAIR) or drink containing 0 mg of Ca (CONT) for ninety consecutive days each. Energy-restricted diets (-500 kcal/d; -2092 kJ/d), containing 800 mg of Ca from dietary sources/d, were prescribed for both groups. Questionnaires were applied at baseline and at the end of the study to assess the subjects' knowledge on the disease and on self-care, biochemical variables and physical activity. Blood pressure, food intake, body composition and anthropometry were assessed at baseline, days 45 and 90. There was a higher reduction of body fat %, waist circumference, hip circumference, neck circumference, waist:hip ratio, sagittal abdominal diameter, diastolic/systolic blood pressure and an increase in fat-free mass % in DAIR than in CONT. Uric acid, fasting glucose, Hb1Ac, parathyroid hormone and alanine aminotransferase concentrations reduced and vitamin D concentration increased after 90 d in DAIR compared with CONT. The consumption of energy-restricted diet containing 1200 mg Ca/d seems to favour metabolic control in subjects with T2DM. The educational activities increased the knowledge on the disease care.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Dieta para Diabéticos/métodos , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Adulto , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Leite/química , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Autocuidado/métodos , Autocuidado/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
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