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1.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(240): 749-751, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508480

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Today's generation is facing an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity. It may be genetic or habitual due to overeating of junk foods and sedentary lifestyle. It directly affects an individual personality and health. The main aim of this study is to find out the prevalence of overweight among medical students in a tertiary care center. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study done in 385 students in a tertiary care hospital from 25th January 2020 to 28th February 2021. The sample was collected by simple random sampling method after the approval from the Institutional Review Committee of Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching Hospital. Height in meter and weight in kilogram of students were measured to calculate body mass index. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Science software version 16. Point estimate at 95% confidence interval was calculated along with frequency and proportion for binary data. RESULTS: Among 385 students, 75 (19.48%) (95% Confidence Interval= 15.53%-23.44%) were overweight. Fifty-seven (14.85%) males and 18 (4.69%) females were overweight respectively. In total, there were 197 (51.01%) males and 188 (48.99%) females. CONCLUSIONS: The current study shows the prevalence of overweight among medical students is slightly higher than in studies done in similar settings.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1622, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was done as part of a larger study that aims to identify the most impactful and cost-effective strategies for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Kenya. Our objective was to involve stakeholders in the identification of the strategies that would be included in our larger study. The results from the stakeholder engagement are analyzed and reported in this paper. DESIGN: This was a qualitative study. A one-day stakeholder workshop that followed a deliberative dialogue process was conducted. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of stakeholders who participate in the national level policymaking process for health in Kenya. OUTCOME MEASURE: Strategies for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Kenya. RESULTS: Out of the twenty-three stakeholders who confirmed attendance, fifteen participants attended the one-day workshop. The stakeholders identified a total of 24 strategies for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Kenya. From the ranking process carried out the top six strategies identified were: a research-based strategy for the identification of the nutritional value of indigenous foods, implementation of health promotion strategies that focus on the creation of healthy environments, physical activity behavior such as gym attendance, jogging, walking, and running at the individual level, implementation of school curricula on nutrition and health promotion, integration of physical education into the new Competency-Based Education policy, and policies that increase use of public transport. CONCLUSION: The stakeholders identified and ranked strategies for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Kenya. This informs future overweight and obesity prevention research and policy in Kenya and similar settings.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3885-3893, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468681

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of excess weight and associated factors in women of reproductive age living in a low-income community. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 663 women 15 to 49 years of age residing in the neighborhood of Coelhos in the city of Recife, Brazil. Body mass index (BMI)-for-age was used to classify the nutritional status of the adolescents (15 to 19 years of age), adopting Z-score of ≥+1 for the definition of overweight. For the adults, BMI≥25.0 kg/m² was considered indicative of overweight. Socioeconomic, demographic and reproductive variables were analyzed as possible factors associated with overweight. The prevalence of excess weight was found in two thirds of the sample. The results of the Poisson multiple regression analysis showed a significantly higher prevalence of excess weight with the advance in age, among those with a younger menarche age, those who had three or more pregnancies, those living with their partner and those self-declared black or white. Multiparity was the only factor associated with excess weight that could be modified, which underscores the importance of prenatal and family planning services to its prevention and control.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(4): 566-570, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether there is an association between the body mass index z-score and waist-to-height ratio of children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a school in Santo André, SP, between June and August 2019. Body mass index was measured for all participants, adopting the z-score cutoff of +2 recommended by the World Health Organization. The waist-to-height ratio was determined in children over two years of age and considered abnormal when ≥0.5. The qualitative variables are presented as absolute numbers and percentages. To compare qualitative data, we used the χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. Pearson's test was applied to assess the correlation between BMI and waist-to-height ratio. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The body mass index was calculated for 518 children and the waist-to-height ratio for 473 children. Regarding body mass index, 60.6% of the participants had normal weight, 3.1% were underweight, and 36.3% were overweight. overweight (24.7%) and obesity (22.7%) were more prevalent in adolescents. The waist-to-height ratio was abnormal in 50.5% of the sample. There was an increasing association between body mass index and waist-to-height ratio with age, according to the Pearson correlation coefficients for the age groups <5 years (r=0.459; p<0.001), 5 to 10 years (r=0.687; p<0.001) and >10 years (r=0.805; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: There was a significant correlation between body mass index and waist-to-height ratio. This association was higher in adolescents. The waist-to-height ratio is easy to apply and may be useful as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Adolescente , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Magreza , Circunferência da Cintura
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 94, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466196

RESUMO

Introduction: different studies have shown a relationship between depression and nutrition, but there seems to be no consistent consensus on this. This study therefore investigated the relationship of nutrition status and depression among workers in tertiary educational institutions in Southwestern Nigeria. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted among 399 members of staff of three tertiary educational institutions in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), while nutritional status was assessed using the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist hip ratio (WHR). The respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique, and data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires. Analysis was done using IBM SPSS. Results: the mean age of the respondents was 45.8 ± 10.4 years. The prevalence of depression was 23.8%. Concerning the nutritional status of respondents, 2.3% were underweight and 69.7% were overweight/obese. There were statistically significant associations between depression and the nutritional status of the respondents using BMI (p = 0.001), WHR (p = 0.015) and waist circumference (p = 0.036). After controlling for other factors, only the BMI was still significantly associated with depression, such that those underweight were more likely to be depressed (Odds ratio: 7.9; p-value: 0.009). Conclusion: the prevalence of depression among the respondents was relatively high, and this was significantly associated with the BMI, even after controlling for co-founders.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Magreza/complicações , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril
6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444957

RESUMO

The association between the consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF) with overweight/obesity in Chinese adults has not been investigated. This study included a cohort of 12,451 adults aged >20 years who participated at least twice in the China Nutrition and Health Survey (CNHS) during 1997-2011. Food intake at each survey was assessed using a 3-day 24-h dietary recall. Body weight (kg), height (m), and waist circumference (WC) were measured during the survey. UPF was defined by the NOVA classification. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses were used. The mean UPF consumption of the study population (baseline mean age 43.7 years) increased from 12.0 g in 1997 to 41.5 g in 2011 with the corresponding proportion of UPF in daily diet from 1.0% to 3.6%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 for those with mean UPF consumption of 1-19 g/d, 20-49 g/d, and ≥50 g/d were 1.45 (1.26-1.65), 1.34 (1.15-1.57), and 1.45 (1.21-1.74), respectively (p-trend = 0.015), compared with the non-consumers. Similarly, the corresponding adjusted ORs (95% CI) for central obesity were 1.54 (1.38-1.72), 1.35 (1.19-1.54), and 1.50 (1.29-1.74). Higher long-term UPF consumption was associated with increased risk of overweight/obesity among Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 51, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422174

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare the unadjusted EPOPé M0 curve with the customized Gardosi curve in the diagnosis of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses in a sub-Saharan population. We compared the Gardosi et al. and EPOPé M0 classifications. Classification differences were analyzed according to patient characteristics and obstetric conditions. Data collected from FileMaker software were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and R Studio software. The statistical tests were carried out according to applicability conditions. Alpha risk was set at 0.05. The Gardosi curve showed that the rate of SGA newborns was higher (31.4% versus 28.9%) and did not differ between overweight and normal-weight women. The rate of severe SGA in preterm infants was also higher (23.6 versus 19.7%). Diseases were more frequent in newborns classified as severe SGA by the customized growth curve. The customized curve is recommended for the sub-Saharan Africa population.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/classificação , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 53, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between dietary patterns, stunting, and overweight among Mexican preschoolers. METHODS: This study was conducted with anthropometric (weight, height/length), sociodemographic (age, gender, education level of household head, socioeconomic status, country region and area, ethnicity, and beneficiary of social programs), and dietary data (Semiquantitative-food frequency questionnaire) on children aged from 1 to 4 years collected from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey-2012. Dietary patterns were derived by principal components analysis. The association between dietary patterns, stunting, and overweight was assessed by prevalence ratios (PR), estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In total, 1,112 preschoolers (mean age 3.06 years, SD = 1.08 years; 48.8% females) were included in the study; 11.9% of whom presented stunting, and 6.7% overweight. We identified four dietary patterns: Fruits and Vegetables [F&V], Western [W], Traditional [T], and Milk and Liquids [M&L]. Considering the lowest tertile of each dietary pattern as reference, the prevalence of stunting was 2.04 times higher [95%CI: 1.17-3.56] among children in the highest tertile of the "F&V" pattern. The prevalence of stunting was lower among children in the highest tertile of the "W" pattern [PR = 0.48; 95%CI: 0.27-0.85]. Overweight was negatively associated with the "F&V" dietary pattern [PR = 0.37; 95%CI: 0.16-0.85 for its highest tertile], and children whose consumption was mostly equivalent to the "T" pattern showed higher prevalence of stunting [PR = 1.74; 95%CI: 1.01-3.00]. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of stunting and overweight in a nationwide sample of Mexican preschoolers was associated with dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento , Sobrepeso , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045547, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the possible relationship between television viewing and overweight and obesity among Timorese women of reproductive age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analysed the Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey 2016 dataset. A weighted sample of 11 398 Timorese women aged 15-49 years was chosen using a two-stage stratified random sampling technique. Asian criteria-based body mass index (BMI) cut-offs were used to define overweight (BMI 23.0 to <27.5 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2). Frequency of TV viewing was categorised into three groups: (1) not at all, (2) less than once a week and (3) at least once a week. Multilevel ordered logistic regression was performed to identify the correlates of overweight and obesity. Both crude and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) along with a 95% CI were calculated to show the strength of association. RESULTS: Among 11 398 respondents, 19.4% were overweight or obese (overweight: 15.7% and obese: 3.8%). Although about half of the respondents reportedly did not watch TV at all, just over two-thirds watched TV at least once a week. Women who watched TV at least once a week were found to have 1.3 times the odds of being overweight or obese compared with those who never watched TV (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.5; p<0.001). However, when stratified by settlement type, the statistical significance stood for the rural women only (AOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 1.8; p<0.001), after adjusting for the covariates. CONCLUSION: Watching TV at least once a week was found to be a significant correlate of overweight and obesity in rural Timorese women of reproductive age. Further studies need to be undertaken to assess physical activity, sedentary and dietary patterns to clarify the possible mechanism through which TV viewing may influence BMI in those groups.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Televisão , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Timor-Leste
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444531

RESUMO

Among the various factors that could influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescence, body mass index (BMI) seems to play a key role as a main anthropometric parameter. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine, in a sample of Italian adolescents, whether HRQoL is associated with the different weight status categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese), according to BMI cut-off points for children, even considering sex differences. Data were collected from 1707 adolescents (n = 828 males) in seven schools. HRQoL was analyzed using the Italian version of KIDSCREEN-52. Males were more overweight and obese than females (13% vs. 10% and 4% vs. 2%, p < 0.05, respectively). In females, BMI categories are associated with physical well-being (p < 0.05), emotion/mood (p < 0.05), self-perception (p < 0.001), financial resources (p < 0.05), and bullying behavior (p < 0.05). In males, weight status is linked to physical well-being dimension (p < 0.001) and perception of self (p < 0.05). Our results may suggest that there is an association between weight status categories and HRQoL, more pronounced in females than in males. Interestingly, the weight status correlated more with the psychological dimension mainly in females, whereas in males, a stronger association between weight and physical status was observed, suggesting that given the complex, multifaceted, and dynamic nature of relationship between health-related quality of life and weight status in adolescents, multiple factors must be considered.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26872, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397903

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Overweight/obesity can influence bone mineral accretion, but the conclusions are not consistent. We aimed to examine the association between bone mineral density (BMD) levels and body mass index (BMI) in 12 to 15 years old adolescents.We performed a cross-sectional study including 8365 adolescents. BMD was evaluated using a quantitative ultrasound device. Z scores for BMI were evaluated using World Health Organization references. Logistic regression models were performed to evaluate the association between BMD levels and BMI.Totally 1866 (22.3%) adolescents had low /reduced BMD, and boys had a higher rate than girls (72.6% vs 27.4%, P < .001). The rates of thinness, normal weight, overweight, and obesity were 2.8%, 57.1%, 22.3%, and 17.8%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted (age, sex, systolic blood pressure, and height Z score) ORs (95% CIs) of low/reduced BMD associated with BMI groups (thinness, normal [reference], overweight, and obesity) were 0.59 (0.39-0.89), 1.00, 1.61 (1.41-1.84), and 1.98 (1.69-2.30), respectively (Ptrend < .001). This positive association existed in boys and girls though the differences were not significant between normal weight and thin girls. The multivariable-adjusted ORs for each 1-unit increase in BMI Z score were 1.36 (1.24-1.49) for girls, and 1.23 (1.16-1.30) for boys, and 1.26 (1.20-1.32) for all participants.We observed a positive association between BMI and low/reduced BMD in 12 to 15 years old adolescents. More attention should be paid on overweight and obese adolescents to reduce the risk of low BMD. Further studies are needed to explore the mechanisms of this association.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Magreza , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Causalidade , China/epidemiologia , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Magreza/diagnóstico , Magreza/metabolismo , Ultrassonografia/métodos
12.
Malawi Med J ; 33(1): 37-47, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422232

RESUMO

Background: Disability is a major determinant of impaired health and nutritional status. This study aims to assess the health and nutritional status of adults with disability and their relationship with socio-demographic factors. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 323 adults with disability in support-centers/schools of disability in Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria was conducted. The participants' socio-demographic factors, behavioural characteristics and 24-hour dietary recall were recorded. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements of height, weight, waist and hip circumference were obtained. The height and weight measurements of non-ambulatory participants were estimated from knee height and mid-arm circumference. Biochemical analyses of blood samples were also performed. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the effect of socio-demographic factors on health and nutritional status. Results: The participants consisted of females (59.3%) within the age of 20 to 30 years (59.1%). The major area of difficulty was in physical mobility (51.1%) and this occurred mostly in females (26.9%). The participants' mean daily intakes of calorie, protein and fat were below the recommended dietary allowances. The participants were overweight (49.2%), obese (4.6%), hypertensive (29.7%) and diabetic (12.1%). Dyslipidemia (81.8%), anemia (63.6%) and zinc deficiency (51.1%) were highly prevalent among the study group. Gender difference was observed in alcohol consumption (p=0.000), smoking habit (p=0.001), waist circumference (WC)(p=0.000), waist-hip-ratio (WHR) (p=0.000), triglyceride (p=0.026) and haemoglobin concentration (p=0.007). Being boarder was a positive predictor of overweight/obesity (OR= 2.974, 95% CI=1.449-6.104), abnormal WHR (OR=2.893, 95% CI = 1.073-7.801) and hypertension (OR=8.381, 95% CI=1.598-13.959). Female gender was associated with abnormal WC (OR=7.219, 95% CI=3.116-14.228) and WHR (OR=3.590, 95% CI=2.095-6.150) whereas older age-group was associated with overweight/obesity (OR=1.908, 95% CI=1.137- 3.202). Being employed was a negative predictor of hypertension. Conclusion: Overweight/obesity, anemia, zinc deficiency and dyslipidemia were highly prevalent among persons living with disability in Enugu Metropolis.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Nível de Saúde , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/deficiência
13.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371849

RESUMO

The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) affects many low- and middle-income countries. However, few studies have examined DBM at the individual level, or undernutrition and overnutrition co-occurring within the same person. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and determinants of DBM among adults in the Philippines. Data from the 2013 National Nutrition Survey were used. The sample size in the analysis was 17,010 adults aged ≥20 years old, after excluding pregnant and lactating women. DBM was defined as the co-occurrence of overweight/obesity and anemia (definition #1), overweight/obesity and anemia or vitamin A deficiency (definition #2), and overweight/obesity and anemia or vitamin A deficiency or iodine insufficiency (definition #3). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical markers were used for DBM assessment. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, and logistic regression by R software. Results showed that definition #3 is the predominant type of DBM (7.0%) in the general population, whereas the prevalence of DBM has increased to 23.7% in overweight/obese persons. Sex, age, educational attainment, marital status, household size, wealth quintile, and smoking status were the determinants of DBM. This study revealed that Filipino adults experience malnutrition critically and must be addressed through food and nutrition interventions.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etnologia , Antropometria , Comorbidade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Iodo/deficiência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/etnologia , Hipernutrição/epidemiologia , Hipernutrição/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Filipinas/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Deficiência de Vitamina A/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371853

RESUMO

Data on the association between body mass index (BMI) and stroke are scarce. We aimed to examine the association between BMI and incident stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) and to clarify the relationship between underweight, overweight, and obesity and stroke risk stratified by sex. We analyzed the JMDC Claims Database between January 2005 and April 2020 including 2,740,778 healthy individuals (Median (interquartile) age, 45 (38-53) years; 56.2% men; median (interquartile) BMI, 22.3 (20.2-24.8) kg/m2). None of the participants had a history of cardiovascular disease. Each participant was categorized as underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). We investigated the association of BMI with incidence stroke in men and women using the Cox regression model. We used restricted cubic spline (RCS) functions to identify the association of BMI as a continuous parameter with incident stroke. The incidence (95% confidence interval) of total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke was 32.5 (32.0-32.9), 28.1 (27.6-28.5), and 5.5 (5.3-5.7) per 10,000 person-years in men, whereas 25.7 (25.1-26.2), 22.5 (22.0-23.0), and 4.0 (3.8-4.2) per 10,000 person-years in women, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that overweight and obesity were associated with a higher incidence of total and ischemic stroke in both men and women. Underweight, overweight, and obesity were associated with a higher hemorrhagic stroke incidence in men, but not in women. Restricted cubic spline showed that the risk of ischemic stroke increased in a BMI dose-dependent manner in both men and women, whereas there was a U-shaped relationship between BMI and the hemorrhagic stroke risk in men. In conclusion, overweight and obesity were associated with a greater incidence of stroke and ischemic stroke in both men and women. Furthermore, underweight, overweight, and obesity were associated with a higher hemorrhagic stroke risk in men. Our results would help in the risk stratification of future stroke based on BMI.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , AVC Hemorrágico/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Magreza/complicações , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , AVC Hemorrágico/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Magreza/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360067

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze whether weight status has a relationship with the prevalence of body self-image dissatisfaction in Mediterranean urban teenagers. A series of 809 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years underwent anthropometric measurements according to ISAK protocols and completed the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). The overall overweight prevalence according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria was 11.5%, and 2.7% for obesity. Girls showed higher overweight prevalence than boys (18.4% vs. 12.9%; p < 0.05). At the late adolescence period (16-17 y), obesity was observed in the boys but not in the girls (8.7% vs. 0%; p < 0.01). There was a relative low prevalence of body image (BI) dissatisfaction among participants (boys 17.3%; girls 22.7%). In the late adolescence period, the girls were more often classified as being dissatisfied (31%). A weak correlation between the BSQ scores and all the anthropometric variables related to the adiposity profile was detected only in the boys. A logistic regression confirmed that female adolescents and the late pubertal period had a significant association with body dissatisfaction, regardless of their weight status. As BI are not related to weight status measured by body mass index (BMI) percentiles, other factors beyond anthropometry deserve further research to explain BI concerns specifically in girls.


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal , Adolescente , Antropometria , Imagem Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência
16.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444793

RESUMO

Changes in school meal programs can affect well-being of millions of American children. Since 2014, high-poverty schools and districts nationwide had an option to provide universal free meals (UFM) through the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP). The COVID-19 pandemic expanded UFM to all schools in 2020-2022. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011, we measured CEP effects on school meal participation, attendance, academic achievement, children's body weight, and household food security. To provide plausibly causal estimates, we leveraged the exogenous variation in the timing of CEP implementation across states and estimated a difference-in-difference model with child random effects, school and year fixed effects. On average, CEP participation increased the probability of children's eating free school lunch by 9.3% and daily school attendance by 0.24 percentage points (p < 0.01). We find no evidence that, overall, CEP affected body weight, test scores and household food security among elementary schoolchildren. However, CEP benefited children in low-income families by decreasing the probability of being overweight by 3.1% (p < 0.05) and improving reading scores of Hispanic children by 0.055 standard deviations. UFM expansion can particularly benefit at-risk children and help improve equity in educational and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Refeições , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Peso Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Segurança Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Almoço , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1494, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is an emerging public health problem globally. Although previously a problem of high-income countries, overweight and obesity is on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. This paper explores the factors associated with childhood obesity and overweight in Uganda using data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2016. METHODS: We used Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) 2016 data of 4338 children less than 5 years. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select study participants and data were collected using validated questionnaires. Overweight and obesity were combined as the primary outcome. Children whose BMI z score was over two were considered as overweight while those with a BMI z score greater than three were considered as obese. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with obesity and overweight among children under 5 years of age in Uganda. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 5.0% (217/4338) (95% CI: 4.3-5.6), with overweight at 3.9% (168/4338: 95% CI: 3.2-4.3) and obesity at 1.1% (49/4338: 95% CI: 0.8-1.5). Mother's nutritional status, sex of the child, and child's age were associated with childhood obesity and overweight. Boys were more likely to be overweight or obese (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.64) compared to girls. Children who were younger (36 months and below) and those with mothers who were overweight or obese were more likely to have obesity or overweight compared to those aged 49-59 months and those with underweight mothers respectively. Children from the western region were more likely to be overweight or obese compared to those that were from the North. CONCLUSION: The present study showed male sex, older age of the children, nutritional status of the mothers and region of residence were associated with obesity and overweight among children under 5 years of age.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia
18.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 159, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gaining excessive or inadequate gestational weight is associated with many adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) increases the risk of fetal growth restriction, pre-term birth, and low birth weight. It is a public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to assess the patterns and predictors of GWG in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study among pregnant women who attended antenatal care in health centres in Addis Ababa, from January to September 2019. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire and checklists and analysed using Stata version-14. Weight at or before 16 weeks gestation was used as a proxy for pre-pregnancy weight. Women's height and baseline weight were measured by data collectors, and we obtained weight at the end of the 24th and 36th weeks of gestation from women's medical records. GWG was categorized as inadequate, adequate and excessive based on the United States Institute of Medicine criteria. Predictors of GWG were identified using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 395 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. GWG was assessed for 369 (93%) women. The median GWG was 8.7 kg with inter quartile ranges (25th, 75th percentiles) of 7.0 kg and 11.6 kg. More than two-third of the participants, 248 (67.2% [95% CI: 62.2, 72.0%]), gained inadequate weight; 103 (27.9% [95% CI: 23.4, 32.8%]) gained adequate weight; and 18 (4.9% [95% CI: 2.9%, 7.6%]) gained excessive weight. Three quarters (75%) of underweight women gained inadequate gestational weight, whereas 43% of overweight or obese women gained inadequate gestational weight. Being underweight (AOR = 3.30 [95% CI: 1.32, 8.24]) or normal weight (AOR = 2.68 [95% CI: 1.37, 5.24]) before pregnancy increased the odds of gaining inadequate gestational weight compared to overweight or obese women. Not having paid employment was associated with higher odds of gaining inadequate gestational weight compared to women employed outside the home (AOR = 2.17 [95% CI: 1.16, 4.07]). CONCLUSIONS: Most pregnant women in Addis Ababa gain inadequate gestational weight. In particular, three quarters of underweight women gained inadequate gestational weight. Being underweight, normal weight or having no paid employment were associated with higher odds of inadequate GWG. Promoting adequate GWG in Addis Ababa among underweight and normal weight women may be an important public health initiative.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Índice de Massa Corporal , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos , Ganho de Peso
19.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(4): 547-551, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between serum vitamin D and fasting blood glucose in children and adolescents, and its influence on overweight and obesity. METHODS: Using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method, 13 districts and counties in Shandong Province were selected as survey points, and a total of 26 elementary schools, 26 junior high schools and 13 high schools were selected. Questionnaire surveys and physical examination were conducted on children and adolescents aged 6-17.Serum vitamin D and fasting blood glucose were uniformly measured. The "BMI Classification Standard for Overweight and Obesity Screening for Chinese School-age Children and Adolescents" was used to determine overweight and obesity. Statistical method adopt t-test and generalized linear regression model for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3562 children aged 6-17 years were investigated, 2666 were healthy, 446 were overweight, 450 were obese, including 131 peripheral obesity and 319 abdominal obesity. The fasting blood glucose level of the 13-17-year-old group was significantly higher than that of the 6-12-year-old group(t=-3.13, P=0.002), and the male was significantly higher than that of the female(t=7.87, P& lt; 0.001). In the healthy and obesity group, there was a negative correlation between serum vitamin D and fasting blood glucose(P& lt; 0.05). In overweight group, serum vitamin D was not significantly related to fasting blood glucose(P& gt; 0.05). Serum vitamin D and fasting blood glucose were negatively correlated with healthy bodies in female group and 13-17 years old group, and the abdominal obesity bodies in the 6-12 year old group(P& lt; 0.05). CONCLUSION: The fasting blood glucose of adolescents aged 13-17 is significantly higher than that of children aged 6-12, and the fasting blood glucose of men is significantly higher than that of women. Different gender, age, and overweight and obesity status have an impact on the relationship between serum vitamin D and fasting blood glucose.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Vitamina D , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
20.
Work ; 69(3): 1027-1040, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This research work establishes the relationship between job strain and being overweight among Mexican managers. Recently in Mexico, there has been a sharp increase in work-related diseases and mental health disorders. Furthermore, evidence shows that Mexicans rank top among employees who suffer from stress, yet research on the impact of job strain on the phenomena of obesity and being overweight among such vulnerable job positions in the industrial field is scarce. METHODS: The sample included 170 overweight middle and senior managers from six companies in the Mexican Manufacturing Industry. Cedillo's Spanish version of the Job Content Questionnaire by Karasek was used, and the Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to characterize an overweight condition. Structural Equations Modelling studied the relationships among variables. RESULTS: Even though, the model shows a power of explanation of 6%(R2 = 0.06), the variable showing the greatest direct effect on the overweight variable is social support, with 21%(p < 0.01, ß= -0.21). Regarding the total effects, only two of the four variables studied contributed directly to the overweight variation: the social support variable and the job demand variable. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the model hold a relatively low explanatory power; however, they do show a relationship between the studied variables. Also, the importance of the supervisor and co-workers' support should be considered when developing organizational strategies for the prevention of work stress and an overweight condition.


Assuntos
Indústria Manufatureira , Sobrepeso , Humanos , Indústrias , México/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
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