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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190006.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) according to different diagnostic criteria, in the Brazilian adult population, according to laboratory results from the Brazilian National Health Survey. METHODS: Analysis of laboratory data from the National Health Survey, collected between 2014 and 2015. The prevalence of diabetes was calculated according to different diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of diabetes was calculated according to the criterion of glycosylated hemoglobin ≥ 6.5% or using medication, using Poisson regression and calculating crude and adjusted PR and 95%CI. RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes according to different criteria varies from 6.6 to 9.4%. Intermediate or pre-diabetes hyperglycemia ranged from 6.8 to 16.9%. Considering laboratory criteria or medication use, the prevalence of DM was 8.4 (95%CI 7.65-9.11). The adjusted PR for gender, age, educational level and region was lower for males (PR 0.75; 95%CI 0.63 - 0.89), increased with age: 30 to 34 years (PR 2.32; 95% CI 1.33 - 4.07), 40 to 59 years PR 8.1; 95%CI 4.86 - 13.46), 60 years old or older (PR 12.6; 95%CI 7.1 - 21.0), and higher educational levels was protective (PR 0.8; 95%CI 0.6 - 0.9). Therewas a higher PR in the Central West Region (PR 1.3; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.7), in overweight people (PR 1.8; 95%CI 1.4 - 2.1), and in obese people (PR 3.3; 95%CI 2.6 - 4.1). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetes was higher in females, people over 30 years of age, in populations with low educational levels, and people who were overweight and obese. The study advances in determining the diabetes situation in the country through laboratory criteria.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
2.
S D Med ; 72(9): 419-423, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A disparity in overweight/obesity prevalence exists between rural and urban youth; however, definitions of 'rural' vary widely and the degree to which rurality impacts overweight/obesity prevalence is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the school height and weight data in a rural Midwest state to determine differences in overweight and obesity prevalence among youth by using Rural-Urban Continuum (RUC) codes to define county-level degree of urbanization. METHODS: De-identified statewide data were obtained in electronic format from the state Department of Health. Height, weight, sex and age were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) z-scores, which were used to determine BMI percentile and categories. The county variable was used to assign a RUC code to each individual. Logistic regression was used to examine binary weight classifications by rural status while controlling for age, sex and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Odds of obesity and of overweight/obesity were higher among rural youth compared to non-rural. Odds of overweight/obesity increased with increasing rurality. Compared to youth who lived in counties with a RUC code of 3, youth who lived in counties with RUC codes of 5, 7, 8 and 9 had greater odds of overweight/obesity. The number of youth classified as 'rural' ranged from 11-48 percent, depending on how 'rural' was defined. Likewise, overweight/obesity prevalence differed by 4.6 percent depending on how 'rural' was defined. CONCLUSIONS: Consistently defining 'rural' and determining degree of rurality is important in understanding how geographic location plays a role in overweight/obesity among youth. Future research should work to assess the physical and social environments of these different types of rural areas to better understand the role that rurality plays in contributing to overweight/obesity among youth. Assessing social determinants of health and its impact on health in rural youth is essential for designing effective public health interventions that can be implemented to address the issue.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , População Rural , População Urbana , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Humanos , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 875-884, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474067

RESUMO

With the rapid economic development and dramatic changes in lifestyle, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in China has been increasing significantly and become a serious public health threat. This article introduced the main contents of "China Blue Paper on Obesity Prevention and Control", aiming to facilitate understanding and applications of the "China Blue Paper on Obesity Prevention and Control" by policymakers, researchers and practitioners in related fields. Built upon these, recommendations were made for obesity screening, diagnosis, treatment and management, prevention and control policies and strategies, and future research priorities in China.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Programas de Rastreamento , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489078

RESUMO

Introduction: Hypertension, among diabetic patients, is a worldwide public-health challenge and a leading modifiable risk factor for other cardiovascular diseases. The main purpose of this study was to identify determinants of hypertension among diabetic patients. Methods: Data were collected from January to March 2018 using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Data collectors and supervisors were trained before the period of data collection. The questionnaire was pretested on 5% of the sample at Suhul hospital. Bivariable logistic regression was employed to examine the crude associations between the outcome variable and determinant variables. This was followed by multivariable analysis to examine the determinants of hypertension among diabetic patients by selecting variables which had p value ≤0.2 in the bivariable analysis. Results: The age range of the respondents was 18-80 years, with the median age of 51.56±14.92 years. Not attending diabetes mellitus education sessions (AOR=2.61, 95% CI (1.12,6.1), duration since diagnosis with diabetes (AOR=8.52; 95% CI (1.97, 36.84), poor glycemic control (AOR=22.99, 95CI (5.92,89.28), overweight (AOR=4.84, 95%CI (1.42,16.51), and non-adherence to diabetes medication (AOR=4.66, 95% CI (2.22,9.79), diet (AOR=9.70,95% CI (3.34,28.22), exercise (AOR= 5.47, 95% CI (2.35,12.75), and self-monitoring blood glucose (AOR=6.62, 95% CI (3.16, 13.86) were found to be the determinants of hypertension among diabetic patients. Conclusion: This research concludes that longer duration with diabetes, nonattendance of diabetes education sessions, poor glycemic control, and not-adherence to antidiabetic medications, diet, exercise and self-monitoring blood glucose were found to be the determinants of hypertension among diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Adesão à Medicação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) is an important data source for assessing the occurrence of underweight, overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Germany. However, to assess trends over time, it must be considered that methodological changes in the calculation of prevalences have been necessary and that the reference system has been revised. OBJECTIVE: Are the effects of the methodological changes in weighting factors and reference systems so important that they significantly influence the available prevalence estimates and statements on trends over time? MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data are based on valid measurements of body height and weight from the KiGGS baseline survey (2003-2006, 7531 boys and 7215 girls) and from KiGGS Wave 2 (2014-2017, 1762 boys and 1799 girls). The participants were aged between 3 and 17 years. Prevalences (%, 95% CI) of underweight, overweight and obesity for the KiGGS baseline survey were calculated depending on the reference system and different weighting factors used. RESULTS: The statements on the temporal trend in the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity remain valid even when methodological changes are taken into account. Only among 16- and especially 17-year-old girls, can a noticeable difference due to the altered reference system be noted. DISCUSSION: With regard to the trend examined here, the methodological changes can be neglected, as long as no small subgroups are analysed. However, this conclusion cannot be generalised; the effects of methodological changes must be re-examined for each study question.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 976-981, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484264

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association of both maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with childhood overweight and adiposity in preschool children. Methods: A total of 4 303 preschool children aged 3-5 years were enrolled in our study during June and November 2016 in Guangzhou. Children defined as overweight and obesity were according to the criteria of WHO while weight status during maternal pre-pregnancy was using the China Adult Reference. Gestational weight gain was defined according to the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results: After adjusting the possible confounding factors, results from the logistic regression analysis showed that both maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity would increase the risk for both childhood overweight and obesity (OR=1.820, 95%CI: 1.368-2.422). The analysis of covariance results also showed that both maternal overweight and obesity before pregnancy and excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy increased the BMI Z-score in children. Maternal GWG over the recommended level were associated with both the childhood overweight and obesity (OR=1.296, 95%CI: 1.007-1.667). Joint associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and inappropriate GWG were also noticed in the study. Stratified analysis was conducted in three groups according to the pre-pregnancy BMI of the mothers. Result showed that there was no statistical difference in the risks of either overweight or obesity in children (P>0.05). However, when compared to mothers with adequate pre-pregnancy higher BMI and adequate GWG, under the combination of high pre-pregnancy BMI and excessive GWG, their adverse effects on childhood overweight and obesity were much higher (OR=1.574, 95%CI: 1.029-2.409). Conclusions: Both high pre-pregnancy BMI and inappropriate GWG were associated with greater BMI of their offspring. Pregnant women should follow the appropriate weight gain program and help their children to prevent from becoming obese.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Gravidez
7.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 57(9): 686-693, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530354

RESUMO

Objective: To observe and compare the effects of two standards on the overweight trend in urban Shanghai infants and young children. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in 19 communities in two districts of Shanghai, and the subjects (n=15 019) were divided into S-group and W-group by sealed envelope randomization. The subjects were newborns born between November 2013 and December 2014. The 2005 Shanghai growth standard was applied in the S-group and the 2006 WHO growth standard was used in the W-group. At each follow-up time point age of 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months, the outpatient physician assessed the length and weight of the infants according to the standard adopted by each group and provided feeding guidance. The weight-for-age Z scores (WAZ), length-for-age Z scores (LAZ) and weight-for-length Z scores (WLZ) were calculated according to the WHO standard. Weight, length, WAZ, LAZ, WLZ and overweight ratio (WLZ≥2) were compared between the two groups using t test, Wilcoxon test and χ(2) test. Results: A total of 6 509 infants (3 391 were boys, 3 118 were girls) were in the W-group, and 8 510 infants (4 374 were boys, 4 136 were girls) were in the S-group. Among the boys, the weight values at the age of 4, 6, 9, 12, 18 months in the W-group were all lower than those in the S-group ((7.5±0.8) vs. (7.7±0.8) kg, (8.6±0.8) vs. (8.7±0.8) kg, (9.6±0.9) vs. (9.7±0.9) kg, (10.4±1.0) vs. (10.5±1.0) kg, (11.5±1.1) vs.(11.7±1.1) kg; t=4.329, 2.422, 3.739, 2.451, 2.736; P<0.01, 0.015,<0.01, 0.014, 0.009). The length had no significant difference between two groups at all months of age(all P>0.05). The overweight ratio in the W-group was lower than that in the S-group at the age of 9, 12, 18 months(3.3% (71/2 170) vs. 4.9% (143/2 927), 2.5% (51/2 037) vs. 4.5% (126/2 818), 0.8% (7/832) vs. 3.1% (39/1 266); χ(2)=6.520, 14.209, 12.350; P=0.011,<0.01,<0.01).Among the girls, except at the age of 2 months (W-group (5.6±0.6) vs. S-group (5.7±0.6), t=2.935, P=0.003), weight values had no significant difference between the two groups at other age months (all P>0.05).The length in the W-group was higher than that in the S-group at 12 and 18 months of age ((75.6±2.4) vs.(75.5±2.3)cm, (82.4±2.9) vs.(82.2±2.7) cm; t=2.351, 2.197; P=0.019, 0.028). The ratio of overweight in the W-group was lower than that of S-group at the age of 12 and 18 months (1.8% (33/1 871) vs.3.0% (80/2 658), 0.6% (5/790) vs.1.7% (20/1 178); χ(2)=6.764,4.276; P=0.009, 0.039). Conclusions: The application of WHO growth standard can help to reduce the weight gain rate of boys, promote the linear growth of girls, and thus alleviate the overweight trend of infants within 18 months. It suggested that 2006 WHO growth standard should be applied to infants within 1 year of age in Shanghai.


Assuntos
Estatura , Peso Corporal , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Padrões de Referência , População Urbana , Ganho de Peso , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1021, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the association between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and to further explore gender differences in BMI-HRQOL association among adults. METHODS: We used data from the fifth Health Service Survey of Shandong Province, which was part of China's National Health Service Survey (NHSS), a total of 27,257 adults aged 18 and over were interviewed. The HRQOL was measured using the EuroQOL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) instrument. One-way ANOVA and Post hoc tests were used to compare EQ-5D utility values and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores between BMI categories. Tobit regression models were used to identify the association between BMI and HRQOL for male and female separately after controlling for influential confounders, and to assess gender differences on the relationship between BMI and HRQOL. RESULTS: The prevalence of underweight in men and women were 3.2 and 5.3%, respectively, while the prevalence of overweight/obesity in men and women were 35.7 and 34.6%, respectively. Men had higher EQ-5D utility values and VAS scores than women. The mean EQ-5D utility value and VAS score was highest in obese men and normal-weight women, respectively. After controlling potential confounders, being underweight was significantly and negatively associated with lower HRQOL among adults. The relationship between obesity and gender was that in women obesity was negatively and significantly associated with HRQOL, whereas in men this association was positive but not statistically significant. Results of gender by BMI interaction in regression model showed that this difference between men and women in this respect was significant. CONCLUSIONS: The association between BMI and HRQOL differed by gender and the so-called "obesity-HRQOL paradox" phenomenon was verified in male adults. Gender difference should be considered when implementing targeted weight control programs and appropriate interventions to improve HRQOL.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Magreza/epidemiologia
9.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 411-416, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is gradually increasing in both developed and developing countries. Obesity, for instance, can present multifactorial causes that interact with each other. Among the important factors, parental obesity plays a prominent role in the onset of obesity during childhood and teenage years through genetics and ambient aspects. This study aims to verify the possible existence of an association between overweight/obesity of schoolchildren and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors for their parents. SUBJETCS AND METHODS: For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1,243 children and adolescents, aged between 7 and 17. Out of the total number of participants, 563 (45.3%) were boys who were selected across 19 schools in the urban and rural areas of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). The overweight/obesity status of the schoolchildren was evaluated through their body mass index (BMI). Additionally, a self-reference questionnaire was employed to measure their parents' CVR. RESULTS: The results of this study revealed that students with overweight/obesity have a higher probability of having a father with hypertension (OR = 1.49; p = 0.038) and obesity (OR = 2.36; p = 0.002) and a mother with obesity (OR = 1.72; p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: To conclude, this study confirms a relationship between overweight/obesity of schoolchildren with CVR for their parents.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 30, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384345

RESUMO

Introduction: In Ghana, there is no data regarding physical activity habits and lipid profiles of students. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical activities, Body Mass Index (BMI) and lipid profile of students in Ghana. Methods: Cluster and systematic sampling techniques were employed to recruit 120 students, aged 18 years and above. This cross-sectional study was carried out among students from the University of Ghana. Biochemical analysis was conducted analysing total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) in serum samples. Anthropometry measurements were also taken and BMI calculated. The physical activities, undertaken over a 7-day period, by the students were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results: 31.7% and 21.7% of the students were overweight and obese respectively. 61.5% of the obese students were engaged in high level physical activity as compared to 45.5% and 36.8% of the normal and overweight students, respectively. Normal weight students and overweight students showed significant differences in means of TC; [(4.56 ± 0.930 mmol/L) and (5.06 ± 0.93 mmol/L), respectively] and also between normal weight group (4.54 ± 0.93 mmol/L) and the obese students (5.24 ± 1.18 mmol/L). Significant correlations were also observed between TG, TC and BMI; and TC and TG, HDL and a strong correlation between LDL and TC (r=0.967). Conclusion: Strong correlations between BMI, physical activity and lipid profile indices among students in Ghana. Comprehensive efforts should be applied to reduce the incidence of CVDs among students.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício/fisiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1140-1146, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417059

RESUMO

Objective: Hypertension among adolescents is an emerging public health problem. The current study aims to estimate the burden of hypertension and identify its risk factors among male adolescents of intermediate and secondary schools. Subjects and Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study that targeted 400 male adolescents in the age group of 15-17 years. Blood pressure was defined as per the "Fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents". An electronic device approved for use by the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010, (Omron M3W; HEM-7202-E) was used for measuring blood pressure. CDC's body mass index tool was adopted for defining overweight and obesity. Descriptive analysis for hypertension and the risk factors were carried out. Chi-square test and odds ratios were calculated to assess any association between categorical variables. Results: Overall 36 (9.0%) adolescents had prehypertension and 69 (17.2%) had hypertension. Systolic prehypertension, systolic hypertension, diastolic prehypertension, and diastolic hypertension were present in 6.5%, 17.2%, 5.8%, and 9.0% of the adolescents, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed that overweight and obesity, no physical activity, or once-a-week physical activity, positive family history of hypertension, and smoking were predictors of systolic prehypertension and showed a significant relationship with systolic hypertension. Conclusion: There is a considerable prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension, among school-going male adolescents. We recommend school-based health education programs and routine screening directed toward the risk factors of noncommunicable diseases like hypertension with special attention to obesity, physical inactivity, and smoking.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pré-Hipertensão/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 159-163, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465183

RESUMO

Background: Excess weight (EW) and alterations in lipid metabolism constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults and children. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in schoolchildren from Jujuy with EW is analyzed in this study. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of 891 schoolchildren 10-14 years old (367 girls; 524 boys) from the province of Jujuy (Northwestern Argentina). Prevalence of dyslipidemia for Overweight (OW) and Obesity (OB) were calculated, according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-off points. Prevalence of lipid alterations were analyzed and 7 dyslipidemic profiles were established. Comparisons and associations between variables were analyzed by Chi-square test. Crude and adjusted odds ratio were estimated from a logistic regressions. Results: Regardless of sex and nutritional status, 13.7%, 21.8%, and 16.5% of schoolchildren showed high values of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, respectively, and 20.3% had low HDL cholesterol. Significantly higher values of HDL cholesterol were found in OW, and of triglycerides in OB. A significant association was recorded between OB and high triglycerides. Schoolchildren with OB have a 54% more chances of showing at least one lipid alteration. Conclusion: EW, and especially OB, constitutes an important risk factor in the development of dyslipidemia in schoolchildren from Jujuy.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adolescente , Argentina/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Criança , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1070-1077, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417049

RESUMO

Background: The World Health Organization defines obesity as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that can damage health. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of obesity and risk factors in high school students in Erzurum City Center. Study Design and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The number of students participating in the study was 845, including 47.6% females and 52.4% males. Data collection was done by surveys filled in under supervision. Anthropometric measurements were performed by the researchers. Predictions of the Extended International Obesity Task Force were used for body mass index. Parents' body mass indexes were calculated by self-report and classified according to cut-off points for adults in the world health community. A systematic review of the local literature published between 2004 and 2013 was drafted. Results: In girls and boys, the frequency of overweight was 26.9% and 25.7%, respectively, while the frequency of obesity was 12.4% and 9.5%. A logistic regression analysis was performed to reveal significant risk factors for overweight/obesity. Weekly exercise status [odds ratio = 3.0, 95% confidence interval CI (1.2-7.8)] and school transfer % CI = (1.1-7.2) were important independent risk factors for obesity. The local literature showed a 4.3-fold increase in the prevalence of obesity within 10 years. Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in adolescents requires the implementation of effective programs to fight this epidemic. Health education targeting peers and their parents, peer education, screening of risk groups, and controlling the sale of unhealthy foods can be some interventions.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 627, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition and diabetes are risk factors for active tuberculosis (TB), possible risk factors for latent TB infection (LTBI), and may interact to alter their effect on these outcomes. Studies to date have not investigated this interaction. METHODS: We enrolled 919 newly diagnosed active TB patients and 1113 household contacts at Primary Health Centres in Puducherry and Tamil Nadu, India from 2014 to 2018. In cross-sectional analyses, we used generalized estimating equations to measure additive and multiplicative interaction of body mass index (BMI) and diabetes on two outcomes, active TB and LTBI. RESULTS: Among overweight or obese adults, active TB prevalence was 12-times higher in diabetic compared to non-diabetic participants, 2.5-times higher among normal weight adults, and no different among underweight adults (P for interaction < 0.0001). Diabetes was associated with 50 additional active TB cases per 100 overweight or obese participants, 56 per 100 normal weight participants, and 17 per 100 underweight participants (P for interaction < 0.0001). Across BMI categories, screening 2.3-3.8 active TB patients yielded one hyperglycemic patient. LTBI prevalence did not differ by diabetes and BMI*diabetes interaction was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: BMI and diabetes are associated with newly diagnosed active TB, but not LTBI. Diabetes conferred the greatest risk of active TB in overweight and obese adults whereas the burden of active TB associated with diabetes was similar for normal and overweight or obese adults. Hyperglycemia was common among all active TB patients. These findings highlight the importance of bi-directional diabetes-active TB screening in India.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Latente/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/etiologia
16.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e056, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271568

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the association between weight status and ΔDMFS among 12-year-old schoolchildren from South Brazil. A total of 801 12-year-old schoolchildren were followed-up for 2.5 ± 0.3 years. Data collection included questionnaire, recording of anthropometric measures (height and weight), and caries examination. The outcome was the difference between DMFS (number of decayed, missing or filled surfaces) at follow-up and baseline (ΔDMFS). Weight status, based on body mass index-for-age Z-scores, was considered the main predictor variable. Negative binomial regression models were used to model the association, and rate ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated. A multivariable fractional polynomial model was used to further explore the relationship between obesity and dental caries. DMFS increased by 0.86 (95%CI = 0.65-1.07), 0.91 (95%CI = 0.59-1.23), and 0.42 (95%CI = 0.03-0.80) for normal weight, overweight, and obese schoolchildren, respectively. Obese adolescents had significantly lower ΔDMFS than normal weight ones (p < 0.05). No significant association between categories of weight status and ΔDMFS was found (overweight, IRR=0.92, 95%CI = 0.69-1.21, p = 0.54; obese IRR = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.51-1.12, p = 0.16). However, the multivariable fractional polynomial model showed an inverted U shaped relationship with a decreasing ΔDMFS with increasing BMI (p < 0.05). This population-based longitudinal study showed an inverse association between obesity and ΔDMFS over a 2.5-year period among South Brazilian adolescents.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Índice CPO , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 842, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The escalating prevalence of overweight and obesity globally is reflected amongst urban women in many low-to-middle income countries. Evidence also shows that overweight and obesity is an increasing trend in Bangladesh. The present study assessed the prevalence and socioeconomic determinants of overweight and obesity among urban women in Bangladesh. METHODS: Data were extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2014. A two-stage stratified sampling technique has been used for data collection in this cross-sectional survey. A sample of 1701 ever-married non-pregnant urban women aged 15-49 years was selected for statistical analysis. Descriptive analysis, multiple binomial logistic regression analysis were executed in this study. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 34% (95% CI, 0.30-0.38) among urban Bangladeshi women. The probability of being overweight and obese increased with increasing age and wealth index. The likelihood of being overweight and obese among the oldest women surveyed (40-49 years) was 4.3 times (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.1-8.8) higher relative to the youngest women (15-19 years). The wealthiest women had 4.1 times (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 2.5-6.7) higher likelihood of being overweight and obese compared to the reference group of poorest women. Women having higher education (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-2.6) were more likely to be overweight and obese. However, women who were no longer living with their husband or separated from their husband were (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8) less likely to be overweight and obese. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that a large number of urban women were overweight and obese in Bangladesh. Women having higher levels of education, being older and belonging in both poorer and richest wealth quintile were at risk of being overweight and obese. Appropriate health promoting interventions based on these factors should be envisaged to reduce this problem.


Assuntos
Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(9): 955-966, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230151

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic cancer has the highest fatality rate of all cancers. Adulthood obesity is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer; however, life-course obesity is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) trajectories throughout the life-course and pancreatic cancer risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted (2011-2013) in Ontario, Canada. Cases were recruited from the Ontario pancreas cancer study (n = 310) and controls from the Ontario cancer risk factor study (n = 1258). Questionnaires captured self-reported height and weight at four timepoints (adolescence, 20 s, 30-40 s, 50-60 s). BMI trajectories were identified using latent class growth mixture modeling. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Five BMI trajectories were identified: stable-normal weight (38.9%), progressively overweight (42.2%), persistent overweight (12.6%), progressive obesity (4.2%), and persistent obesity (2.1%). The persistent overweight (OR = 1.55; 95% CI 1.02, 2.39) and progressive obesity trajectories (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 0.77, 2.87) compared to stable-normal weight were associated with increased odds of pancreatic cancer. When BMI was evaluated separately the strongest associations with pancreatic cancer emerged in young and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSION: BMI trajectories characterized by overweight in early adulthood were associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk suggesting a life-course approach to disease risk.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15878, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169693

RESUMO

Obesity is a significant public health concern that predisposes individuals to a high risk of premature mortality. Previous studies also reported that low serum concentrations of AMY1 have been associated with obesity. The aimed of the study to assess the relationship between salivary amylase (AMY1) activity and body mass index (BMI) in Saudi male and female adults in Riyadh. This study included a total of 200 (100 individuals who were overweight and obese and 100 who had normal body weight [control individuals]) Saudi participants aged 20 to 50 years old. They were recruited from physical fitness clubs and were school employees in Riyadh City. The dietary food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The activity of the AMY1 was measured using a microplate fluorescence reader. A significant (P ≤ .05) increase was observed in the incidence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), and family history of overweight and obesity in overweight and obese individuals than in the control individuals, and these were in parallel to the significant increase in weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and BMI. A significant (P ≤ .05) increase was also observed in the carbohydrate and total fat dietary intake of overweight and obese individuals in relation to the respective dietary reference intake (DRI) values. AMY1 activity was significantly lower than the reference values in the overweight and obese group. Furthermore, AMY1 activity was significantly (P ≤ .05) reverse with weight, WC, HC, and BMI in both males and females in the overweight and obese group. In conclusion, the Saudi overweight and obese population seems to be at risk of low AMY1, which correlates with their obesity.


Assuntos
Amilases/análise , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Saliva/química , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dieta , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Frailty Aging ; 8(3): 146-149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237316

RESUMO

Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is inversely associated with sarcopenia. The aim of this study was to examine the association between adherence to a MedDiet and sarcopenic symptomology in obese older adults. For confirmation of sarcopenia, low appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM: males, ≤7.25kg/m2; females, ≤5.5kg/m2) accompanied low handgrip strength (males, ≤30kg; females, ≤20kg) or low physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB]: ≤8; or gait speed: ≤0.8m/sec). Adherence to a MedDiet was determined using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). Sixty-five older adults were included. Adherence to a MedDiet was not associated with a decreased risk of sarcopenic symptomology (SPPB: OR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.01-3.1; P = 0.234; Muscle strength: OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 0.32-10.15; P = 0.499; Gait speed: OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.13-2.50; P = 0.468). Future research should investigate whether a Mediterranean-style intervention can prevent or improve sarcopenic symptomology, including in non-Mediterranean populations.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Risco
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