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1.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684443

RESUMO

Although there is a general assumption that a phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet promotes overweight in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), it is unclear if this presumption is supported by scientific evidence. This systematic review aimed to determine if patients with PKU are at a higher risk of overweight compared to healthy individuals. A literature search was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases. Risk of bias of individual studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies, and the quality of the evidence for each outcome was assessed using the NutriGrade scoring system. From 829 articles identified, 15 were included in the systematic review and 12 in the meta-analysis. Body mass index (BMI) was similar between patients with PKU and healthy controls, providing no evidence to support the idea that a Phe-restricted diet is a risk factor for the development of overweight. However, a subgroup of patients with classical PKU had a significantly higher BMI than healthy controls. Given the increasing prevalence of overweight in the general population, patients with PKU require lifelong follow-up, receiving personalised nutritional counselling, with methodical nutritional status monitoring from a multidisciplinary team in inherited metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Fenilalanina/efeitos adversos , Fenilcetonúrias/complicações , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores , Dietoterapia/efeitos adversos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Avaliação Nutricional , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Fenilalanina/administração & dosagem , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Viés de Publicação , Fatores de Risco
2.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684450

RESUMO

The prevalence of childhood obesity has been trending upwards over the last few decades. Recent evidence suggests that infant growth rate has the potential to increase the risk of obesity development during childhood. This systematic literature review aimed to summarise the existing evidence on the relationship between infant growth rate and subsequent childhood obesity. Studies were sought for that assessed the effect of infant growth rate on outcomes of overweight, obesity, BMI, waist circumference or body composition measures among a population group of children aged 2 to 12 years old. Data sources included PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and MedLine. Twenty-four studies were identified as eligible and included in this review, out of 2302 publications. The ADA Quality Checklist was used to assess the quality of individual studies. Ten studies received a positive result and 14 studies a neutral result. A narrative synthesis was completed to present study characteristics and results. Several independent positive associations were determined between rapid growth at different stages during infancy and overweight, obesity, BMI, waist circumference and body composition in childhood. Further investigation is required to determine if a specific period of infancy carries greater associations of risk with childhood outcomes. Determining an ideal rate of infants' growth as a means to minimise the future risk of childhood obesity should be the focus of future research that will also inform early life obesity prevention strategies. Registration no.: CRD42021244029.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Biomarcadores , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Gráficos de Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Viés de Publicação , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
3.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 66-74, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620372

RESUMO

AIM: The present study aimed to review and perform a meta-analysis summarizing the available evidence on the association between red meat consumption and obesity. METHODS: A computerized search strategy was performed up to Feb 9, 2020. PubMed, Scopus, and web of science were used to conduct a comprehensive search for all relevant publications. The quality of the included articles was determined by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. A random-effects model was conducted for analysis of the included cross-sectional studies. In the case of significant heterogeneity, subgroup analyses were conducted to explore possible sources of inter-study heterogeneity. RESULTS: In the overall pooled estimate of 3 studies, it was shown that red meat consumption was not associated with overweight (pooled effect size: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.97-1.46, p = 0.099). The results from combining 7 studies showed a non-significant association between red meat intake and obesity (pooled effect size: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.93-1.44, p = 0.199) with significant heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 87.3%, pheterogeneity < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, results extend the evidence that red meat consumption was not associated with the risk of overweight as well as no association between total meat consumption and obesity.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Carne Vermelha , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578882

RESUMO

Data concerning overweight and obesity in children and adolescent populations are alarming and represent one of the most serious public health problems of our time. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the school environment may play an important role in health promotion with regard to nutritional aspects. This article reports the results of a study conducted in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), aimed at providing an integrated surveillance of the behaviors related to nutrition habits in students and the hygienic and nutritional conditions of the school's canteens attended by enrolled students. To this purpose, a sample of 501 students attending primary school (third class-children approximately eight years old) replied to a validated questionnaire, and official controls (OC), of both food and nutritional safety, were performed in 22 primary schools. A team of healthcare professionals carried out the study, and the implementation of all the prescribed improvement actions were subsequently verified through follow-up OC. The results of our study show a critical situation in the student sample, with 41.3% of children having a weight excess (overweight or obesity). With regard to the children's behaviors, only 59.8% of children ate at least one fruit or had a fruit juice for breakfast, and 10.8% did not have breakfast at all. Overall, 40.1% of the total children played outdoors the afternoon before the survey and 45% reported going to school on foot or by bicycle. During the afternoon, 83.5% of the sample watched television or used video games/tablets/mobile phones, while 42.3% played sports. The schools had an internal canteen with on-site preparation of meals in 36.4%, the remaining 63.6% received meals from external food establishments. With regard to OC, for the hygienic-sanitary section, eleven prescriptions were issued, in the great part related to the structure and organization of the canteen. For the nutritional section, nine corrective actions were prescribed, mainly related to official documents and management. The follow-up OC showed that all prescriptions were subsequently addressed. Eating at school was less frequent among obese and overweight students compared with those with normal weight. Although this evidence needs to be further confirmed, it highlights the potential role that the school canteens may play in health promotion and prevention of nutritional disorders. On the other hand, in order to fulfill its health promotion task, the school canteens have to comply with official regulations and guidelines; therefore, OC during the management of the food service at school are needed.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica , Controle de Qualidade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Saúde da Criança , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Higiene , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Refeições , Política Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Controle Social Formal , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15803, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349181

RESUMO

Since current recommendations call for a substantial reduction in overall sodium consumption, we tested whether or not these recommendations are implemented in common large subpopulations such as those with abnormal weight or hypertension in the current high sodium, high-calorie nutritional environment. In a national representative cross-sectional survey of the community-dwelling subjects aged 25-65 years conducted in Israel between 2015 and 2017, 582 randomly selected subjects completed health and dietary questionnaires, underwent blood pressure and anthropometric measurements and collected 24-h urine specimens, to assess dietary sodium intake. Overall mean 24-h sodium excretion was 3834 mg, more than double the recommended upper intake for adults < 1500 mg/day. Sodium excretion was directly related to caloric intake and blood pressure and linked to the presence of hypertension and overweight/obesity. The highest sodium excretion was seen in overweight/obese hypertensive subjects. This recent national survey shows a high consumption of sodium in the Israeli population and a dose-response association between caloric intake and urinary sodium excretion, independent of BMI and hypertension. Nevertheless, overweight/obese subjects with hypertension consume (excrete) more sodium than other BMI/ blood pressure-related phenotypes and may thus comprise a target subpopulation for future efforts to reduce sodium intake.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/urina , Vida Independente , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/urina , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Sobrepeso/urina , Sódio/urina , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444957

RESUMO

The association between the consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF) with overweight/obesity in Chinese adults has not been investigated. This study included a cohort of 12,451 adults aged >20 years who participated at least twice in the China Nutrition and Health Survey (CNHS) during 1997-2011. Food intake at each survey was assessed using a 3-day 24-h dietary recall. Body weight (kg), height (m), and waist circumference (WC) were measured during the survey. UPF was defined by the NOVA classification. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses were used. The mean UPF consumption of the study population (baseline mean age 43.7 years) increased from 12.0 g in 1997 to 41.5 g in 2011 with the corresponding proportion of UPF in daily diet from 1.0% to 3.6%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 for those with mean UPF consumption of 1-19 g/d, 20-49 g/d, and ≥50 g/d were 1.45 (1.26-1.65), 1.34 (1.15-1.57), and 1.45 (1.21-1.74), respectively (p-trend = 0.015), compared with the non-consumers. Similarly, the corresponding adjusted ORs (95% CI) for central obesity were 1.54 (1.38-1.72), 1.35 (1.19-1.54), and 1.50 (1.29-1.74). Higher long-term UPF consumption was associated with increased risk of overweight/obesity among Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(5): 1774-1790, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is associated with a lower risk of subsequent overweight or obesity, but it is uncertain whether this is a causal relation because most studies have not adequately reduced risk of bias due to confounding. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to examine whether 1) ever compared with never consuming human milk and 2) different durations of human milk consumption among infants fed human milk are related to later risk of overweight or obesity, with emphasis on sibling-pair and intervention studies. METHODS: The 2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, together with the Nutrition Evidence Systematic Review team, conducted a systematic review of articles relevant to healthy full-term infants in countries with a high or very high level of human development. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and CINAHL; dual-screened the results using predetermined criteria; extracted data from and assessed the risk of bias for each included study; qualitatively synthesized the evidence; developed conclusion statements; and graded the strength of the evidence. RESULTS: The review included 42 articles, including 6 cohorts with sibling-pair analyses and 1 randomized controlled trial of a breastfeeding promotion intervention. Moderate evidence suggested that ever, compared with never, consuming human milk is associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity at ages 2 y and older, particularly if the duration of human milk consumption is >6 mo. However, residual confounding cannot be ruled out. Evidence was insufficient to determine the relation between the duration of any human milk consumption, among infants fed human milk, and overweight and/or obesity at age 2 y and older. CONCLUSIONS: Further research, using strong study designs, is needed to disentangle the complex relation between infant feeding practices and the risk of subsequent overweight or obesity, as well as the biological and behavioral mechanisms if the relation is causal.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente
8.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(5): 337-347, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059170

RESUMO

Objective: Nutrition is closely related to the health of the elderly population. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive picture of the nutrition status of elderly Chinese and its related dietary, geographical, and socioeconomic factors. Methods: A total of 13,987 ≥ 60-year-old persons from the 2010-2013 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey were included to evaluate various aspects of malnutrition, including underweight, overweight or obesity, and micronutrient inadequacy. Results: Overall, the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight was 12.4%, 34.8%, and 5.7%, respectively, with disparities both geographically and socioeconomically. The prevalence of underweight was higher among the older old (≥ 75 years), rural residents and those with low income, with low education status, and residing in undeveloped West areas. More than 75% of the elderly do not meet the Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamins A, B 1, B 2, and E, folate, calcium, selenium, potassium, biotin, and choline, with the prevalence of inadequate intake increasing with age for most nutrients. At the population level, the mean intakes of numerous food groups did not meet the recommendations by the Chinese Dietary Guideline. Conclusions: Obesity epidemic, inadequacy of micronutrient intake, and high prevalence of underweight and anemia in susceptible older people are the major nutrition challenges for the rapidly aging population in China.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/etiologia , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/diagnóstico , Magreza/etiologia
9.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(6): 373-392, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022156

RESUMO

Obesity has become a major public health issue in China. Overweight and obesity have increased rapidly in the past four decades, and the latest national prevalence estimates for 2015-19, based on Chinese criteria, were 6·8% for overweight and 3·6% for obesity in children younger than 6 years, 11·1% for overweight and 7·9% for obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years, and 34·3% for overweight and 16·4% for obesity in adults (≥18 years). Prevalence differed by sex, age group, and geographical location, but was substantial in all subpopulations. Strong evidence from prospective cohort studies has linked overweight and obesity to increased risks of major non-communicable diseases and premature mortality in Chinese populations. The growing burden of overweight and obesity could be driven by economic developments, sociocultural norms, and policies that have shaped individual-level risk factors for obesity through urbanisation, urban planning and built environments, and food systems and environments. Substantial changes in dietary patterns have occurred in China, with increased consumption of animal-source foods, refined grains, and highly processed, high-sugar, and high-fat foods, while physical activity levels in all major domains have decreased with increasing sedentary behaviours. The effects of dietary factors and physical inactivity intersect with other individual-level risk factors such as genetic susceptibility, psychosocial factors, obesogens, and in-utero and early-life exposures. In view of the scarcity of research around the individual and collective roles of these upstream and downstream factors, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary studies are urgently needed to identify systemic approaches that target both the population-level determinants and individual-level risk factors for obesity in China.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fatores Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(4): 919-938, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966103

RESUMO

The studies investigating gene-gene and gene-environment (or gene-behavior) interactions provide valuable insight into the pathomechanisms underlying obese phenotypes. The Pakistani population due to its unique characteristics offers numerous advantages for conducting such studies. In this view, the current study was undertaken to examine the effects of gene-gene and gene-environment/behavior interactions on the risk of obesity in a sample of Pakistani population. A total of 578 adult participants including 290 overweight/obese cases and 288 normal-weight controls were involved. The five key obesity-associated genetic variants namely MC4R rs17782313, BDNF rs6265, FTO rs1421085, TMEM18 rs7561317, and NEGR1 rs2815752 were genotyped using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. The data related to behavioral factors, such as eating pattern, diet consciousness, the tendency toward fat-dense food (TFDF), sleep duration, sleep-wake cycle (SWC), shift work (SW), and physical activity levels were collected via a questionnaire. Gene-gene and gene-behavior interactions were analyzed by multifactor dimensionality reduction and linear regression, respectively. In our study, only TMEM18 rs7561317 was found to be significantly associated with anthropometric traits with no significant effect of gene-gene interactions were observed on obesity-related phenotypes. However, the genetic variants were found to interact with the behavioral factors to significantly influence various obesity-related anthropometric traits including BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, and percentage of body fat. In conclusion, the interaction between genetic architecture and behavior/environment determines the outcome of obesity-related anthropometric phenotypes. Thus, gene-environment/behavior interaction studies should be promoted to explore the risk of complex and multifactorial disorders, such as obesity.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Adulto , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epistasia Genética/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Sobrepeso/genética , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10235, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986373

RESUMO

Spinal pain is common in adolescence, and overweight in children and adolescence is an increasing public health problem globally. Since musculoskeletal pain is a known barrier for physical activity which potentially can lead to overweight, the primary objective of this study was to determine if self-reported lifetime spinal pain in 2010 was associated with being overweight or obese in 2012 in a cohort of 1080 normal-weighted Danish children, aged 11-13 years at baseline. Overweight was based on body mass index measured by trained staff. Spinal pain was self-reported by questionnaires during school hours. Estimates were adjusted for relevant covariates. The 2-year incidence rate of overweight was 5.3% (95% CI 3.98-7.58) for children with spinal pain at baseline versus 1.6% (95% CI 0.19-5.45) for children without. There was stepwise and statistically significant increased risk of overweight with increasing frequency of pain and for having pain in more than one part of the spine. Despite the short follow-up time where only 40 children developed overweight, these results indicate that spinal pain might increase the risk of subsequent overweight.


Assuntos
Obesidade/etiologia , Dor/complicações , Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Dor/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9462, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947903

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence suggests that opioid use may affect consumer's offspring by second-hand passive smoke exposure, as well as by transgenerational impacts mediated by genetic and epigenetic alterations of paternal gametes. In human studies, these effects are limited to investigating the neural, behavioral and cognitive characteristics of offspring. Only animal studies have investigated the metabolic parameters influenced by passive opium smoke exposure. Here, we conducted population-based analyses aimed to estimate the association of paternal opioid consumption, started before or after child birth, with BMI status and plasma lipid profile of young adult offspring. The present study includes 840 parents-offspring trios (offspring aged 15-35, parents aged 35-70) who participated in the prospective Rafsanjan Cohort Study (RCS)-a city in the south-east of Iran-as one of the district areas of the PERSIAN cohort (Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN). All procedures for interviews, anthropometric measurements and physical examinations, biological sample collection and laboratory tests for blood biochemical parameters were conducted according to the PERSIAN cohort protocol, and in the well-established RCS setting. Crude and adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted to assess the relationship of paternal regular opioid use with offspring's BMI status, and plasma lipid factors. The prevalence of fathers who use opioids regularly among the studied trios was 42.8% (360/840). Our regression analyses demonstrated that paternal opioid use started pre-fatherhood is associated with 76% higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) of overweight/obesity in young offspring (adjusted OR 1.76 (95% CI 1.15-2.71)), adjusting for sex, age, parental BMIs, paternal smoking status and socioeconomic status index (WSI). This relationship persisted when fathers who used opioid by routes other than inhaling (oral) were excluded from logistic analysis (adjusted OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.12-2.68)). Interestingly, sex stratified analysis displayed a 201% increased odds ratio of overweight/obesity in sons of fathers who use opioid regularly, started after child birth (Adjusted OR 3.01 (95% CI 1.68-5.39), while no significant association was found in daughters (adjusted OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.35-1.54)). Additionally, increasing exposure-response relationships were observed between odds ratios of overweight/obesity and the number of years of paternal opioid use after birth (p-trend = 0.0008). Paternal regular opioid use started pre-fatherhood was associated with 54% lowered risk of underweight [adjusted OR 0.46 (95% CI 0.24-0.86)]. Finally, paternal opioid consumption started either before or after child birth did not show a significant association with the high level of the three parameters of plasma lipid factors (triglyceride, cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol) in offspring. Our results suggest that the environmental impacts of paternal regular opioid use may be sufficient to make an effect on male offspring metabolism independent of genetic and epigenetic impact on gametes.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Lipídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Crianças Adultas , Idoso , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Pais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917347

RESUMO

Prior work suggests that actual, but not estimated, energy density drives the reinforcing value of food and that energy from fat and carbohydrate can interact to potentiate reward. Here we sought to replicate these findings in an American sample and to determine if the effects are influenced by body mass index (BMI). Thirty participants with healthy weight (HW; BMI 21.92 ± 1.77; M ± SD) and 30 participants with overweight/obesity (OW/OB; BMI 29.42 ± 4.44) rated pictures of common American snacks in 120-kcal portions for liking, familiarity, frequency of consumption, expected satiety, healthiness, energy content, energy density, and price. Participants then completed an auction task where they bid for the opportunity to consume each food. Snacks contained either primarily carbohydrate, primarily fat, or roughly equal portions of fat and carbohydrate (combo). Replicating prior work, we found that participants with HW bid the most for combo foods in linear mixed model analyses. This effect was not observed among individuals with OW/OB. Additionally, in contrast with previous reports, our linear regression analyses revealed a negative relationship between the actual energy density of the snacks and bid amount that was mediated by food price. Our findings support altered macronutrient reinforcement in obesity and highlight potential influences of the food environment on the regulation of food reward.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Recompensa , Lanches/psicologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Connecticut , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Saciação
14.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 81, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperprolactinaemia might cause adverse metabolic effects. The aim of our study was to compare parameters of body composition, glucose and lipid metabolism between untreated patients with prolactinoma and controls and to assess changes after initiation of cabergoline. METHODS: Case-control study with a retrospectively analyzed follow-up in patients with prolactinoma after initiation of cabergoline therapy. RESULTS: 21 patients with prolactinoma (9 micro- and 12 macroprolactinomas; 7 females) and 30 controls were analyzed. Patients with prolactinoma had significantly higher BMI than controls; fat mass did not differ between groups. Only men - but not women - with prolactinoma had significantly higher fat mass at all six sites measured compared to controls. Levels of LDL (130 (107-147.5) vs. 94.5 (80-127.5) mg/dl, p < 0.001) were significantly higher, levels of HDL (56 ± 16.7 vs. 69.2 ± 14.6 mg/dl, p = 0.004) significantly lower than in controls. Fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, adiponectin, CRP, and homocysteine did not differ between groups. After a median of 10 weeks (IQR 7-18 weeks) after initiation of cabergoline, total (from 212.5 ± 36.2 to 196.9 ± 40.6 mg/dl, p = 0.018) and LDL cholesterol (130 (107-147.5) to 106.5 (94.3-148) mg/dl, p = 0.018) had significantly decreased. Analyzing men and women separately, this change occurred in men only. CONCLUSIONS: Reasons for the association between prolactin and metabolic parameters include direct effects of prolactin on adipose tissue, hyperprolactinaemia-triggered hypogonadism and dopamine-agonist therapy per se. Altered lipid metabolism in patients with prolactinoma might imply an increased cardiovascular risk, highlighting the necessity to monitor metabolic parameters in these patients.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Hiperprolactinemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/metabolismo , Prolactinoma/metabolismo , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Áustria , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cabergolina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiperprolactinemia/complicações , Hiperprolactinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/tratamento farmacológico , Prolactinoma/complicações , Prolactinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801989

RESUMO

The increase in sedentary behaviors during the COVID-19-induced lockdown may have led to a significant weight gain. To investigate this hypothesis, a representative sample of the Spanish adult population comprising 1000 subjects was enrolled in a cross-sectional study between 26 May and 10 June 2020. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted consisting of 29 questions on the topic of lifestyle habits during the lockdown. The cohort comprised 51.5% women and 51% overweight or obese subjects and had a mean age of 50 ± 18 years. Of the respondents, 44.5% self-reported weight gain during the lockdown; of these, 58.0% were women, 69.9% had previous excess weight, 44.7% lived with a relative who also gained weight, and 73.5 experienced increased appetite. Further, an increased consumption of energy-dense products was found relative to respondents who did not gain weight (p ≤ 0.016 for all). Additionally, respondents were unaware that obesity is a poor prognostic factor for COVID-19 infection, lived in smaller flats, and had a lower level of education and lower monthly income. The factors independently associated with weight gain were female gender, previous overweight or obesity, lack of food care, increased appetite, and increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, alcoholic beverages, and snacks (p ≤ 0.023 for all). Should another lockdown be mandated, extra caution is warranted to prevent weight gain.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso
16.
PLoS Med ; 18(4): e1003486, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One-fourth of women experience substantially higher weight years after childbirth. We examined weight change from prepregnancy to 18 months postpartum according to subsequent maternal risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort study of 47,966 women with a live-born singleton within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC; 1997-2002). Interviews during pregnancy and 6 and 18 months postpartum provided information on height, gestational weight gain (GWG), postpartum weights, and maternal characteristics. Information on pregnancy complications, incident hypertension, and CVD was obtained from the National Patient Register. Using Cox regression, we estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for hypertension and CVD through 16 years of follow-up. During this period, 2,011 women were diagnosed at the hospital with hypertension and 1,321 with CVD. The women were on average 32.3 years old (range 18.0-49.2) at start of follow-up, 73% had a prepregnancy BMI <25, and 27% a prepregnancy BMI ≥25. Compared with a stable weight (±1 BMI unit), weight gains from prepregnancy to 18 months postpartum of >1-2 and >2 BMI units were associated with 25% (10%-42%), P = 0.001 and 31% (14%-52%), P < 0.001 higher risks of hypertension, respectively. These risks were similar whether weight gain presented postpartum weight retention or a new gain from 6 months to 18 months postpartum and whether GWG was below, within, or above the recommendations. For CVD, findings differed according to prepregnancy BMI. In women with normal-/underweight, weight gain >2 BMI units and weight loss >1 BMI unit were associated with 48% (17%-87%), P = 0.001 and 28% (6%-55%), P = 0.01 higher risks of CVD, respectively. Further, weight loss >1 BMI unit combined with a GWG below recommended was associated with a 70% (24%-135%), P = 0.001 higher risk of CVD. No such increased risks were observed among women with overweight/obesity (interaction by prepregnancy BMI, P = 0.01, 0.03, and 0.03, respectively). The limitations of this observational study include potential confounding by prepregnancy metabolic health and self-reported maternal weights, which may lead to some misclassification. CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum weight retention/new gain in all mothers and postpartum weight loss in mothers with normal-/underweight may be associated with later adverse cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916419

RESUMO

Complementary feeding (CF) should start between 4-6 months of age to ensure infants' growth but is also linked to childhood obesity. This study aimed to investigate the association of the timing of CF, breastfeeding and overweight in preschool children. Infant-feeding practices were self-reported in 2012 via a validated questionnaire by >7500 parents from six European countries participating in the ToyBox-study. The proportion of children who received breast milk and CF at 4-6 months was 51.2%. There was a positive association between timing of solid food (SF) introduction and duration of breastfeeding, as well as socioeconomic status and a negative association with smoking throughout pregnancy (p < 0.005). No significant risk to become overweight was observed among preschoolers who were introduced to SF at 1-3 months of age compared to those introduced at 4-6 months regardless of the type of milk feeding. Similarly, no significant association was observed between the early introduction of SF and risk for overweight in preschoolers who were breastfed for ≥4 months or were formula-fed. The study did not identify any significant association between the timing of introducing SF and obesity in childhood. It is likely that other factors than timing of SF introduction may have impact on childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Alimentação Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(7): 845-858, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723650

RESUMO

AIMS: Previous studies have evaluated long-term metabolic and neurocognitive outcomes in offspring of women with diabetes. However, many studies did not differentiate between different types of diabetes. We aimed to specifically evaluate both metabolic and neurocognitive outcomes in offspring of women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (OT1D). METHODS: We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed between February 2020 and September 2020. We performed a scoping review including 12 retrospective cohort studies, 15 prospective cohort studies, one case-control study and one cross-sectional study, comparing long-term metabolic and neurocognitive outcomes between OT1D and a control group. RESULTS: OT1D had a higher body mass index and an increased risk for overweight and obesity compared to offspring of mothers without diabetes. A limited number of studies showed a higher risk for (pre)diabetes, higher rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome in OT1D. Index offspring had in general similar intelligence and academic achievement as control children but a higher risk for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders. Data were conflicting concerning the increased risk for autism spectrum disorders. There is limited evidence suggesting that female offspring have more often unfavorable metabolic parameters, while male offspring are more at risk for hyperactivity/impulsivity. CONCLUSION: Maternal type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of several metabolic complications and neurobehavioral disorders in the offspring. Increased attention for long-term complications in this population is needed. Further research is needed to evaluate whether improved glycemic control in pregnancy can reduce these long-term complications.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Gravidez em Diabéticas , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 39: e2020076, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of breastfeeding (BF) and the association between occurrence/duration of BF and overweight/obesity in schoolchildren aged 7-14 years. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012-2013, on schoolchildren aged 7-14 years from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Weight and height were measured according to procedures of the World Health Organization. Breastfeeding and sociodemographic data were obtained from a questionnaire responded by parents/guardians. BF was categorized as a dichotomous variable (yes/no) and according to duration (months). Nutritional status was evaluated according to the Z score of the body mass index per age for sex and it was categorized into two groups: normal weight (

Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Ciências da Nutrição Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Ann Hum Biol ; 48(1): 15-22, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relation between neighbourhood built environment and obesity has been described as both nuanced and complex. AIM: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the built environment, physical activity, and obesity in a rapidly urbanised area of China. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the socio-demographic variables, physical activity levels and BMI status. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between neighbourhood environment, the likelihood of engaging in different types of physical activity, and BMI. RESULTS: A total of 842 respondents completed the questionnaires and were included (84.1% response rate). Among them, 56.4% reported meeting high physical activity levels, while 40.7% were overweight or obese. Multivariable regression analysis showed that better road conditions (ß = 0.122, t = 2.999, p = 0.003) and access to physical activity facilities (ß = 0.121, t = 3.193, p = 0.001) were significantly associated with higher levels of physical activity. Physical activity levels were inversely associated with the likelihood of being overweight (OR = 0.565, 95%CI: 0.3 4 9-0.917) or obese (OR = 0.614, 95%CI: 0.3 9 0-0.966). CONCLUSION: The built environment has an important impact on physical activity. However, the direct impact of leisure physical activity on BMI is not significant. This research provides a summary of recent evidence in Pingshan District on built environments that are most favourable for physical activity and obesity.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
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