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1.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252241

RESUMO

Sphingolipid metabolism plays a critical role in cell growth regulation, lipid regulation, neurodevelopment, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Animal experiments suggest that vitamin D may be involved in sphingolipid metabolism regulation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation would alter circulating long-chain ceramides and related metabolites involved in sphingolipid metabolism in humans. We carried out a post-hoc analysis of a previously conducted randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 70 overweight/obese African-Americans, who were randomly assigned into four groups of 600, 2000, 4000 IU/day of vitamin D3 supplements or placebo for 16 weeks. The metabolites were measured in 64 subjects (aged 26.0 ± 9.4 years, 17% male). Serum levels of N-stearoyl-sphingosine (d18:1/18:0) (C18Cer) and stearoyl sphingomyelin (d18:1/18:0) (C18SM) were significantly increased after vitamin D3 supplementation (ps < 0.05) in a dose-response fashion. The effects of 600, 2000, and 4000 IU/day vitamin D3 supplementation on C18Cer were 0.44 (p = 0.049), 0.52 (p = 0.016), and 0.58 (p = 0.008), respectively. The effects of three dosages on C18SM were 0.30 (p = 0.222), 0.61 (p = 0.009), and 0.68 (p = 0.004), respectively. This was accompanied by the significant correlations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] concentration and those two metabolites (ps < 0.05). Vitamin D3 supplementations increase serum levels of C18Cer and C18SM in a dose-response fashion among overweight/obese African Americans.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Calcifediol/sangue , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Glicoesfingolipídeos Neutros/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 96, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationship between sleep and obesity in young adults, particularly college students. This study examined the relationship between sleep (i.e., sleep duration and quality) and obesity in a large and diverse binational sample of college students. METHODS: Analyses were based on a 40-item paper survey from 2016/2017 to 2017/2018 academic years, with a 72% response rate. The samples were 1578 college students aged 18-25 years from five universities (two in the U.S. and three in South Korea). Weight and height were measured objectively; other measures (e.g., health behaviors) were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the association between sleep duration and independent variables (race/nationality, gender, and BMI). Poisson regression was used to examine the relationship between sleep quality and independent variables. RESULTS: Overall, blacks had a higher adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of short sleep (< 7 h/night) than whites (AOR = 1.74, P < .01); overweight participants had a higher AOR of short sleep than normal weight participants (AOR = 1.52, P < .01); and obese participants had a higher AORs of both short and long sleep (> 9 h/night) (AOR = 1.67, P < .01; AOR = 1.79, P < .05, respectively). Among men, being black, overweight, and obesity were associated with short sleep (P < .05), whereas only obesity was related to short sleep among women (P < .05). In analyses stratified by race and nationality, overweight and obesity were related to short sleep among blacks only (P < .05). Overall, sleep quality (getting enough sleep to feel rested in the morning in the past 7 days) was worse in blacks and South Koreans than whites (P < .05), worse in women than men (P < .05), and worse in participants with obesity than normal weight participants (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity was associated with both short (< 7 h/night) and long sleep duration (> 9 h/night) and poor sleep quality among all participants. In comparison with whites, blacks were more like to have short sleep, and blacks and South Koreans had worse sleep quality. Further investigations using a larger sample of college students in multiple countries may be helpful to identify target populations who are at a greater risk of obesity and sleep problems.


Assuntos
Obesidade/etnologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etnologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso Corporal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/etnologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eat Behav ; 35: 101336, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731234

RESUMO

The Power of Food Scale (PFS) is an instrument designed to examine individual differences in the drive to eat for pleasure (as opposed to in response to physiological hunger) and the effect of living in an obesogenic environment. Previous research supports the validity and reliability of the PFS, however, it had yet to be validated in an ethnically diverse college sample. The purpose of the current study was to test the factor structure and measurement invariance of the PFS across gender, ethnicity, and weight status. A sample of 432 college students completed the PFS (males=113, females = 319; non-Hispanic white=181, Hispanic=251; non-overweight=302, overweight=130). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test a second-order, 3-factor (food available, food present, food tasted) structure of the PFS in each group separately (males, females, Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, non-overweight, and overweight) and tests of measurement invariance were conducted to test the equivalency of the measure across gender, ethnicity, and weight status. Results supported the measure's original factor structure (second-order, 3-factor model) and indicated that the measure is equivalent across each of these groups, respectively. Although the small, unbalanced groups may impact the stability of the findings, the results nonetheless suggest that the PFS is a psychometrically valid measure in a diverse college sample, and that mean comparisons on this measure are meaningful across gender, ethnicity, and weight status. Given the measurement invariance of the PFS, there is support for use of the PFS among diverse college students in future work.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Fatorial , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1458, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overweight/obesity epidemic is a public health issue in the United States (US), that disproportionately affect certain racial/ethnic minority groups. Perceived discrimination has been implicated as a health risk factor. However, research on race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination, and obesity has been mixed. Researchers suggest that perceptions of discrimination may be dependent upon nativity status. This study evaluated the role that nativity status and race/ethnicity play in the relationship between perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity. METHODS: We used Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005) [N = 33,319]). Multinomial logistic regression assessed a three-way interaction (perceived discrimination × race/ethnicity × nativity) on overweight and obesity, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and health-related behaviors. RESULTS: The three-way interaction was significant for overweight [F (17, 49) = 3.35; p < 0.001] and obesity [F (17, 49) = 5.05; p < 0.001]. Among US-born individuals, US-born non-Hispanic Blacks had a decreased risk of being obese compared to US-born non-Hispanic Whites at mean levels of perceived discrimination [aRRR = 0.71; 95% CI (0.51-0.98); p = 0.04). Among foreign-born individuals, foreign-born South Americans had an increased risk of being overweight at mean levels of perceived discrimination compared to foreign-born non-Hispanic Whites [aRRR = 8.07; 95% CI (1.68-38.77); p = 0.01], whereas foreign-born Dominicans had a decreased risk of being obese compared to foreign-born non-Hispanic Whites [aRRR = 0.05; 95% CI (0.01-0.20); p < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Perceived racial discrimination is a risk factor for overweight/obesity for certain groups. Race/ethnicity and nativity may play important roles in the relationship between perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity. Future research is needed to identify the behavioral and psychological pathways that link perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Percepção , Fatores de Risco , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 976-981, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484264

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association of both maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with childhood overweight and adiposity in preschool children. Methods: A total of 4 303 preschool children aged 3-5 years were enrolled in our study during June and November 2016 in Guangzhou. Children defined as overweight and obesity were according to the criteria of WHO while weight status during maternal pre-pregnancy was using the China Adult Reference. Gestational weight gain was defined according to the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results: After adjusting the possible confounding factors, results from the logistic regression analysis showed that both maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity would increase the risk for both childhood overweight and obesity (OR=1.820, 95%CI: 1.368-2.422). The analysis of covariance results also showed that both maternal overweight and obesity before pregnancy and excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy increased the BMI Z-score in children. Maternal GWG over the recommended level were associated with both the childhood overweight and obesity (OR=1.296, 95%CI: 1.007-1.667). Joint associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and inappropriate GWG were also noticed in the study. Stratified analysis was conducted in three groups according to the pre-pregnancy BMI of the mothers. Result showed that there was no statistical difference in the risks of either overweight or obesity in children (P>0.05). However, when compared to mothers with adequate pre-pregnancy higher BMI and adequate GWG, under the combination of high pre-pregnancy BMI and excessive GWG, their adverse effects on childhood overweight and obesity were much higher (OR=1.574, 95%CI: 1.029-2.409). Conclusions: Both high pre-pregnancy BMI and inappropriate GWG were associated with greater BMI of their offspring. Pregnant women should follow the appropriate weight gain program and help their children to prevent from becoming obese.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Gravidez
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16815, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is effective for reducing body weight; however, evidence in Asian populations is lacking. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture for body weight reduction in Asians. METHODS: The Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, and Chinese databases were searched for relevant studies through October 20, 2018. Publications describing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing acupuncture with other treatments for the reduction of body weight were compiled. Reviewers assessed bias and collected data on trial characteristics and outcomes. The study was conducted based on the reporting items of the guidelines for systematic evaluation and meta-analysis (PRISMA). Review Manager 5.2 software was used to calculate weight mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Twelve RCTs involving 1151 subjects were included. Compared with the control groups, the acupuncture groups exhibited significantly greater reductions of body mass index (BMI)(WMD -1.20kg/m2; 95% CI -1.91, -0.48)and waist circumference (WMD -1.85 cm; 95% CI -3.20, -0.49) In the subgroup analyses, significant differences in the reduction of BMI was observed between the acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups, the acupuncture plus diet and exercise, and the diet and exercise groups, and the acupuncture and no intervention groups, but not between the acupuncture plus exercise and exercise groups [corrected]. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that acupuncture is effective in the intervention of overweight/obesity in Asians; however, compared with exercise alone, acupuncture combined with exercise had no effect on the BMI or waist circumstance in the short term. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture in weight reduction in Asians.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia por Exercício/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
7.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(4): 567-577, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403896

RESUMO

Purpose: Despite the well-known health benefits of physical activity (PA), disadvantaged populations usually have lower PA levels than the rest of the population. Some intra- and interpersonal factors such as different types of barriers to PA may influence PA levels, particularly among disadvantaged adult women. The first aim of this qualitative study was to identify the barriers to PA perceived by disadvantaged adult women. The second aim was to analyse the differences in perceived barriers to PA between adult Roma and non-Roma women. Methods: Eleven disadvantaged adult women participated in the current study (M = 37.72; SD = 8.34), seven of whom belonged to the Roma population. Data were obtained from discussion groups as well as from one-to-one interviews, and these were analysed by NVivo Pro 11. Results: Three categories of perceived barriers to PA were identified: personal (i.e., economy, labour, physical limitations, illness, and psychological characteristics) social (i.e., culture, lack of social support, and family), and environmental. Family was identified as the main common and most frequent barrier to PA in disadvantaged adult women. Differences in perceived barriers to PA between adult Roma and non-Roma women were found. While Roma women perceived culture, physical limitations, and lack of social support barriers to PA, non-Roma women mainly perceived labour-related barriers to PA. Conclusions: Multilevel interventions addressing specific barriers to PA for disadvantaged adult women are required to overcome barriers to PA and, consequently, increase PA levels. Particular attention should be paid to specific barriers to PA among adult Roma and non-Roma women, respectively.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Roma/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adulto , Carência Cultural , Escolaridade , Meio Ambiente , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Pobreza , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Espanha/epidemiologia , Desemprego
8.
Creat Nurs ; 25(3): 241-248, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427420

RESUMO

Food insecurity (FI), the limited or unreliable availability of safe and nutritious food, is a pressing public health concern affecting millions of U.S. citizens. Unfortunately, FI tends to impact those who are most vulnerable (e.g., low-income minorities) and potentially increases obesity risks, diet-sensitive disease risks (e.g., hypertension and type 2 diabetes), and hospital utilization. Low-income Latino patients may be particularly sensitive to adverse outcomes based on unaddressed socioeconomic needs. Nurses are in a prime position to assess and address FI in these patients. Our article will discuss how nurses can be advocates in combating FI in Latino patients with overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Hispano-Americanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/enfermagem , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/enfermagem , Competência Cultural , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação em Enfermagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pobreza , Estados Unidos
9.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(4): 328-333, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore participation, consistency of demographic and health profiles, and short-term impacts across six Aboriginal Knockout Health Challenge (KHC) team-based weight loss competitions, 2012 to 2015. METHODS: Data comprised one competition each from 2012 and 2013 and two per year in 2014 and 2015. We compared baseline and change (pre- to post-competition) in weight, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and waist circumference (baseline only) across competitions using mixed models. RESULTS: Numbers of teams and participants increased from 2012 to 2015 from 13 and 324 to 33 and 830, respectively. A total of 3,625 participants registered, representing 2,645 unique people (25.4% repeat participation). Participants were mainly female and >90% were classified obese at baseline. Baseline weight and weight lost (between 1.9% and 2.5%) were significantly lower in subsequent competitions compared with the first. Improvements in fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity were comparable across competitions. CONCLUSION: The KHC has increasing and sustained appeal among Aboriginal communities, attracting those at risk from lifestyle-associated chronic disease and effectively reducing weight and promoting healthy lifestyles in the short term. Implications for public health: Community-led programs generated by, and responsive to, Aboriginal Australians' needs can demonstrate consistent community reach and sustained program-level lifestyle improvements.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto Jovem
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 621-626, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238608

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the control attempts of body weight and its related factors among overweight and obese adults in China. Methods: Data was from the 2013 Chinese Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Program, which covered 302 surveillance sites. 179 570 adults, selected through multistage stratified cluster sampling method, were interviewed. Demographic characteristics and weight-control attempts were collected via face-to-face interview. BMI, waist circumstance and blood pressure were individually measured under physical examination. Venous blood samples were obtained and tested for FPG, OGTT-2h, TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C. A total of 87 545 overweight and obese patients were included in this study, with the exclusion of 152 patients having the missed critical information. Rates on weight control and attempts were analyzed, using the complex weighting on samples to represent the overall overweight and obese adults in China. Results: The rate of weight-control attempts was 16.3% (95%CI: 14.9%-17.7%). Among all the 12 133 patients who had undergone weight-control measures, the proportions of different attempts were as follows: diet (40.9%, 95%CI: 38.4%-43.3%), combination of diet and physical activity (31.5%, 95%CI: 28.9%-34.0%), physical activity (22.8%, 95%CI: 21.0%-24.6%) and drug control (1.3%, 95%CI: 1.0%-1.7%). Factors as: being female (OR=1.26, 95%CI: 1.15-1.38), at younger age (18-44 years old, OR=1.51, 95%CI: 1.31-1.74), with high education levels (college degree or above, OR=4.52, 95%CI: 3.76-5.43), having high annual income (≥24 000 Yuan, OR=1.94, 95%CI: 1.63-2.30) etc., appeared as favorable factors for taking the measures vs. rural residency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.55- 0.72) as the unfavorable one. Conclusion: The rate of weight-control attempts appeared low among the overweight and obese adults who were affected by factors as age, education and income level. Personalized intervention measures should be carried out for people with different characteristics.


Assuntos
Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252512

RESUMO

Overweight or obesity is related to a decrease in cognitive control, especially conflict control. However, research on conflict control in overweight/obese individuals are still controversial. This study was conducted to explore general and food-related conflict control in overweight Chinese females (OWs) with a color-word Stroop task and a food-related conflict task. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during the food-related conflict task. Behavioral results showed that, OWs had a longer reaction time (RT) than normal-weight Chinese females (NWs), in both tasks. ERP results in the food-related conflict task showed that there was a reduction of N2 and N450 response strength in OWs, and the P3 and late positive component (LPC) response strength was enhanced. Results indicated that OWs might be less efficient in monitoring and resolving conflict, and OWs tended to have a higher motivational or emotional involvement in processing food-related stimuli, which was likely to contribute to their difficulty in losing weight.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados , Comportamento Alimentar , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Motivação , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação , Teste de Stroop , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Malawi Med J ; 31(1): 19-24, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143392

RESUMO

Background: The global prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is increasing. It is important to examine and monitor obesity critically among the young population who are vulnerable to be influenced by some risk factors in their environment. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence and knowledge of risk factors of childhood obesity among school-going children in Osogbo, south-western Nigeria. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study among school children (n=480) selected using multistage sampling method. Research instruments used were self-administered semi-structured questionnaires. The taken anthropometric measurements followed standard methods. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 17.0. Results: The 24-hour dietary recall showed that food was essentially of high carbohydrate content in 337(70.2%) of respondents, with regular consumption of sweets and soft drinks. Only 3.8% of the children were either overweight (2.1%) or obese (1.7%). About 76.1% had good knowledge score of risk factors for obesity. Predictors of good risk knowledge score were being older and being a female. However, predictors of being obese included being older, not regularly walking down to school and not regularly taking part in sporting activities. Conclusion: School children studied were at risk of being obese, stressing the need for a sustained promotion of both primary and primordial prevention strategies targeted at this vulnerable age group.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216502, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African-born individuals in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by HIV yet have low HIV testing rates. We conducted a mixed methods study to assess the uptake and feasibility of a novel strategy for integrating HIV testing into residential health fairs among African-born individuals in Seattle, WA. METHODS: From April to May 2018, we held six health fairs at three apartment complexes with high numbers of African-born residents. Fairs included free point-of-care screening for glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, blood pressure, and HIV, as well as social services and health education. The health fairs were hosted in apartment complex common areas with HIV testing conducted in private rooms. Health fair participants completed a series of questionnaires to evaluate demographics, access to health services, and HIV testing history. We conducted 18 key informant interviews (KIIs) with health fair participants and community leaders to identify barriers to HIV testing among African-born individuals. RESULTS: Of the 111 adults who accessed at least one service at a health fair, 92 completed questionnaires. Fifty-five (61%) were female, 48 (52%) were born in Africa, and 55 (63%) had health insurance. Half of African-born participants accepted HIV testing; all tested negative. The most common reasons for declining testing were lack of perceived risk for HIV and knowledge of HIV status. We identified a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among health fair participants; among those tested, 77% (55/71) were overweight/obese, 39% (31/79) had blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg, and 30% (22/73) had total cholesterol > 200 mg/dL. KIIs identified community stigma and misinformation as major barriers to HIV testing among African-born individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Residential health fairs are a feasible method to increase HIV testing among African-born individuals in Seattle. The high prevalence of NCDs highlights the importance of integrating general preventive services within HIV testing programs in this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , África , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/etnologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Projetos Piloto , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/etnologia
14.
Econ Hum Biol ; 34: 74-79, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928330

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the major risks for chronic health conditions. Immigrants from low- and middle-income to high-income countries show a tendency to weight gain, with the country of origin, lifestyle habits, socioeconomic status and length of residence as the main factors involved. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between fat distribution and obesity with length of residence and other socio-demographic variables in a sample of North African women migrated to Italy. Socio-demographic variables were collected by structured face-to-face interview. For the assessment of weight status and body composition, various anthropometric traits were directly measured by an expert anthropometrist. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA adjusted for age to test the differences between length of residence (divided into three groups) and logistic regression models adjusted for covariates to test the association between overweight and/or obesity and length of residence. Significant differences between the three groups were observed in waist circumference (p = 0.004), waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.001), and upper arm muscularity (p = 0.025), with higher values in those with longer duration of residence. In the crude logistic regression model length of residence resulted positively associated with obesity with the odds of being obese increased by 2.4 times in long term immigrants [OR 2.364 (0.766; 7.296)]. After adjusting for covariate the association remained significant [OR 3.584 (0.779; 16.480)], and being poorly educated [OR 5.737 (0.641; 51.363)], unemployed [OR 6.892 (0.940; 50.528)] and not practicing regular physical activity [OR 17.736 (1.569; 200.418)] increased the odds ratio of being obese. In conclusion, length of residence, socioeconomic status, and physical activity were significantly correlated with obesity, with a longer duration of residence being positively associated with central fat adiposity and upper arm muscle area in North African migrant women.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/etnologia , Adulto , África do Norte/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Health Care Women Int ; 40(4): 386-406, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986134

RESUMO

The authors estimated the prevalence and trends of overweight, obesity, diabetes and hypertension among Brazilian women of reproductive age. A time series was constructed with Vigitel data from 2008 to 2015 and we analyzed trends of the prevalence of these conditions, considering sociodemographic characteristics. We observed an increasing trend in prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes (for some sociodemographic characteristics), and stationary trends for hypertension. Our results highlight the need for early interventions in lifestyle of this population to reduce the NCDs risk factors burden and potentially contribute to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes and reduce the NCDs load.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832419

RESUMO

The emotional consequences of excessive body mass, associated with body image and acceptance, have become a global public health challenge as they may decrease the general well-being and hinder weight loss in overweight and obese individuals. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the influence of age, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) on body mass acceptance, attitudes, and motivation toward body mass reduction in overweight and obese Caucasian women with excessive abdominal fat. The previously validated BodyMass⁻DRama (Body Mass⁻Dietary Restrictions: Acceptance, Motivation, Attitudes) questionnaire was applied in this study. The declared acceptance, attitudes and motivation towards body mass reduction were compared between subgroups based on age (20⁻40, 40⁻50, and 50⁻60 years), BMI (25.0⁻30.0, 30.0⁻35.0, and ≥35.0 kg/m²), and quartiles of WHtR. The age, BMI and WHtR were stated to be associated with declared acceptance, attitudes, and motivation towards body mass reduction. The different age groups indicated the following as the reasons for excessive body mass: young respondents-low physical activity and consumption of sweets; middle-aged ones-large/irregular meals; aging ones-large/irregular meals and low physical activity (p = 0.0161). While describing motivation toward body mass reduction, young respondents indicated the role of a physician or dietitian (p = 0.0012) or someone who can control them (p = 0.0044), as well as their expectation to be more successful at work after body mass reduction (p = 0.0045), while the aging ones indicated appreciation and plaudits from others (p = 0.0264) as a motivating factor. Respondents with the highest BMI declared having spending free time actively constricted (p = 0.0007); they declared more often than others of feeling exhausted (p = 0.0395) or tired all the time (p = 0.0445), but less often of feeling full of joy (p = 0.0457) or full of energy (p <0.0001). Respondents with moderate WHtR declared less often than others that they expect to enjoy socializing (p = 0.0376), but more often to be able to have a better vacation after body mass reduction (p = 0.0128), while those with the lowest WHtR expected to be more physically active (p = 0.0487). Women with the highest WHtR most commonly indicated external pressure from relatives or co-workers as a motivating factor for body mass reduction (p = 0.0435). Due to these differences between Caucasian women with excessive body mass, the approach of physicians and dietitians, as well as methods applied to motivate patients, need to be customized.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto Jovem
17.
Fam Community Health ; 42(2): 81-89, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768472

RESUMO

Problematic eating behaviors such as overeating and loss of control over consumption can lead to obesity. Problematic eating behaviors among women of differing body mass indexes were explored through focus group methodology, the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), and a taste test in a sample of low-income African American women (n = 45). Women who were overweight or obese (W-O/O) reported more problematic eating behaviors including eating in the absence of hunger, frequent overeating, and increased food thoughts than women who were lean or normal weight (W-L/N). The W-O/O appear to possess more problematic eating behaviors than W-L/N.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(4): 504-511, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610532

RESUMO

Objectives Asian Americans are highly diverse in cultural, socioeconomic, and health conditions. We aimed to identify socioeconomic and cultural profiles of subgroups of Asian American children at high risk of obesity or overweight to inform targeted interventions. Methods A sample of 841 Asian American children and adolescents ages 6-19 from the 2011-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was conducted. Analyses were also stratified by age (6-11 vs. 12-19). Key variables of interest were Asian ethnicity (Chinese, Korean/Japanese, Filipino, South Asian, and Southeast Asian) and parental educational level. Models adjusted for age, gender, nativity status, parental nativity status, and health insurance coverage. Results Filipino (AOR 2.79; 95% CI 1.30-6.00), Japanese/Korean (AOR 2.55; 95% CI 1.21-5.38), Southeast Asian (AOR 2.54; 95% CI 1.63-3.94), and South Asian (AOR 2.10; 95% CI 1.01-4.36) children ages 6-19 had higher odds of being obese/overweight than Chinese. Filipino (AOR 3.24; 95% CI 1.11-9.49) and Southeast Asian (AOR 2.47; 95% CI 1.22-5.01) ethnicities were associated with higher risk of obesity/overweight in adolescents ages 12-19. Having a parent with a 4-year college or advanced degree was inversely associated with obesity/overweight in US-born Asian adolescents (AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.14-0.78). Conclusions for Practice Asian American children and adolescents in some Asian ethnic subgroups may be at higher risk of obesity/overweight than in others. Higher parental education level appears to protect US-born Asian American adolescents from being obese/overweight. Multi-sectoral efforts are needed to better understand and address sociocultural processes that increase childhood obesity/overweight in high-risk Asian subgroups.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Pais/educação , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/educação , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 74(1): 91-98, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256915

RESUMO

Background: We have previously shown that vitamin D supplementation increases telomerase activity, suggesting an anti-aging effect. In this study, we aim to test the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation would slow down epigenetic aging, a new marker of biological aging. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was previously conducted among 70 overweight/obese African Americans with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] < 50 nmol/L, who were randomly assigned into four groups of 600 IU/d, 2,000 IU/d, 4,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 supplements or placebo followed by 16-week interventions. Whole genome-wide DNA methylation analysis was conducted in 51 participants. DNA methylation ages were calculated according to the Horvath and the Hannum methods. Methylation-based age acceleration index (∆Age) is defined as the difference between DNA methylation age and chronological age in years. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the treatment effects. Results: Fifty-one participants (aged 26.1 ± 9.3 years, 16% are male) were included in the study. After the adjustment of multi-covariates, vitamin D3 supplementation of 4,000 IU/d was associated with 1.85 years decrease in Horvath epigenetic aging compared with placebo (p value = .046), and 2,000 IU/d was associated with 1.90 years decrease in Hannum epigenetic aging (p value = .044). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly associated with decreased Horvath ∆Age only (p values = .002), regardless of treatments. Conclusions: Our results suggest that vitamin D supplementation may slow down Horvath epigenetic aging. But the effect on Hannum epigenetic aging is not conclusive. Large-scale and longer duration clinical trials are needed to replicate the findings.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Epigênese Genética , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Telomerase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/genética , Sobrepeso/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Telomerase/metabolismo , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(1): 116-124, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the cross-sectional prevalence and 18-year trends in overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity among Australian children from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Four cross-sectional population health surveys conducted among children (age 4-16 years; n=26, 449) in 1997-2004-2010-2015 in New South Wales, (NSW) Australia. Adiposity outcomes were measured by trained field staff using standard procedures. Binomial regression models with a robust error variance were used to estimate prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overweight and obesity, obesity, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥ 0.5 for children from Asian, European, and Middle Eastern language backgrounds compared with children from English-speaking backgrounds, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Over time, children from Middle Eastern language backgrounds were consistently more likely to be overweight-obese (PR: 1.29-1.42), obese (PR: 1.49-1.65), and have WHtR ≥ 0.5 (PR: 1.42-1.90), compared with children from English-speaking backgrounds. Children from European language backgrounds generally had higher prevalence and children from Asian language backgrounds had lower prevalence, compared with children from English-speaking backgrounds. Between 1997 and 2015, there were significant trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity combined among children from English-speaking (PR: 1.06, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.09), Middle Eastern (PR: 1.14, 95%CI: 1.05, 1.24), and Asian language backgrounds (PR: 1.14, 95%CI: 1.05, 1.24). The prevalence of WHtr ≥ 0.5 increased among children from English-speaking (PR: 1.21, 95%CI: 1.13, 1.31) and Middle Eastern (PR: 1.35, 95%CI: 1.16, 1.56) language backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the prevalence of overweight and obesity and abdominal obesity is high among NSW children from CALD backgrounds and has increased over time. This suggests that there is a greater scope in understanding, developing, and implementing interventions across the early life-course of children from CALD backgrounds.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Abdominal , Sobrepeso , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Barreiras de Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Competência Cultural , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etnologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Prevalência
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