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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371849

RESUMO

The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) affects many low- and middle-income countries. However, few studies have examined DBM at the individual level, or undernutrition and overnutrition co-occurring within the same person. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and determinants of DBM among adults in the Philippines. Data from the 2013 National Nutrition Survey were used. The sample size in the analysis was 17,010 adults aged ≥20 years old, after excluding pregnant and lactating women. DBM was defined as the co-occurrence of overweight/obesity and anemia (definition #1), overweight/obesity and anemia or vitamin A deficiency (definition #2), and overweight/obesity and anemia or vitamin A deficiency or iodine insufficiency (definition #3). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical markers were used for DBM assessment. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, and logistic regression by R software. Results showed that definition #3 is the predominant type of DBM (7.0%) in the general population, whereas the prevalence of DBM has increased to 23.7% in overweight/obese persons. Sex, age, educational attainment, marital status, household size, wealth quintile, and smoking status were the determinants of DBM. This study revealed that Filipino adults experience malnutrition critically and must be addressed through food and nutrition interventions.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etnologia , Antropometria , Comorbidade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Iodo/deficiência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/etnologia , Hipernutrição/epidemiologia , Hipernutrição/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Filipinas/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Deficiência de Vitamina A/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(6): 336-349, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few long-term studies of interventions to reduce in low socioeconomic status children with overweight or obesity. The Stanford GOALS trial evaluated a 3-year, community-based, multi-level, multi-setting, multi-component (MMM) systems intervention, to reduce weight gain among low socioeconomic status, Latinx children with overweight or obesity. METHODS: We did a two-arm, parallel group, randomised, open-label, active placebo-controlled trial with masked assessment over 3 years. Families from low-income, primarily Latinx communities in Northern California, CA, USA, with 7-11-year-old children with overweight or obesity were randomly assigned to a MMM intervention or a Health Education (HE) comparison intervention. The MMM intervention included home environment changes and behavioural counselling, community after school team sports, and reports to primary health-care providers. The primary outcome was child BMI trajectory over three years. Secondary outcomes included one- and two-year changes in BMI. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.govNCT01642836. FINDINGS: Between July 13, 2012, and Oct 3, 2013, 241 families were recruited and randomly assigned to MMM (n=120) or HE (n=121). Children's mean age was 9·5 (SD 1·4) years, 134 (56%) were female and 107 (44%) were male, and 236 (98%) were Latinx. 238 (99%) children participated in year 1, 233 (97%) in year 2, and 227 (94%) in year 3 of follow-up assessments. In intention-to-treat analysis, over 3 years, the difference between intervention groups in BMI trajectory was not significant (mean adjusted difference -0·25 [95% CI -0·90 to 0·40] kg/m2; Cohen's d=0.10; p=0·45). Children in the MMM intervention group gained less BMI over 1 year than did children in the HE intervention group (-0·73 [-1·07 to -0·39] kg/m2, d=0.55); the same was true over 2 years (-0·63 [-1·13 to -0·14] kg/m2; d =0.33). No differential adverse events were observed. INTERPRETATION: The MMM intervention did not reduce BMI gain versus HE over 3 years but the effects over 1 and 2 years in this rigorous trial show the promise of this systems intervention approach for reducing weight gain and cardiometabolic risk factors in low socioeconomic status communities. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Participação da Comunidade , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/terapia , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Pobreza/etnologia , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Esportes , Ganho de Peso/etnologia , Perda de Peso/etnologia
3.
Biomolecules ; 11(2)2021 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669967

RESUMO

Obesity is an increasing public health concern both in the developed and developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated that considerable alterations in lipid metabolism and consequently marked changes in lipid profile are associated with the onset and progression of obesity-related complications. To characterize the full spectrum of obesity-induced changes in lipid metabolism, direct infusion tandem mass spectrometry analysis is the most promising approach. To better understand which of the many lipid species are the most strongly associated with obesity, the aim of our work was to measure and profile plasma lipids in normal (n = 57), overweight (n = 31), and obese (n = 48) individuals randomly selected from samples of Hungarian general and Roma populations by using the targeted quantitative lipidomics platform, the Lipidyzer. Principal component and stepwise regression analyses were used to identify the most significant clusters and species of lipids by increasing body mass index (BMI). From the 18 clusters identified four key lipid species (PE P-16:0/20:3, TG 20:4_33:1, TG 22:6_36:4, TG 18:3_33:0) showed a strong significant positive and three others (Hex-Cer 18:1;O2/22:0, LPC 18:2, PC 18:1_18:1) significant negative association with BMI. Compared to individual lipid species alone, the lipid species ratio (LSR) we introduced showed an extremely strong, at least 9 orders of magnitude stronger, association with BMI. The LSR can be used as a sensitive and predictive indicator to monitor obesity-related alterations in human plasma and control the effectiveness of treatment of obesity associated non-communicable diseases.


Assuntos
Lipidômica , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Regressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 15(1): 42-48, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight reduction is effective in preventing T2D however, weight reduction and maintenance is difficult to achieve on a population scale. Serum insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) and IGF-II receptor (IGF2R) have been associated with diabetic status and body weight in prior studies and, in addition, IGF-II has been indicated as predictive of future weight change. We measured these serum markers in participants with obesity/overweight and prediabetes from the New Zealand arm of the PREVIEW lifestyle intervention randomised trial before and after an 8-week low energy diet (LED). METHODS: Total IGF-II (n = 223) and soluble IGF2R (n = 151) were measured using commercial ELISA kits on fasted serum samples taken prior to an 8-week LED and also from participants completing the LED. RESULTS: IGF-II levels were not correlated with baseline body weight although mean levels did significantly decrease following the LED. Change in IGF-II serum level was correlated to fasting glucose change (p = 0.04) but not to weight change. Baseline serum IGF2R was correlated with BMI (p = 0.007) and was significantly higher in Maori compared to European Caucasian participants independent of body weight (p = 0.0016). Following LED, IGF2R change was positively associated with weight change (p = 0.02) when corrected for ethnicity. Pre-LED levels of these serum markers were not predictive of the magnitude of weight loss over the 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: Neither marker was useful in predicting magnitude of short-term weight loss. IGF2R is positively associated with BMI and is higher in Maori compared to European Caucasian individuals.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II , Receptor IGF Tipo 2/sangue , Perda de Peso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Restrição Calórica , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/análise , Nova Zelândia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/dietoterapia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 268: 113572, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188899

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The seed of Senna obtusifolia (L.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Cassiae semen, CS) also known as Jue ming zi in China, has been traditionally used for weight management by purging the liver and improving the liver functions to support digestion. In the past decades, it has been used for hepatoprotection and treatment of overweight and other metabolic disorders such as hyperlipidaemia and diabetes. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aimed at providing comprehensive information on the traditional usages, pharmacology, phytochemistry and toxicology of CS and critically exploring its potential usage for clinical weight management from both traditional and modern application perspectives. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to fully understand the properties, actions and indications of CS, two sets of Chinese classical texts were searched, namely: Zhong Hua Yi Dian (Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine) and Zhong Guo Ben Cao Quan Shu (Complete Collection of Traditional Texts on Chinese Materia Medica). The purpose of studying these classical texts was to determine the traditional use of CS in weight management. Comprehensive searches were also performed on seven databases for publications on original randomised clinical trials (RCT), in vivo, in vitro or in silico studies related to pharmacological effects of CS. Detailed information about the phytochemistry of CS was collected from books, encyclopedia, online databases and journal literature. FINDINGS: In classical literature review, 89 classic texts provided information of properties, actions and indications of CS. In modern literature review, 44 studies were included for analysis, including 5 RCTs, 7 in vivo studies, 14 in vitro studies, 2 in silico studies and 16 studies of mixed types. Chinese classic literature has provided traditional evidence of the usage of CS for weight management. Contemporary studies have revealed that CS has weight loss effects and possesses some other pharmacological activities supporting weight management. Some chemical compounds of CS have been hypothesised to have a direct or indirect contribution to weight control. CONCLUSIONS: The relationships between chemical compounds and the corresponding weight-loss target proteins are not fully understood. Therefore, CS constituents should be further explored for the development of novel therapeutic or preventive agents for the treatment of overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Cinnamomum aromaticum , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Literatura Moderna , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Sementes
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2027744, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337491

RESUMO

Importance: Identifying effective weight loss interventions for Latino adults at risk of diabetes is of critical public health importance. Objective: To determine whether a culturally adapted behavioral intervention for Latino adults was more effective than usual care for weight loss over 24 months. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this randomized clinical trial, Latino adults with a body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 24 or greater and a high risk for type 2 diabetes were recruited in primary care practices in the San Francisco, California, area, randomized to receive the Vida Sana intervention or usual care, and followed up for 24 months. The study was conducted from November 2015 to May 2019, and data were analyzed from July 2019 to Septmeber 2020. Interventions: The treatment group received Vida Sana, a culturally adapted lifestyle intervention that included a family-based orientation session and 22 group sessions over 12 months. Participants were encouraged to use a wearable activity tracker and mobile applications to track their physical activity and dietary intake. Participants received monthly email messages for an additional 12 months. The control group received usual care. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was weight loss at 24 months. Secondary outcomes included weight loss at 12 months and achieving at least 5% weight loss at 12 and 24 months. Associations of baseline characteristics and intervention adherence with weight loss outcomes were also examined. Results: Among 191 participants (mean [SD] age, 50.2 [12.2] years; 118 [61.8%] women; 107 participants [57.2%] of Mexican origin; mean [SD] baseline BMI, 32.4 [5.7]) randomized, 92 participants were randomized to the intervention and 99 participants were randomized to usual care. Of these, 185 participants (96.9%) completed 24-month follow-up. Mean (SD) weight loss did not differ significantly by group at 24 months (intervention: -1.1 [5.7] kg; control: -1.1 [7.1] kg; P = .93). However, mean (SD) weight loss was significantly greater in the intervention group (-2.6 [6.0] kg) than the control group (-0.3 [4.2] kg) at 12 months (mean difference, -2.1 [95% CI, -3.6 to -0.7] kg; P = .005). Intervention participants were more likely to achieve at least 5% weight loss than control participants at 12 months (22 participants [25.9%] vs 9 participants [9.2%]; P = .003), and participants who achieved at least 5% weight loss attended more intervention sessions than those who did not (mean [SD], 16.6 [7.6] sessions vs 12.4 [7.5] sessions; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that among Latino adults with high diabetes risk, a culturally adapted behavioral lifestyle intervention was effective for weight loss over 12 months but not 24 months. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02459691.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/etnologia , São Francisco , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
7.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114384

RESUMO

Individuals' perceptions of their food environments are a mediator between exposure to the environment and people's interaction with it. The Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys (NEMS) are valid and reliable measures to assess food environments. In Spain, there is no adapted instrument to measure the perceived obesogenic environment. This article aims to adapt and evaluate the Perceived Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for a Spanish context (NEMS-P-MED). The Spanish version has 32 questions to measure the perception about availability, accessibility and marketing of 3 types of environment: home, shops and restaurants. We assess feasibility, construct validity and internal consistency reliability through a sample of 95 individuals. The internal consistency was acceptable for most items (Cronbach's alpha coefficients range from 0.6 to 0.9), similar to that of the original scale. The NEMS-P-MED has been shown to be valid and, on certain items reliable, and was useful to assess the population's perceptions of the food environment in the home, restaurants and food stores in a Spanish context. Adapting standardized measurement tools to specific contexts to assess the perceived and observed characteristics of food environments may facilitate the development of effective policy interventions to reduce excess weight.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural/psicologia , Dieta/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Dieta/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Prevalência , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Traduções
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126527

RESUMO

In Portugal, the majority of immigrants come from Portuguese-speaking countries. Among children, overweight and obesity are serious public health concerns, but a few studies include children with immigrant background. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and risk of abdominal obesity in school-age children and to explore potential determinants, considering the origin of the children's parents (both mother and father are non-Portuguese, only one Portuguese, and both are Portuguese). A cross-sectional study included a random sample of 789 children (5-11 years old, 49.2% of males and 50.8% female) attending public primary schools in Barreiro, district of Setubal, Portugal. Fieldwork occurred from 20th April to 3rd July 2009. Data concerning socioeconomic, eating habits, and sports outside school were obtained through a questionnaire applied to the children's person in charge. Anthropometric measures were collected by certified technicians. One-third of the children presented overweight and obesity (33.7%, 95% CI [30.0; 37.7]) and risk of abdominal obesity (16.4%, 95% CI [13.6; 19.7]) without differences according to parents' origin. Children with immigrant background presented higher consumption of low-priced, high-sugar, and high-fat foods, with a worse situation for girls. Females from both non-Portuguese parents also practiced less sports outside school than those where one or two parents are Portuguese. Thus, promoting and monitoring a healthy diet and physical activity in this group should be prioritized in this local setting.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Prevalência
9.
Ethn Dis ; 30(4): 629-636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989363

RESUMO

Obesity rates increase as household income increases among Black men, yet only a few studies have sought to understand this unique association. Scholars have posited that gendered stressors like role strain that are work-related could play a role in obesity among Black men. Work-life interference is a concept that captures the conflict between work life and family/personal life. Work-life interference is associated with obesity-related behaviors but has been understudied in Black men. The aim of this study was to determine the interrelationship between work-life interference, income, and obesity among Black men. Using data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey, the associations between household income and odds of overweight and obesity (measured by body mass index) were assessed using ordinal logit regressions. Multiplicative interaction terms were used to assess the potential moderation of the association between income and log-odds of overweight/obesity by work-life interference. The results of our study demonstrate that work-life interference interacts with income ≥400% federal poverty level (FPL) on the log-odds of overweight/obesity (beta=2.10, standard error [se]=.87). Among those who reported work-life interference, Black men who had household income ≥400% FPL had higher log-odds of overweight/obesity (beta=1.51, se=.74) compared with those with income <100% FPL. There was no association between income and obesity among Black men who did not report work-life interference. The results suggest that work-life interference plays an important role in the positive association between income and obesity in Black men. Future studies should explicate the obesogenic ways in which work and family/personal life combine among high-income Black men.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/etnologia , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Women Health ; 60(10): 1196-1205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854608

RESUMO

We aimed to estimate the effect of age at menarche on the risk of excess body weight in Brazilian women two and four years after delivery. This was a cohort study that used data from adult women of the Predictors of Maternal and Child Excess Body Weight (PREDI) Study obtained at baseline (2012) and at 1st(2014) and 2nd(2016) follow-up. A total of 435 women attending a public maternity hospital in Joinville-Brazil were initially included in the study (baseline) and 215 of them continued to participate in the 2nd follow-up carried out in the homes of the participants. Regression analysis was used to estimate the association between age at menarche (<12; ≥12 years) and excess body weight (≥25 kg/m2) trajectory during the follow-ups. Unadjusted analysis showed that mothers with age at menarche <12 years were 1.29 times (p = .018) more likely to be overweight/obese than those with age at menarche ≥12 years. After adjustment, age at menarche continued to exert an independent effect on the mother's body mass index (RR = 1.23; p = .037) four years after delivery. Strategies designed to attenuate the rising prevalence of maternal overweight and obesity, especially after pregnancy, could help improve the mother's health status in the future.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Menarca/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Puberdade , Ganho de Peso/etnologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca/fisiologia , Mães , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Gravidez , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1229, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between high BMI and sleep duration and chronic illness are recognised. Short sleep is an accepted predictor of high BMI for children, including Indigenous Australian children. Short sleep has also been associated with high BMI in Australian adults, although not specifically in Indigenous Australian adults. This study aims to determine whether the relationship between sleep duration and BMI observed in non-Indigenous adults holds for Indigenous adults. METHODS: Data collected from 5204 non-Indigenous and 646 Indigenous participants aged over 18 years in a nationally representative Australian Health Survey 2011-2013 were analysed. Sleep duration was self-reported as the time between going to bed and time waking up; BMI was derived from measurement and categorised into normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9) and overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25). Logistic regression was performed for the non-Indigenous and Indigenous groups separately to examine the association between sleep duration and BMI in each group. RESULTS: Proportionally more Indigenous people were classified as overweight/obese than non-Indigenous (χ2 = 21.81, p < 0.001). Short sleep was reported by similar proportions in both groups (Indigenous 15% vs non-Indigenous 17%) whereas long sleep of > 9 h was reported by proportionally more Indigenous than non-Indigenous people (41% vs 26%). Without accounting for possible confounders, the association between sleep duration and BMI for the Indigenous group was not significant but a possible dose-response relationship was evident, with the odds of overweight/obesity being greatest for those who typically slept < 7 h (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 0.38-3.94) and < 6 h (OR = 1.55, 95%CI = 0.58-4.14). The same model for the non-Indigenous group was significant, with the odds of overweight/obesity being greatest for those who typically slept < 6 h (OR = 1.67, 95%CI 1.25-2.25). The risk of overweight/obesity diminished for both groups with sleep > 7 h. Accounting for a range of socioeconomic and personal confounders attenuated the strength of these relationships marginally. CONCLUSION: Adding to reports relating sleep duration and BMI for Australian adults, this study provides evidence for an inverse relationship in non-Indigenous adults and suggests a similar trend for Indigenous adults. This trend was non-significant but is consistent with previous results for Indigenous children.


Assuntos
Povos Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sono , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 864, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among women of childbearing age is considered a public health concern. Few studies have been conducted in the Gaza Strip to determine the magnitude of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity along with their associated factors among women in the Gaza Strip. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to recruit a total of 357 mothers aged 18-50 years. Interviews were carried out among mothers to collect sociodemographic information, nutritional information, and physical activity. Anthropometric measurements [height, weight and waist circumference (WC)] were conducted with the mothers. Body Mass Index (BMI) was computed to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associated factors of overweight and obesity. RESULTS: The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among mothers was (64.1%). The results of multinomial logistic regression showed the risk of overweight and obesity increased with age, the highest risk being in mothers aged > 33.0 years (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: (1.06,6.86)), and (OR = 5.72, 95% CI: (2.07,15.78)), respectively, compared to mothers aged < 33.0 years. Moreover, mothers with medium and high educational levels had a slightly higher risk of obesity (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.15,0.64)), and (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: (0.12,0.82)) respectively than mothers with low educational level. Household income was positively associated with overweight and obesity. Mothers exposed to higher monthly income were more likely to be overweight or obese (OR = 2.64, 95% CI: (1.20, 5.83)), and (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: (1.28,7.29)), respectively. Nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with a high prevalence of obesity (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: (1.03,1.38)). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among Palestinian women than previous studies. Age, educational level, monthly income, and nutrition knowledge were associated with the prevalence of overweight and obesity, compared to other variables that were not associated with overweight and obesity such as location, work status, physical activity, and sitting hours. Urgent action is needed to tackle overweight and obesity among women. Effective intervention is required to increase nutrition knowledge among women to improve their eating behaviors.


Assuntos
Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560329

RESUMO

Weight stigma and binge eating have been found to be associated in Western populations; however, this relationship is understudied among Asian Americans. The aims of the study were to (1) investigate the prevalence of binge eating and its relationship with experienced weight stigma in higher-weight Asian Americans, and (2) examine whether the level of acculturation moderates this relationship. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study with 166 higher-weight Asian American adults living in North Carolina, United States. Demographic data, the frequency of experiencing weight stigma, the severity of binge eating, the levels of acculturation, the perceived racism against Asians, and perceived stress were assessed via self-reported questionnaires. The results indicated that experienced weight stigma was a significant independent predictor over and above the effects of other stressors, such as racism and general stress. The level of acculturation did not influence the relationship between the experienced weight stigma and binge eating after adjusting for relevant covariates. Our findings contribute to the limited literature examining weight stigma and binge eating among Asian American populations, highlighting that higher levels of experienced weight stigma are associated with a greater degree of binge eating.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/etnologia , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 79(1): 1780068, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567981

RESUMO

We estimated 2011-2015 Alaska mortality from modifiable behavioural risk factors using relative risks, hazard ratios, and population attributable fraction estimates from a comprehensive review of peer-reviewed literature; prevalence estimates from government reports; as well as data from the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation for 2011-2015. To identify the number of deaths attributable to specified risk factors, we used mortality data from the Alaska Division of Public Health, Health Analytics & Vital Records Section. Data included actual reported deaths of Alaska residents for 2011-2015 that matched relevant underlying International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision codes. The actual causes of death in Alaska in 2011-2015 were estimated to be overweight/physical inactivity (20% of all deaths, 26% of Alaska Native deaths), smoking (18%/18%), alcohol consumption (9%/13%), firearms (4%/4%), and drug use (3%/3%). Other actual causes of death included microbial agents (3%/4%), motor vehicles (2%/2%), and environmental pollution (1%/1%). This updated methodology reveals that overweight/physical inactivity was the leading cause of death in Alaska, followed closely by smoking. Just three preventable causes made up almost 60% of all deaths, and almost 70% of deaths among Alaska Native people, both highlighting disparities and underscoring prevention needs.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Distribuição por Idade , Alaska/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/mortalidade , Regiões Árticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Armas de Fogo , Humanos , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/mortalidade
15.
Orv Hetil ; 161(27): 1137-1145, 2020 07.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564005

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Population-specific obesity in different age groups and in the Roma population as well as the presence of noncommunicable diseases that are linked to obesity necessitate the development of ethnical-specific prevention and intervention programmes. AIM: Our goal is to model the effects on nutritional status of interventional programmes of different intensities carried out in various age groups of the Roma population. METHOD: We defined the effect of different public health interventions on the state of health of the Roma population by use of the Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment software. Two models of interventions were studied throughout our research: one that focuses on only one aspect of lifestyle changes; and one that includes radical prevention programmes that aim to change lifestyles as a whole and have an impact on nutritional status. RESULTS: Nearly 20% of Roma men and women are obese, and by 2070, one third of the Roma population will be overweight or obese without any public health intervention. Not even when the most efficient proceedings of the scientific literature are applied do prevention-intervention programmes of moderate-intensity offer a perceptible result about the incidence and prevalence of diseases linked to obesity. In the case of application of these programs, not more than a ten-person order of magnitude decrease can be achieved. This is not enough to prove a statistical detectability on the population level. Whereas, complex intervention programmes, based on a comprehensive transformation of lifestyle and food consumption patterns can present perceptible outcome primarily among the middle-aged and the elderly. CONCLUSION: The survey results direct attention to the fact that reducing the burden of disease in the Roma population caused by obesity is only to be achieved as a complex, all-councils act that requires resources much greater than what is available now. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(27): 1137-1145.


Assuntos
Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/métodos , Obesidade/etnologia , Qualidade de Vida , Roma (Grupo Étnico)/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/etnologia
16.
Clin Obes ; 10(4): e12372, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447835

RESUMO

This study sought to examine racial/ethnic variations in receipt of provider recommendations on weight loss, patient adherence, perception of weight, attempts at weight loss and actual weight loss among patients with overweight/obesity status at Health Resources and Services Administration-funded health centres (HC). We used a 2014 nationally representative survey of adult HC patients with overweight/obesity status (PwOW/OB) last year and reported the HC was their usual source of care (n = 3517). We used logistic regression models to assess the interaction of race/ethnicity and having obesity in (1) provider recommendations of diet or (2) exercise, (3) patient adherence to diet or (4) exercise, (5) perceptions of weight and (6) weight loss attempts. We used a multinomial regression model to examine (7) weight loss or gain vs no change and a linear regression model to evaluate (8) percent weight change. We found Black PwOW/OB (OR = 1.65) experienced greater odds of receiving diet recommendations than Whites. We found limited racial/ethnic disparities in adherence. Black (OR = 0.41), Hispanic/Latino (OR = 0.45), and American Indian/Alaska Native (OR = 0.41) PwOW/OB had lower odds of perceiving themselves as overweight. Black (OR = 1.68) and Hispanic (OR = 1.98) PwOW/OB had a greater odds of reporting weight gain, and Asian PwOW/OB (OR = 0.42) had lower odds of reporting weight loss than Whites. Disparities in provider diet recommendations among Blacks and Hispanics indicated the importance of personalized weight management recommendations. Understanding underlying reasons for discordance between self-perception and observed weight among different groups is needed. Overall increase in weight, despite current interventions, should be addressed through targeted racially/ethnically appropriate approaches.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Cooperação do Paciente , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda de Peso/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança , Autoimagem , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 772, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is becoming an important public health challenge, especially among immigrants coming from low and middle income to high-income countries. In this study we examined the relationship between overweight/obesity and various socio-demographic indicators among different immigrant groups in Norway. METHODS: We used data from the Living Conditions Survey among Immigrants 2016, conducted by Statistics Norway. Our study sample included 4194 immigrants from 12 different countries. Participants were asked about a number of topics including health, weight, height, demographic factors, length of residence and employment. We ran logistic regression analysis to determine the odds ratio (OR) of the associations between socio-demographic factors with adiposity among immigrants. RESULTS: Approximately 53% of the sample was overweight/obese. There was a significant difference in overweight/obesity by gender, age, country of origin and marital status. Overall immigrant men were almost 52% more likely to be overweight/obese than women. Women from Somalia had the highest odds (13.1; CI: 7.4-23.1) of being overweight/obese, followed by Iraq (8.6; CI: 4.9-14.9), Pakistan (7.5; CI: 4.2-13.4), Kosovo (7.0; CI: 4.1-12.1), and Turkey (6.8; CI: 4.0-11.6) as compared to the women from Vietnam (reference). Whereas men from Turkey had the highest odds (5.2; CI: (3.2-8.3)) of being overweight/obese, followed by Poland (4.2; CI: 2.7-6.1), Bosnia (4.1; CI: (2.6-6.5) and Kosovo (3.9; CI: 2.5-6.1). The odds for obesity increased with age and odds were highest in the eldest group 45-66 years (4.3; CI: 3.2-5.8) as compared to reference group16-24 years. The odds of being overweight/obese was higher among married (1.6; CI: 1.3-1.9) and divorced/separated/widowed (1.5; CI: 1.1-2.0) as compared to singles. Education, employment status, physical activity and length of residence were not associated with the odds of being overweight/obese. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study call attention to the importance of a greater understanding of the processes leading to obesity among certain immigrant groups in Norway. Moreover, there is a need for culturally adapted prevention strategies targeting immigrant men and women with high rates of overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Saúde Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ann Epidemiol ; 46: 49-56.e5, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448735

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate racial/ethnic-stratified effects of maternal prepregnancy BMI on size for gestational age at birth, by comparing siblings within families. METHODS: This study examined linked vital statistics and patient discharge data from 580,960 infants born to 278,770 women in the State of California (2007-2012). To control for family-level confounding, we used fixed effects multinomial regression, modeling size for gestational age (small [SGA], appropriate, large [LGA]) as a function of maternal BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, obesity class I, II, III) and time-varying covariates. We conducted overall and race/ethnicity-stratified (non-Hispanic white, black, Asian; Hispanic) analyses. For comparison, we fit analogous random effects models, which do not control for family-level confounding. RESULTS: In fixed effects models, maternal BMI was most strongly associated with LGA in non-Hispanic white women, reaching 6.7 times greater for class III obesity (OR [95% CI]: 6.7 [5.1, 8.7]); and weakest in black women (OR [95% CI]: 3.0 [1.5, 5.7]). Associations with SGA were similar across race/ethnicity. Compared with random effects estimates, fixed effects were most attenuated for LGA associations among racial/ethnic minority women. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prepregnancy BMI was differentially associated with size for gestational age across racial/ethnic groups, with the strongest family-level confounding in racial/ethnic minority women.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Irmãos/etnologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 427, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social inequalities in bodyweight start early in life and track into adulthood. Dietary patterns are an important determinant of weight development in children, towards both overweight and underweight. Therefore, we aimed to examine weight development between age 5 and 10 years by ethnicity, SES and thereafter by BMI category at age 5, to explore its association with dietary patterns at age 5. METHODS: Participants were 1765 children from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) cohort that had valid data on BMI at age 5 and 10 and diet at age 5. Linear mixed model analysis was used to examine weight development between age 5 and 10 years and to assess if four previously identified dietary patterns at age 5 (snacking, full-fat, meat and healthy) were associated with weight development. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders, stratified by ethnicity and SES and thereafter stratified per BMI category at age 5. RESULTS: Overall, weight decreased in Dutch and high SES children and increased in non-Dutch and low/middle SES children. Across the range of bodyweight categories at age 5, we observed a conversion to normal weight, which was stronger in Dutch and high SES children but less pronounced in non-Dutch and low/middle SES children. Overall, the observed associations between weight development and dietary patterns were mixed with some unexpected findings: a healthy dietary pattern was positively associated with weight development in most groups, regardless of ethnicity and SES (e.g. Dutch B 0.084, 95% CI 0.038;0.130 and high SES B 0.096, 95% CI 0.047;0.143) whereas the full-fat pattern was negatively associated with weight development (e.g. Dutch B -0.069, 95% CI -0.114;-0.024 and high SES B -0.072, 95% CI -0.119;-0.026). CONCLUSIONS: We observed differential weight development per ethnic and SES group. Our results indicate that each ethnic and SES group follows its own path of weight development. Associations between dietary patterns and weight development showed some unexpected findings; follow-up research is needed to understand the association between dietary patterns and weight development.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade/etiologia , Classe Social , Magreza/etiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Saudável , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/etnologia , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso
20.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252241

RESUMO

Sphingolipid metabolism plays a critical role in cell growth regulation, lipid regulation, neurodevelopment, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Animal experiments suggest that vitamin D may be involved in sphingolipid metabolism regulation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation would alter circulating long-chain ceramides and related metabolites involved in sphingolipid metabolism in humans. We carried out a post-hoc analysis of a previously conducted randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 70 overweight/obese African-Americans, who were randomly assigned into four groups of 600, 2000, 4000 IU/day of vitamin D3 supplements or placebo for 16 weeks. The metabolites were measured in 64 subjects (aged 26.0 ± 9.4 years, 17% male). Serum levels of N-stearoyl-sphingosine (d18:1/18:0) (C18Cer) and stearoyl sphingomyelin (d18:1/18:0) (C18SM) were significantly increased after vitamin D3 supplementation (ps < 0.05) in a dose-response fashion. The effects of 600, 2000, and 4000 IU/day vitamin D3 supplementation on C18Cer were 0.44 (p = 0.049), 0.52 (p = 0.016), and 0.58 (p = 0.008), respectively. The effects of three dosages on C18SM were 0.30 (p = 0.222), 0.61 (p = 0.009), and 0.68 (p = 0.004), respectively. This was accompanied by the significant correlations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] concentration and those two metabolites (ps < 0.05). Vitamin D3 supplementations increase serum levels of C18Cer and C18SM in a dose-response fashion among overweight/obese African Americans.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Calcifediol/sangue , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Glicoesfingolipídeos Neutros/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo
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