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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371807

RESUMO

The endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of a variety of physiological and cognitive processes. While the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) have been found in breast milk, their role(s) have yet to be determined. This study determined the normal concentration ranges of endocannabinoids (2-AG and AEA) in breast milk and the influences, if any, of obesity and diurnal rhythms on their levels. Milk samples were collected from 36 breastfeeding mothers at 4-8 weeks postpartum at each feed over a 24-h period, and further stratified into three groups based on body mass index (BMI). The samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. AEA was below the limit of detection and 2-AG levels averaged 59.3 ± 18.3 ng/mL (± SD) in women with normal BMI. Wide-ranging 2-AG concentrations in the overweight (65.5 ± 41.9 ng/mL) /obese (66.1 ± 40.6 ng/mL) groups suggest BMI may be a contributing factor influencing its levels. Following a diurnal pattern, there was a significantly higher 2-AG concentration observed during the day, as compared to night time samples. In conclusion, our study clearly suggests that appropriate milk collection and storage conditions are critical. Further, body weight and diurnal rhythm appear to influence levels of 2-AG. Based on these results, future studies are underway to determine what specific roles endocannabinoids may play in human milk and how elevated levels of 2-AG may modulate infant appetite and health.


Assuntos
Ácidos Araquidônicos/análise , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Endocanabinoides/análise , Glicerídeos/análise , Leite Humano/química , Obesidade/metabolismo , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/análise , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371815

RESUMO

High blood pressure is a crucial risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases, and a diet rich in whole-grain foods may modulate blood pressure. This study investigated the effects of dehulled adlay consumption on blood pressure in vivo. We initially fed spontaneous hypertensive rats diets without (SHR group) or with 12 or 24% dehulled adlay (SHR + LA and SHR + HA groups), and discovered that it could limit blood pressure increases over a 12-week experimental period. Although we found no significant changes in plasma, heart, and kidney angiotensin-converting enzyme activities, both adlay-consuming groups had lower endothelin-1 and creatinine concentrations than the SHR group; the SHR + HA group also had lower aspartate aminotransferase and uric acid levels than the SHR group did. We later recruited 23 participants with overweight and obesity, and they consumed 60 g of dehulled adlay daily for a six-week experimental period. At the end of the study, we observed a significant decrease in the group's systolic blood pressure (SBP), and the change in SBP was even more evident in participants with high baseline SBP. In conclusion, our results suggested that daily intake of dehulled adlay had beneficial effects in blood-pressure management. Future studies may further clarify the possible underlying mechanisms for the consuming of dehulled adlay as a beneficial dietary approach for people at risk of hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Coix , Dieta/métodos , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Grãos Integrais , Adulto , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
3.
BMJ ; 374: n1840, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the characteristics of behavioural weight loss programmes influence the rate of change in weight after the end of the programme. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Trial registries, 11 electronic databases, and forward citation searching (from database inception; latest search December 2019). Randomised trials of behavioural weight loss programmes in adults with overweight or obesity, reporting outcomes at ≥12 months, including at the end of the programme and after the end of the programme. REVIEW METHODS: Studies were screened by two independent reviewers with discrepancies resolved by discussion. 5% of the studies identified in the searches met the inclusion criteria. One reviewer extracted the data and a second reviewer checked the data. Risk of bias was assessed with Cochrane's risk of bias tool (version 1). The rate of change in weight was calculated (kg/month; converted to kg/year for interpretability) after the end of the programme in the intervention versus control groups by a mixed model with a random intercept. Associations between the rate of change in weight and prespecified variables were tested. RESULTS: Data were analysed from 249 trials (n=59 081) with a mean length of follow-up of two years (longest 30 years). 56% of studies (n=140) had an unclear risk of bias, 21% (n=52) a low risk, and 23% (n=57) a high risk of bias. Regain in weight was faster in the intervention versus the no intervention control groups (0.12-0.32 kg/year) but the difference between groups was maintained for at least five years. Each kilogram of weight lost at the end of the programme was associated with faster regain in weight at a rate of 0.13-0.19 kg/year. Financial incentives for weight loss were associated with faster regain in weight at a rate of 1-1.5 kg/year. Compared with programmes with no meal replacements, interventions involving partial meal replacements were associated with faster regain in weight but not after adjustment for weight loss during the programme. Access to the programme outside of the study was associated with slower regain in weight. Programmes where the intensity of the interaction reduced gradually were also associated with slower regain in weight in the multivariable analysis, although the point estimate suggested that the association was small. Other characteristics did not explain the heterogeneity in regain in weight. CONCLUSION: Faster regain in weight after weight loss was associated with greater initial weight loss, but greater initial weight loss was still associated with reduced weight for at least five years after the end of the programme, after which data were limited. Continued availability of the programme to participants outside of the study predicted a slower regain in weight, and provision of financial incentives predicted faster regain in weight; no other clear associations were found. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018105744.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371972

RESUMO

Resistance training (RT) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) supplementation have emerged as strategies to improve muscle function in older adults. Overweight/obese postmenopausal women (55-70 years) were randomly allocated to one of four experimental groups, receiving placebo (olive oil) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich n-3 PUFA supplementation alone or in combination with a supervised RT-program for 16 weeks. At baseline and at end of the trial, body composition, anthropometrical measures, blood pressure and serum glucose and lipid biomarkers were analyzed. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and strength tests were also performed. All groups exhibit a similar moderate reduction in body weight and fat mass, but the RT-groups maintained bone mineral content, increased upper limbs lean mass, decreased lower limbs fat mass, and increased muscle strength and quality compared to untrained-groups. The RT-program also improved glucose tolerance (lowering the OGTT incremental area under the curve). The DHA-rich supplementation lowered diastolic blood pressure and circulating triglycerides and increased muscle quality in lower limbs. In conclusion, 16-week RT-program improved segmented body composition, bone mineral content, and glucose tolerance, while the DHA-rich supplement had beneficial effects on cardiovascular health markers in overweight/obese postmenopausal women. No synergistic effects were observed for DHA supplementation and RT-program combination.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Sobrepeso/terapia , Pós-Menopausa , Treinamento de Força , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Placebos
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371977

RESUMO

The effectiveness of weight loss treatment displays dramatic inter-individual variabilities, even with well-controlled energy intake/expenditure. This study aimed to determine the association between daily rhythms of cardiac autonomic control and weight loss efficiency and to explore the potential relevance to weight loss resistance in humans carrying the genetic variant C at CLOCK 3111T/C. A total of 39 overweight/obese Caucasian women (20 CLOCK 3111C carriers and 19 non-carriers) completed a behaviour-dietary obesity treatment of ~20 weeks, during which body weight was assessed weekly. Ambulatory electrocardiographic data were continuously collected for up to 3.5 days and used to quantify the daily rhythm of fractal cardiac dynamics (FCD), a non-linear measure of autonomic function. FCD showed a 24 h rhythm (p < 0.001). Independent of energy intake and physical activity level, faster weight loss was observed in individuals with the phase (peak) of the rhythm between ~2-8 p.m. and with a larger amplitude. Interestingly, the phase effect was significant only in C carriers (p = 0.008), while the amplitude effect was only significant in TT carriers (p < 0.0001). The daily rhythm of FCD and CLOCK 3111T/C genotype is linked to weight loss response interactively, suggesting complex interactions between the genetics of the circadian clock, the daily rhythm of autonomic control, and energy balance control.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Proteínas CLOCK/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Coração/inervação , Sobrepeso/terapia , Perda de Peso/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Fractais , Genótipo , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/genética , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444958

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of an antenatal lifestyle intervention of a low-glycaemic index (GI) diet and physical activity on energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DIITM) and explored its relationship with maternal and child health in women with overweight and obesity. This was a secondary analysis of 434 mother-child pairs from the Pregnancy Exercise and Nutrition Study (PEARS) trial in Dublin, Ireland. E-DIITM scores were calculated for early (10-16 weeks) and late (28 weeks) pregnancy. Outcomes included lipids, inflammation markers, insulin resistance, mode of delivery, infant size, pre-eclampsia, and gestational diabetes. T-tests were used to assess changes in E-DIITM. Chi-square, correlations, and multiple regression were employed to investigate relationships with outcomes. The mean (SD) age of participants was 32.45 (4.29) years with median (IQR) BMI 28.25 (26.70, 31.34) kg/m2. There was no change in E-DIITM in the controls (-0.14 (1.19) vs. -0.07 (1.09), p = 0.465) but E-DIITM reduced by 10% after the intervention (0.01 (1.07) vs -0.75 (1.05), p < 0.001). No associations were found between early pregnancy E-DIITM and maternal and child outcomes, except for increased odds of adverse cardiometabolic phenotype in women who delivered male (OR = 2.29, p = 0.010) but not female infants (OR = 0.99, p = 0.960). A low-GI antenatal intervention can reduce the inflammatory potential of diets. Sex differences should be explored further in future research.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação , Irlanda , Estilo de Vida , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445009

RESUMO

The Portfolio Diet, a plant-based portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods, has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and other cardiovascular risk factors, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). It is not known if these beneficial effects translate to a lower incidence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To support examinations between Portfolio Diet adherence and disease, a Portfolio Diet score (PDS) was developed and its predictive and concurrent validity was assessed within the Toronto Healthy Diet Study, a six-month RCT in overweight adults. Predictive validity was assessed using change in the PDS measured by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and concomitant change in LDL-C from baseline to six months using multiple linear regression, adjusted for potential confounders (n = 652). Concurrent validity was assessed in a subset of participants (n = 50) who completed the FFQ and a 7-day diet record (7DDR) at baseline. The PDS determined from each diet assessment method was used to derive correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots to assess the between-method agreement. The change in PDS was inversely associated with change in LDL-C (ß coefficients: -0.01 mmol/L (95% confidence intervals (CIs): -0.02, -0.002; p =0.02). The correlation between the PDS from the FFQ and 7DDR was 0.69 (95% CIs: 0.48, 0.85). The Bland-Altman plot showed reasonable agreement between the score from the FFQ and 7DDR. These findings indicate predictive validity of the PDS with lower LDL-C, and reasonable concurrent validity of the PDS as assessed by an FFQ against a 7DDR.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Vegetariana , Comportamento Alimentar , Valor Nutritivo , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445008

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over a 6 month follow up (period of weight regain) in overweight, postmenopausal women having previously completed a 6 month weight loss (WL) intervention with and without aerobic exercise (AEX). Women (BMI > 25 kg/m2) underwent VO2max and DEXA scans at baseline, after 6 months of WL or AEX + WL, and at 12 months ad libitum follow up. Both groups lost ~9% body weight from 0 to 6 months and regained ~2% from 6 to 12 months, while losing ~4% of appendicular lean mass (ALM) across the 12-month study duration. VO2max increased 10% from 0 to 6 months and declined 12% from 6 to 12 months for AEX + WL, with no changes for WL. Total body (p < 0.01) and total femur (p = 0.03) BMD decreased similar between groups across time (combined groups: 0-6 months: total body: -1.2% and total femur: -1.2%; 6-12 months: total body: -0.26% and total femur: -0.09%). Less ALM loss and greater VO2max increases during the WL phase were associated with attenuated BMD loss at various anatomical sites during periods of weight regain (6-12 months) p's < 0.05). Results suggest that BMD loss may continue following WL, despite weight regain. Further, this study adds to the literature by suggesting that preventing declines in muscle quality and function during WL may attenuate the loss of BMD during weight regain. Future studies are needed to identify mechanisms underlying WL-induced bone loss so that effective practices can be designed to minimize the loss of BMD during WL and weight maintenance in older women.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Dieta Saudável , Terapia por Exercício , Sobrepeso/terapia , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Baltimore , Composição Corporal , Restrição Calórica , Feminino , Humanos , Corrida Moderada , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Aptidão Física , Pós-Menopausa , Treinamento de Força , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada
9.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200533

RESUMO

Aging and osteoarthritis are associated with high risk of muscle mass loss, which leads to physical disability; this loss can be effectively alleviated by diet (DI) and exercise (ET) interventions. This study investigated the relative effects of different types of diet, exercise, and combined treatment (DI+ET) on muscle mass and functional outcomes in individuals with obesity and lower-limb osteoarthritis. A comprehensive search of online databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the efficacy of DI, ET, and DI+ET in patients with obesity and lower-extremity osteoarthritis. The included RCTs were analyzed through network meta-analysis and risk-of-bias assessment. We finally included 34 RCTs with a median (range/total) Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6.5 (4-8/10). DI plus resistance ET, resistance ET alone, and aerobic ET alone were ranked as the most effective treatments for increasing muscle mass (standard mean difference (SMD) = 1.40), muscle strength (SMD = 1.93), and walking speed (SMD = 0.46). Our findings suggest that DI+ET is beneficial overall for muscle mass in overweight or obese adults with lower-limb osteoarthritis, especially those who are undergoing weight management.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sarcopenia/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Dieta , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Viés de Publicação , Análise de Regressão , Risco , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada/fisiologia
10.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(9): 1986-1994, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with unintentional weight loss. Little is known on whether and how patients regain the lost weight. We assessed changes in weight and abdominal adiposity over a three-month follow-up after discharge in COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: In this sub-study of a large prospective observational investigation, we collected data from individuals who had been hospitalized for COVID-19 and re-evaluated at one (V1) and three (V2) months after discharge. Patient characteristics upon admission and anthropometrics, waist circumference and hunger levels assessed during follow-up were analyzed across BMI categories. RESULTS: One-hundred-eighty-five COVID-19 survivors (71% male, median age 62.1 [54.3; 72.1] years, 80% with overweight/obesity) were included. Median BMI did not change from admission to V1 in normal weight subjects (-0.5 [-1.2; 0.6] kg/m2, p = 0.08), but significantly decreased in subjects with overweight (-0.8 [-1.8; 0.3] kg/m2, p < 0.001) or obesity (-1.38 [-3.4; -0.3] kg/m2, p < 0.001; p < 0.05 vs. normal weight or obesity). Median BMI did not change from V1 to V2 in normal weight individuals (+0.26 [-0.34; 1.15] kg/m2, p = 0.12), but significantly increased in subjects with overweight (+0.4 [0.0; 1.0] kg/m2, p < 0.001) or obesity (+0.89 [0.0; 1.6] kg/m2, p < 0.001; p = 0.01 vs. normal weight). Waist circumference significantly increased from V1 to V2 in the whole group (p < 0.001), driven by the groups with overweight or obesity. At multivariable regression analyses, male sex, hunger at V1 and initial weight loss predicted weight gain at V2. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with overweight or obesity hospitalized for COVID-19 exhibit rapid, wide weight fluctuations that may worsen body composition (abdominal adiposity). CLINICALTRIALS. GOV REGISTRATION: NCT04318366.


Assuntos
Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobreviventes , Adiposidade , Idoso , Antropometria , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/virologia , Sobrepeso/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Circunferência da Cintura
11.
Life Sci ; 277: 119611, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984359

RESUMO

AIMS: We assessed the influence of maternal overweight on the behavioral neurodevelopment of male and female offspring in prepubertal age by reducing the litter size. MAIN METHODS: To reduce litter size in Wistar rats, the offspring of generation 0 (G0) were culled for 12 pups (6 males and 6 females: normal litter, NL-G1) or 4 pups (2 males and 2 females: small litter, SL-G1). In G1 dams, overweight was characterized, maternal behavior and locomotor activity were assessed. At G2, we quantified the ultrasonic vocalizations in post-natal day 5 (PND5); we evaluated olfactory discrimination in the homing behavior test on PND13; and in PND28-32 (prepubertal age), we performed the following tests: social play behavior, hole board, object recognition, and open field. At the end of the experiments, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were dissected to quantify the synaptophysin by western blotting. KEY FINDINGS: Our data demonstrated that a reduction in litter size was able to induce maternal overweight without altering the parameters related to overweight in the offspring. The SL-G2 offspring showed deficits in early social communication, olfactory discrimination, social play behavior, and the exploration of objects, in addition to increasing repetitive and stereotyped movements. There were also changes in the synaptophysin levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of the offspring from reduced litter dams. In conclusion, maternal overweight caused by litter reduction impairs behavioral neurodevelopment, inducing autism-like symptoms in the offspring. SIGNIFICANCE: This study alerts the public about the negative consequences of maternal overweight in the descendants.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/fisiologia , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 2259-2269, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Physical activity (PA) breaks may effectively attenuate the detrimental impact of prolonged sitting on acute cognitive performance, perceivable benefits (e.g. mood), vascular function, and metabolic health. To date, the impact of meal composition on the effects of sedentary behavior and/or PA breaks on health has been scarcely studied. Therefore, our aim was to investigate whether meal composition alters how sedentary behavior and PA breaks affect these acute health outcomes. METHODS: A total of 24 overweight and obese, sedentary adults completed four conditions in randomized order in a cross-over design: [a] high-protein, low-fat breakfast (HPLF) + 4hrs uninterrupted sitting (SIT), [b] HPLF + 4hrs interrupted sitting (ACT; 5-min cycling every 30 min), [c] Western breakfast (WEST; higher in fats/simple sugars, lower in protein/fiber) + SIT, [d] WEST + ACT. WEST and HPLF were isocaloric. Linear mixed models were used to examine changes in cognitive performance (Test of Attentional Performance), perceivable benefits (Likert-scales, Profile of Mood States questionnaire), vascular health (carotid artery reactivity, blood pressure), and metabolic health (post-breakfast glucose, insulin, lipids). RESULTS: Independent of meal composition, we did not observe any effect of PA breaks on cognitive performance, vascular health and post-breakfast lipid responses. PA breaks delayed post-breakfast mood and vigor decrements, as well as increases in fatigue and sleepiness (all p < 0.05), but effects were independent of meal composition (p > 0.05). WEST resulted in higher post-breakfast glucose levels compared to HPLF (p < 0.05), while PA breaks did not impact this response (p > 0.05). PA breaks reduced post-breakfast insulin (p < 0.05), which did not differ between meals (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The acute impact of PA breaks and/or prolonged sitting on cognitive performance, perceivable benefits, and vascular and metabolic health was not altered by the composition of a single meal in overweight/obese, sedentary adults. Possibly, breaking up prolonged sitting, rather than meal composition, is a more potent strategy to impact acute health outcomes, such as perceivable benefits and insulin levels.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Cognição , Exercício Físico , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Postura Sentada , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Artérias Carótidas/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Comportamento Sedentário
13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(10): 2019-2028, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907796

RESUMO

The relationship between body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial. We examined the relationships of BMI before and after MI and change in weight with all-cause mortality among participants in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2016) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1988-2016) cohorts. During a follow-up period of up to 36 years, we documented 4,856 participants with incident nonfatal MI, among whom 2,407 died during follow-up. For pre-MI and post-MI BMI, overweight was not associated with lower mortality. Obesity (BMI ≥30) was associated with higher risk of mortality. Compared with participants with post-MI BMI of 22.5-24.9, hazard ratios were 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.34) for BMI 30.0-34.9 and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.27, 1.83) for BMI ≥35.0 (P for trend < 0.001). Compared with stable weight from before MI to after MI, a reduction of more than 4 BMI units was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio = 1.53, 95%: CI: 1.28, 1.83). This increase was seen only among participants who lost weight without improving their physical activity or diet. Our findings showed no survival benefit of excess adiposity in relation to risk of mortality. Weight loss from before to after MI without lifestyle improvement may reflect reverse causation and disease severity.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(6): 985-994, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to examine the association between phentermine/topiramate therapy and weight loss and adverse events in adults with overweight or obesity by meta-analysis and systematic review. METHODS: Medical Subject Headings and free-text terms were selected to search for eligible trials in PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Embase up to April 18, 2020. The quality of randomized controlled trials was evaluated by the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effect models. RESULTS: Phentermine/topiramate therapy resulted in an average weight loss of 7.73 kg (95% CI: 6.60-8.85) in general compared with placebo. The weight loss was related to the dose of phentermine/topiramate. Compared with placebo, the average weight loss was 3.55 kg (95% CI: 2.22-4.88) for 3.75/23 mg, 7.27 kg (95% CI: 6.40-8.13) for 7.5/46 mg, and 8.25 kg (95% CI: 6.92-9.79) for 15/92 mg. For phentermine/topiramate participants in different weight-loss subgroups, the weight loss of participants with ≥5%, ≥10%, and ≥15% baseline weight loss was 3.18 (95% CI: 2.75-3.67), 5.32 (95% CI: 4.53-6.25), and 5.65 (95% CI: 3.55-9.01), respectively. Compared with placebo, the adverse events associated with the treatment mainly included dysgeusia (odds ratio [OR] = 8.86, 95% CI: 5.65-13.89), paresthesia (OR = 8.51, 95% CI: 6.20-11.67), dry mouth (OR = 6.71, 95% CI: 5.03-8.94), disturbance in attention (OR = 4.48, 95% CI: 2.39-8.41), irritability (OR = 4.10, 95% CI: 2.29-7.33), hypoesthesia (OR = 3.81, 95% CI: 1.32-11.00), constipation (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 2.02-2.93), and dizziness (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.72-2.98). Phentermine/topiramate also reduced waist circumference, blood pressure, blood sugar levels, and lipid levels. CONCLUSIONS: Phentermine/topiramate has considerable benefit in reducing body weight, and the efficacy was closely related to the dosage. However, it increased the risk of nervous system-related adverse events.


Assuntos
Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Fentermina , Topiramato , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Fentermina/administração & dosagem , Fentermina/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Topiramato/administração & dosagem , Topiramato/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801995

RESUMO

The impact of diet on inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) in girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unknown. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate, in PCOS girls, whether certain macronutrient intakes can be associated with these disturbances. For this purpose, 59 PCOS participants (aged 14-18 years) were recruited to this study and divided into two subgroups: overweight/obese-Ov/Ob group (n = 22) and normal weight-N group (n = 37). Nutrition was assessed using a 3-day food record. The studied markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukins 1 and 6 (IL-1 and IL-6). We found plant protein intake inversely correlated with IL-6 (p = 0.007; r = -0.557), TNF-α (p = 0.006; r = -0.564), MDA (p = 0.01; r = -0.539) in the Ov/Ob group and with TAC (p = 0.021; r = -0.38) in the N group. Inverse correlations in the Ov/Ob group were observed between protein intake and IL-6 (p = 0.031; r = -0.461), TNF- α (p = 0.043; r = -0.435); carbohydrates and IL-6 (p = 0.037; r = -0.448), MDA (p = 0.045; r = -0.431); fiber and IL-6 (p = 0.025; r = -0.475). A positive relationship between cholesterol intake and CRP concentration (p = 0.038; r = 0.342) was also found in the N group. These findings revealed that inflammation and OS are increased in Ov/Ob girls with decreased plant protein intake and low carbohydrates in the diet. Moreover, inflammation may be increased by cholesterol intake in slim PCOS girls. On the other hand, decreased intake of fiber and total protein intake increased inflammation. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04738409.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Inflamação/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Estresse Oxidativo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Antioxidantes/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Citocinas/sangue , Registros de Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Malondialdeído/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/imunologia
16.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(1): 193-197, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775088

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obesity affect an increasing number of children and adolescents in Poland. This excessive body weight usually coexists with sleep disorders and other afflictions, which is worrisome. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and sleep disorders among adolescents and demonstrate their relationships. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 1,002 students. Nutritional habits and subjective assessment of sleep were evaluated with the author's survey; daytime sleepiness and sleep quality were assessed with Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Sleep Quality Scale (SQS). Statistical calculations were performed with the STATISTICA 12.0 programme. RESULTS: 24.7% of adolescents suffered from overweight or obesity, 38% reported sleep problems in subjective assessment, 10.5% exhibited excessive daytime sleepiness, determined by ESS, and 14.3% had impaired quality of sleep as determined by SQS. Gender affected all the discussed problems. Type of school affected all the above, except for daytime sleepiness. In the group with overweight and obesity, 46.6% of individuals reported sleep problems in subjective assessment. About 59.1% of adolescents reported chronic fatigue. Reduced concentration and difficulties in learning were reported in 36.3% of all students, and in 46% of students with overweight and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The problem of excess body weight is a very alarming phenomenon since it affects almost 1/4 of the students. Almost half of the students with overweight and obesity reported sleep problems, which is strongly correlated with the type of school. Furthermore, excess body weight influenced the prevalence of reduced concentration and learning difficulties among adolescents.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Polônia , Prevalência , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia
17.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(1): 45-51, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707985

RESUMO

We compared the effects of short-term, perceptually regulated training using interval-walking in hypoxia vs. normoxia on health outcomes in overweight-to-obese individuals. Sixteen adults (body mass index = 33 ± 3 kg·m-2) completed eight interval-walk training sessions (15 × 2 min walking at a rating of perceived exertion of 14 on the 6-20 Borg scale; rest = 2 min) either in hypoxia (FiO2 = 13.0%) or normoxia during two weeks. Treadmill velocity did not differ between conditions or over time (p > 0.05). Heart rate was higher in hypoxia (+10 ± 3%; p = 0.04) during the first session and this was consistent within condition across the training sessions (p > 0.05). Similarly, arterial oxygen saturation was lower in hypoxia than normoxia (83 ± 1% vs. 96 ± 1%, p < 0.05), and did not vary over time (p > 0.05). After training, perceived mood state (+11.8 ± 2.7%, p = 0.06) and exercise self-efficacy (+10.6 ± 4.1%, p = 0.03) improved in both groups. Body mass (p = 0.55), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.19 and 0.07, respectively) and distance covered during a 6-min walk test (p = 0.11) did not change from pre- to post-tests. Short term (2-week) perceptually regulated interval-walk training sessions with or without hypoxia had no effect on exercise-related sensations, health markers and functional performance. This mode and duration of hypoxic conditioning does not appear to modify the measured cardiometabolic risk factors or improve exercise tolerance in overweight-to-obese individuals.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Oxigênio/sangue , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Teste de Caminhada
18.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930865, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Obesity can influence thyroid function through multiple routes, even in people who are euthyroid. The correlation between weight and thyroid function is a matter of debate. The present study investigated the relationship between body weight and thyroid function in euthyroid Chinese adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 1564 participants with serum thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormone levels within the reference range were included. All of them were tested for thyroid function parameters and categorized, based on body mass index (BMI), into 3 groups: normal weight, overweight, and obese. The effects of BMI on thyroid function were examined using linear (continuous values) and logistic (dichotomous levels according to medians or means) regression and controlling for age and sex. RESULTS There were significant differences in free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels and FT3/free thyroxine (FT4) ratios among participants who were normal weight, overweight, and obese (both P<0.001). Multivariable regression analysis (P<0.001) showed that BMI was positively associated with FT3 levels and FT3/FT4 ratios. Compared with the normal weight group, the patients who were overweight or obese had significantly higher FT3 levels and FT3/FT4 ratios that were higher than average, according to logistic regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS We found that Chinese adults who are obese may have higher FT3 levels and FT3/FT4 ratios than those who are of normal weight, even if their thyroid function values are within the normal range.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Tireóidea/métodos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue
19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29 Suppl 1: S31-S38, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759394

RESUMO

Although many individuals achieve weight loss of 10% or more, the ability to maintain a reduced body mass over months and years is much rarer. Unfortunately, our understanding of the adverse consequences of having overweight and obesity argues that long-term maintenance of a reduced weight provides the greatest health benefit. However, to achieve long-term weight reduction requires overcoming neuroendocrine systems that favor restoration of one's initial weight. Identifying and characterizing the components of these systems will be important if we are to develop therapies and strategies to reduce the rates of obesity and its complications in our modern society. During this session, Eric Ravussin and Steven R. Smith, respectively, discussed the physiology of the weight-reduced state that favors weight regain and a molecular component that contributes to this response.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Humanos , National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (U.S.)/organização & administração , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Estados Unidos
20.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(7): 1461-1470, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749940

RESUMO

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether differences in body composition, pharmacological treatment, and physical activity explain the increased resting metabolic rate (RMR) and impaired insulin sensitivity in hypertension. Resting blood pressure, RMR (indirect calorimetry), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical activity (accelerometry), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) (ergospirometry), and insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) were measured in 174 patients (88 men and 86 women; 20-68 years) with overweight or obesity. Hypertension (HTA) was present in 51 men (58%) and 42 women (49%) (p = .29). RMR was 6.9% higher in hypertensives than normotensives (1777 ± 386 and 1663 ± 383 kcal d-1 , p = .044). The double product (systolic blood pressure × heart rate) was 18% higher in hypertensive than normotensive patients (p < .001). The observed differences in absolute RMR were non-significant after adjusting for total lean mass and total fat mass (estimated means: 1702 kcal d-1 , CI: 1656-1750; and 1660 kcal d-1 , CI: 1611-1710 kcal d-1 , for the hypertensive and normotensive groups, respectively, p = .19, HTA × sex interaction p = .37). Lean mass, the double product, and age were the variables with the higher predictive value of RMR in hypertensive patients. Insulin sensitivity was lower in hypertensive than in normotensive patients, but these differences disappeared after accounting for physical activity and VO2max . In summary, hypertension is associated with increased RMR and reduced insulin sensitivity. The increased RMR is explained by an elevated myocardial oxygen consumption due to an increased resting double product, combined with differences in body composition between hypertensive and normotensive subjects.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Calorimetria , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
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