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1.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684656

RESUMO

The persistent coexistence of stress and paediatric obesity involves interrelated psychophysiological mechanisms, which are believed to function as a vicious circle. Here, a key mechanistic role is assumed for stress responsiveness and eating behaviour. After a stress induction by the Trier Social Stress Test in youngsters (n = 137, 50.4% boys, 6-18 years), specifically those high in chronic stress level and overweight (partial η2 = 0.03-0.07) exhibited increased stress vulnerability (stronger relative salivary cortisol reactivity and weaker happiness recovery) and higher fat/sweet snack intake, compared to the normal-weight and low-stress reference group. Stress responsiveness seems to stimulate unhealthy and emotional eating, i.e., strong cortisol reactivity was linked to higher fat/sweet snack intake (ß = 0.22) and weak autonomic system recovery was linked to high total and fat/sweet snack intake (ß = 0.2-0.3). Additionally, stress responsiveness acted as a moderator. As a result, stress responsiveness and emotional eating might be targets to prevent stress-induced overweight.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Emoções , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(8): 682-694, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472895

RESUMO

Objective: Obesity and depression are major, inter-related health concerns for men, yet many do not receive support to manage these conditions. This study investigated whether a self-guided, eHealth program (SHED-IT: Recharge) could reduce weight and depressive symptoms in men with overweight or obesity and low mood. Method: Overall, 125 men [Body Mass Index (BMI) 25-42 kg/m2] with depressive symptoms [Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥5] were recruited for a 6-month RCT. Men were randomized to (a) the SHED-IT: Recharge group (n = 62) or (b) a wait-list control group (n = 63). The 3-month program included printed and online resources (e.g., website, interactive modules). It was adapted from an evidence-based weight loss program for men to include an additional focus on "mental fitness". The primary outcomes were weight (kg) and depressive symptoms (PHQ-9) at 3 months. Men were assessed at baseline, 3 months (post-intervention), and 6 months. Intention-to-treat linear mixed models examined program outcomes. Results: At 3 months, medium-sized treatment effects were detected for both weight, adjusted mean difference -3.1 kg, 95% CI [-4.3, -1.9], d = 0.9, and depressive symptoms, adjusted mean difference -2.4 units, 95% CI [-4.0, -0.9], d = 0.6. These effects were maintained at 6 months and supported by sustained improvements in other health outcomes. Conclusions: A self-guided, eHealth program that combined behavioral weight loss advice with mental health support decreased weight and depressive symptoms in men. Integrated interventions targeting physical and mental health may be an effective strategy to engage and support men with overweight or obesity and low mood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Depressão/complicações , Depressão/terapia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/terapia , Autocuidado , Telemedicina , Perda de Peso , Programas de Redução de Peso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/psicologia
3.
Neuroimage ; 240: 118374, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245869

RESUMO

Food cue exposure can trigger eating. Food cue reactivity (FCR) is a conditioned response to food cues and includes physiological responses and activation of reward-related brain areas. FCR can be affected by hunger and weight status. The appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin and leptin play a pivotal role in homeostatic as well as hedonic eating. We examined the association between ghrelin and leptin levels and neural FCR in the fasted and sated state and the association between meal-induced changes in ghrelin and neural FCR, and in how far these associations are related to BMI and HOMA-IR. Data from 109 participants from three European centers (age 50±18 y, BMI 27±5 kg/m2) who performed a food viewing task during fMRI after an overnight fast and after a standardized meal were analyzed. Blood samples were drawn prior to the viewing task in which high-caloric, low-caloric and non-food images were shown. Fasting ghrelin was positively associated with neural FCR in the inferior and superior occipital gyrus in the fasted state. This was partly attributable to BMI and HOMA-IR. These brain regions are involved in visual attention, suggesting that individuals with higher fasting ghrelin have heightened attention to food cues. Leptin was positively associated with high calorie FCR in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the fasted state and to neural FCR in the left supramarginal gyrus in the fasted versus sated state, when correcting for BMI and HOMA-IR, respectively. This PFC region is involved in assessing anticipated reward value, suggesting that for individuals with higher leptin levels high-caloric foods are more salient than low-caloric foods, but foods in general are not more salient than non-foods. There were no associations between ghrelin and leptin and neural FCR in the sated state, nor between meal-induced changes in ghrelin and neural FCR. In conclusion, we show modest associations between ghrelin and leptin and neural FCR in a relatively large sample of European adults with a broad age and BMI range. Our findings indicate that people with higher leptin levels for their weight status and people with higher ghrelin levels may be more attracted to high caloric foods when hungry. The results of the present study form a foundation for future studies to test whether food intake and (changes in) weight status can be predicted by the association between (mainly fasting) ghrelin and leptin levels and neural FCR.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Jejum/sangue , Alimentos , Grelina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Resposta de Saciedade/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Apetite/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Jejum/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico por imagem , Sobrepeso/psicologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14147, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239031

RESUMO

Underweight or overweight in adolescence is linked to several adverse health outcomes. Less evidence exists about the association between weight status and school-related psychosocial characteristics in high income countries. We sought to investigate the relationship between weight status and psychosomatic and school-related complaints with a focus on gender differences. The study is a cohort of 18,462 adolescents (12-19 years; 51% girls) conducted in Sweden. The associations between weight status and psychosomatic and school-related complaints were estimated by binary logistic regression adjusted for several potential confounders. After correction for multiple testing, being underweight or overweight/obese was adversely associated with several psychosomatic and school-related complaints with significant differences between boys and girls. Specifically, underweight boys had higher odds to have psychosomatic complaints than normal-weight boys, while no such associations were observed among underweight girls. Overweight/obese (vs. normal-weight) boys had higher odds to complain about headache, pain in the back/hips, and feeling low. Overweight/obese (vs. normal-weight) girls were more likely to complain about feeling low, anxious/worried and having difficulty in falling asleep (P ≤ 0.01). In relation to school-related complaints (e.g., being bullied at school and academic failure), greater associations were observed for overweight/obese girls and boys than for underweight adolescents compared with normal-weight peers.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Magreza/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/patologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/patologia
5.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(3): 199-207, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Physical inactivity is the fourth leading global risk factor for mortality, followed by obesity. The combination of these risk factors is associated with non-communicable diseases, impaired physical function, and declining mental function. The World Health Organization recommends physical activity to reduce the mortality rate. Thus, this study examined the effects on anthropometric measurements of a 12-week walking program for elderly people in Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia with a 7000-step goal and weekly group walking activities. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted involving 109 elderly people with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25.0 kg/m2. BMI, body composition, and average daily steps were measured at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 26.0, and repeated-measures analysis of variance with the paired t-test for post-hoc analysis was conducted. RESULTS: In total, 48 participants in the intervention group and 61 participants in the control group completed the study. A significant interaction was found between time and group. The post-hoc analysis showed a significant difference between pre-intervention and post-intervention (within the intervention group). The post-intervention analysis revealed an increase in the mean number of daily steps by 3571.59, with decreases in body weight (-2.20 kg), BMI (-0.94 kg/m2), body fat percentage (-3.52%), visceral fat percentage (-1.29%) and waist circumference (-2.91 cm). Skeletal muscle percentage also showed a significant increase (1.67%). CONCLUSIONS: A 12-week walking program combining a 7000-step goals with weekly group walking activities had a significant effect on the anthropometric measurements of previously inactive and overweight/obese elderly people.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Sobrepeso/terapia , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/psicologia
6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070408

RESUMO

Understanding food choice is critical to be able to address the rise in obesity rates around the globe. In this paper, we examine the relationship between measured (BMI, using self-reported height and weight) and perceived weight status with the number of calories ordered in a controlled online food choice exercise. A total of 1044 participants completed an online food choice exercise in which they selected ingredients for a sandwich from five categories: meat/protein, cheese, spread/dressing, bread, and vegetables. We examine the number of calories ordered by participants and use linear regression to study the relationship of BMI category relative to self-reported perceived weight status with calories ordered. As a comparison to previous literature, we also examine the relationship between relative weight status and self-reported dieting behavior using logistic regression. We find that participants perceiving themselves to have a higher BMI than their BMI calculated using height and weight ordered significantly fewer calories and were more likely to report dieting than participants who perceived themselves to have a lower BMI than their calculated BMI. The relationship between perceived weight status and measured weight status explains behavior in a food choice task. Understanding how people perceive their weight may help design effective health messages.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Preferências Alimentares , Percepção de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10442, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001935

RESUMO

Combatting the current global epidemic of obesity requires that people have a realistic understanding of what a healthy body size looks like. This is a particular issue in different population sub-groups, where there may be increased susceptibility to obesity-related diseases. Prior research has been unable to systematically assess body size judgement due to a lack of attention to gender and race; our study aimed to identify the contribution of these factors. Using a data-driven multi-variate decision tree approach, we varied the gender and race of image stimuli used, and included the same diversity among participants. We adopted a condition-rich categorization visual task and presented participants with 120 unique body images. We show that gender and weight categories of the stimuli affect accuracy of body size perception. The decision pattern reveals biases for male bodies, in which participants showed an increasing number of errors from leaner to bigger bodies, particularly under-estimation errors. Participants consistently mis-categorized overweight male bodies as normal weight, while accurately categorizing normal weight. Overweight male bodies are now perceived as part of an expanded normal: the perceptual boundary of normal weight has become wider than the recognized BMI category. For female bodies, another intriguing pattern emerged, in which participants consistently mis-categorized underweight bodies as normal, whilst still accurately categorizing normal female bodies. Underweight female bodies are now in an expanded normal, in opposite direction to that of males. Furthermore, an impact of race type and gender of participants was also observed. Our results demonstrate that perceptual weight categorization is multi-dimensional, such that categorization decisions can be driven by ultiple factors.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Tamanho Corporal , Julgamento , Modelos Psicológicos , Percepção de Tamanho , Adulto , Árvores de Decisões , Feminino , Corpo Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Magreza/diagnóstico , Magreza/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9144, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911087

RESUMO

This study examines if overweight/obesity are related to higher impulsivity, food addiction and depressive symptoms, and if these variables could be modified after 1 year of a multimodal intervention (diet, physical activity, psychosocial support). 342 adults (55-75 years) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) from the PREDIMED-Plus Cognition study were randomized to the intervention or to the control group (lifestyle recommendations). Cognitive and psychopathological assessments were performed at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. At baseline, higher impulsivity was linked to higher food addiction and depressive symptoms, but not to body mass index (BMI). Food addiction not only predicted higher BMI and depressive symptoms, but also achieved a mediational role between impulsivity and BMI/depressive symptoms. After 1 year, patients in both groups reported significant decreases in BMI, food addiction and impulsivity. BMI reduction and impulsivity improvements were higher in the intervention group. Higher BMI decrease was achieved in individuals with lower impulsivity. Higher scores in food addiction were also related to greater post-treatment impulsivity. To conclude, overweight/obesity are related to higher impulsivity, food addiction and depressive symptoms in mid/old age individuals with MetS. Our results also highlight the modifiable nature of the studied variables and the interest of promoting multimodal interventions within this population.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Intervenção Psicossocial , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Depressão/patologia , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Dependência de Alimentos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(5): 919-927, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the relationship between internalized weight stigma during pregnancy and breastfeeding outcomes at 1 month post partum among individuals with prepregnancy overweight or obesity. Secondarily, the study explored the temporal stability of internalized weight stigma from the third trimester to 1 month post partum via the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS). METHODS: A total of 103 pregnant individuals with overweight or obesity were recruited for this study. Participants completed the WBIS during the third trimester and self-reported breastfeeding initiation, continuation, and exclusivity outcomes at 1 month post partum. A paired t test and binomial logistic regression were conducted with covariates hierarchically added to the model. RESULTS: The average prepregnancy BMI was 33.53 (SD 7.17) kg/m2 (range = 25.4-62), and average prenatal WBIS scores were 25.95 (SD 11.83). No difference was found in mean prenatal and postpartum scores (25.95 [SD 11.83]; 26.86 [SD 13.03], respectively; t94 = -0.83, P = 0.41), evidencing temporal stability in WBIS scores from pre to post partum. Prenatal WBIS scores did not predict breastfeeding initiation, continuation, or exclusivity at 1 month post partum in either unadjusted or adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, this sample displayed low weight bias internalization, which was not predictive of breastfeeding initiation, continuation, or exclusivity at 1 month post partum. Future research is needed to develop a pregnancy-specific weight stigma measure.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
10.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 2259-2269, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Physical activity (PA) breaks may effectively attenuate the detrimental impact of prolonged sitting on acute cognitive performance, perceivable benefits (e.g. mood), vascular function, and metabolic health. To date, the impact of meal composition on the effects of sedentary behavior and/or PA breaks on health has been scarcely studied. Therefore, our aim was to investigate whether meal composition alters how sedentary behavior and PA breaks affect these acute health outcomes. METHODS: A total of 24 overweight and obese, sedentary adults completed four conditions in randomized order in a cross-over design: [a] high-protein, low-fat breakfast (HPLF) + 4hrs uninterrupted sitting (SIT), [b] HPLF + 4hrs interrupted sitting (ACT; 5-min cycling every 30 min), [c] Western breakfast (WEST; higher in fats/simple sugars, lower in protein/fiber) + SIT, [d] WEST + ACT. WEST and HPLF were isocaloric. Linear mixed models were used to examine changes in cognitive performance (Test of Attentional Performance), perceivable benefits (Likert-scales, Profile of Mood States questionnaire), vascular health (carotid artery reactivity, blood pressure), and metabolic health (post-breakfast glucose, insulin, lipids). RESULTS: Independent of meal composition, we did not observe any effect of PA breaks on cognitive performance, vascular health and post-breakfast lipid responses. PA breaks delayed post-breakfast mood and vigor decrements, as well as increases in fatigue and sleepiness (all p < 0.05), but effects were independent of meal composition (p > 0.05). WEST resulted in higher post-breakfast glucose levels compared to HPLF (p < 0.05), while PA breaks did not impact this response (p > 0.05). PA breaks reduced post-breakfast insulin (p < 0.05), which did not differ between meals (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The acute impact of PA breaks and/or prolonged sitting on cognitive performance, perceivable benefits, and vascular and metabolic health was not altered by the composition of a single meal in overweight/obese, sedentary adults. Possibly, breaking up prolonged sitting, rather than meal composition, is a more potent strategy to impact acute health outcomes, such as perceivable benefits and insulin levels.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Cognição , Exercício Físico , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Postura Sentada , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Artérias Carótidas/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Comportamento Sedentário
11.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917347

RESUMO

Prior work suggests that actual, but not estimated, energy density drives the reinforcing value of food and that energy from fat and carbohydrate can interact to potentiate reward. Here we sought to replicate these findings in an American sample and to determine if the effects are influenced by body mass index (BMI). Thirty participants with healthy weight (HW; BMI 21.92 ± 1.77; M ± SD) and 30 participants with overweight/obesity (OW/OB; BMI 29.42 ± 4.44) rated pictures of common American snacks in 120-kcal portions for liking, familiarity, frequency of consumption, expected satiety, healthiness, energy content, energy density, and price. Participants then completed an auction task where they bid for the opportunity to consume each food. Snacks contained either primarily carbohydrate, primarily fat, or roughly equal portions of fat and carbohydrate (combo). Replicating prior work, we found that participants with HW bid the most for combo foods in linear mixed model analyses. This effect was not observed among individuals with OW/OB. Additionally, in contrast with previous reports, our linear regression analyses revealed a negative relationship between the actual energy density of the snacks and bid amount that was mediated by food price. Our findings support altered macronutrient reinforcement in obesity and highlight potential influences of the food environment on the regulation of food reward.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Recompensa , Lanches/psicologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Connecticut , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Saciação
12.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918236

RESUMO

Recently, researchers have focused their attention on the role of cognitive processes on eating habits and body weight changes. Few studies have examined the relationship between the first stages of overweight and executive functions (EFs), excluding obesity conditions. This study is aimed to detect the involvement of the EFs and their predictive role on body mass index (BMI) in a sample of healthy individuals from childhood to young adulthood with a cross-sectional design. One-hundred and sixty-six healthy students were recruited from different Italian public schools: 46 children (age range: 7-11), 50 adolescents (age range: 15-18), 70 young adults (age range: 19-30). BMI was used to evaluate body weight and different EFs tasks were used to assess the EFs domains of inhibition, updating and shifting. After adjusting BMI for age, a hierarchical multiple linear regression was carried out for each EFs task. Pearson's r correlations were reported for each of the age subgroups. Motor disinhibition was associated with greater BMI in the overall sample. Higher BMI was related to poorer set-shifting in adolescence and poorer motor inhibition in young adulthood, but higher BMI was not associated with EFs in childhood. Differences in the development of EFs over time may influence weight changes over time through different responses to food and eating behavior.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919610

RESUMO

The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in our society, with a complex, multifactorial origin, and associated with greater morbidity and mortality in the population. Food addiction (FA) is a common disorder in overweight/obese people, which appears to be increasingly common in young people. This study analyzed food addiction in a group of young university students and to examine its association with body composition, quality of sleep, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, physical activity/sedentary habits, tobacco or alcohol consumption, and health status. A total of 536 undergraduate nursing students participated in a questionnaire that included the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS 2.0). Up to 6.4% of the students presented FA. Statistically significant associations were observed in the variables for sleep quality odds ratio (OR) 4.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-13.87), anxiety/depression OR 8.71 (95% CI: 3.93-19.27), body mass index (BMI) OR 8.32 (95% CI: 3.81-18.15) and sedentary lifestyle OR 2.33 (95% CI: 1.09-5.01). A predictive model was developed after binary logistic regression (area under the ROC curve 0.84 (95% CI: 0.77-0.91). Students with FA presented higher BMI values, worse sleep quality, anxiety or depression problems, and more time spent in sedentary behaviors.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Dependência de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade , Área Sob a Curva , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Depressão , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Dependência de Alimentos/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Prevalência , Curva ROC , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(3): 458-463, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845582

RESUMO

Introduction: Aim: to determine the relationship between perceived loneliness, happiness, and health, and quality of diet, observing the moderator role of weight status in elementary school children during the state of alarm decreed for COVID-19. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study in a sample of 116 Spanish schoolchildren. The perception of loneliness, happiness, and health was assessed using three items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. The quality of their Mediterranean diet was assessed using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index quetsionnaire for children and adolescents. Anthropometric variables were collected through a self-reported questionnaire, and for the calculation of body mass index the Quetelet index (kg/m2) was used. Results: the descriptive analysis showed no differences in the perception of loneliness, happiness, or health, quality of diet, or anthropometric variables (p > 0.005), except for weight (p < 0.005), according to sex. The inferential analysis showed that higher values in quality of diet are correlated with higher scores in perceived happiness and health (p < 0.005). In turn, the linear regression test showed an association between quality of diet and perception of happiness after the model was adjusted for normal weight (R2 = 0.382; p < 0.005). Likewise, it showed a significant association between quality of diet and perception of health after the model was adjusted for overweight schoolchildren (R2 = 0.455; p < 0.005). Conclusion: the association between perceived health and happiness with quality of diet seems to be moderated by weight status.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Felicidade , Nível de Saúde , Solidão/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920626

RESUMO

In a secondary analysis, we assessed the ability of dietary and physical activity surveys to explain variability in weight loss within a worksite-adapted Diabetes Prevention Program. The program involved 58 overweight/obese female employees (average age = 46 ± 11 years SD; average body mass index = 34.7 ± 7.0 kg/m2 SD) of four long-term care facilities who survey-reported liking and frequency of dietary and physical activity behaviors. Data were analyzed using a latent variable approach, analysis of covariance, and nested regression analysis to predict percent weight change from baseline to intervention end at week 16 (average loss = 3.0%; range-6% gain to 17% loss), and follow-up at week 28 (average loss = 2.0%; range-8% gain to 16% loss). Using baseline responses, restrained eaters (reporting liking but low intakes of high fat/sweets) achieved greater weight loss at 28 weeks than those reporting high liking/high intake (average loss = 3.5 ± 0.9% versus 1.0 ± 0.8% S.E., respectively). Examining the dietary surveys separately, only improvements in liking for a healthy diet were associated significantly with weight loss (predicting 44% of total variance, p < 0.001). By contrasting liking versus intake changes, women reporting concurrent healthier diet liking and healthier intake lost the most weight (average loss = 5.4 ± 1.1% S.E.); those reporting eating healthier but not healthier diet liking (possible misreporting) gained weight (average gain = 0.3 ± 1.4% S.E.). Change in liking and frequency of physical activity were highly correlated but neither predicted weight loss independently. These pilot data support surveying dietary likes/dislikes as a useful measure to capture dietary behaviors associated with weight loss in worksite-based programs. Comparing dietary likes and intake may identify behaviors consistent (appropriate dietary restraint) or inconsistent (misreporting) with weight loss success.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/terapia , Projetos Piloto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Ganho de Peso , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
16.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920700

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that among behavioral-lifestyle factors, adherence to a healthy dietary pattern such as the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is linked not only to better psychological health and mental positive status but also to increased subjective well-being (SWB). Nevertheless, this association has been unexplored among individuals with excessive weight. This study explored whether adherence to the MedDiet and the intake of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables (FV) are associated with increased happiness and life satisfaction among Spanish adults with overweight or obesity when weight, body image, and body satisfaction are also considered. A convenience sample of adult individuals with excessive weight completed self-reports on the study variables, and weight and BMI were measured by bioimpedance. No evidence of a relationship with SWB indicators was obtained for MedDiet global indicators, probably due to the low adherence to a healthy diet by these individuals. In contrast, FV intake, as a powerful indicator of healthy eating, was associated with life satisfaction when BMI and body image dimensions were considered, among which body satisfaction had a key role. Moreover, life satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between FV consumption and happiness. Our findings are expected to make a relevant contribution to knowledge on the positive correlates or protective factors for overall well-being in obesity, including dietary habits and body appreciation. Our results may inform obesity management actions focused on inclusive, positive aesthetic models and promoting a healthy lifestyle for happiness in obesity.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Frutas , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Espanha , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nurs Womens Health ; 25(2): 112-121, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the experiences of weight stigma in prenatal clinical settings among high-risk pregnant women living with obesity and to obtain women's perspectives regarding changes to prenatal health care practices that may reduce weight stigma. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study. SETTING/LOCAL PROBLEM: High-risk obstetrics clinic. Weight stigma experienced in prenatal clinical settings can negatively influence maternal health and well-being as well as communication with health care providers. PARTICIPANTS: Nine pregnant women with obesity who were receiving specialized prenatal care in their third trimester. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENTS: Women participated in semistructured telephone interviews. Data were inductively analyzed using a content analysis, whereby coded data were organized to represent experiences of or suggestions provided by pregnant women to reduce weight stigma in prenatal clinical settings. RESULTS: Experiences of weight stigma included poor communication, generalizations made about health and lifestyle behaviors, and focusing only on excess body weight during clinical appointments as the cause of negative health outcomes. To reduce weight stigma, women suggested that health care providers practice sensitive communication, offer individualized care for weight management, and reduce the focus on body weight by also independently addressing comorbidities or other health indicators. CONCLUSION: Women interviewed for this study provided suggestions that can be implemented in prenatal clinical settings to reduce weight stigma and improve the delivery of equitable health care.


Assuntos
Obesidade/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Gravidez , Preconceito , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(7): 1128-1137, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess attitudes toward coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and the degree of fear of COVID-19 among those living with obesity. METHODS: Two samples were recruited for an online survey: one sample was a representative sample of Canadians living with overweight and obesity (n = 1,089), and the second was a convenience sample of individuals recruited from obesity clinical services or patient organizations (n = 980). Respondents completed ratings of their comfort receiving a COVID-19 vaccination along with the Vaccine Hesitancy Scale and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. RESULTS: Approximately one-third of respondents, regardless of sample or weight category, were not comfortable receiving a vaccination, and one-half expressed moderate or greater perceived risks of vaccination. Confidence in vaccinations was extremely low, especially for those in the clinical sample. Fear of COVID-19 was substantial and predicted attitudes toward vaccination. Females were less comfortable receiving the vaccine and perceived more risks than males. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest those living with obesity are highly ambivalent about COVID-19 vaccination. Despite their being at high risk, their confidence in vaccines is very low. Results suggest the need for patient-centered counseling, with a focus on shared decision-making to strengthen confidence and reduce perceived risk.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 200, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal overweight is increasing, and it is associated with several risk factors for both the mother and child. Healthy lifestyle behaviors adopted during pregnancy are likely to impact women's health positively after pregnancy. The study's aim was to identify and describe weight management behaviors in terms of the Capability, Opportunity and Motivation Behaviour (COM-B) -model to target weight management interventions from both the perspectives of women who are overweight and maternity care professionals. METHODS: This qualitative, descriptive study was conducted between 2019 and 2020. Individual interviews with pregnant and postpartum women who were overweight (n = 11) and focus group interviews with public health nurses (n = 5) were undertaken in two public maternity clinics in Southwest Finland. The data were analyzed using deductive content analysis consistent with the COM-B model. RESULTS: In the capability category, the women and the public health nurses thought that there was a need to find consistent ways to approach overweight, as it had often become a feature of the women's identities. The use of health technology was considered to be an element of antenatal care that could be used to approach the subject of weight and weight management. Smart wearables could also support an evaluation of the women's lifestyles. The opportunity category highlighted the lack of resources for support during perinatal care, especially after birth. Both groups felt that support from the family was the most important facilitating factor besides motivation. The women also expressed a conflict between pregnancy as an excuse to engage in unhealthy habits and pregnancy as a motivational period for a change of lifestyle. Furthermore, the women wanted to be offered a more robust stance on weight management and discreet counseling. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings offer a theoretical basis on which future research can define intervention and implementation strategies. Such interventions may offer clear advice and non-judgmental support during pregnancy and after delivery by targeting women's capabilities, opportunities, and motivation. Health technology could be a valuable component of intervention, as well as an implementation strategy, as they provide ways during maternity care to approach this topic and support women.


Assuntos
Mães/psicologia , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Complicações na Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Enfermeiras de Saúde Pública/psicologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Manejo da Obesidade/métodos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
J Sport Health Sci ; 10(1): 48-54, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518016

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to examine the link between physical activity (PA) and life satisfaction in a large international study of adolescents. We also aimed to test whether overweight and underweight perceptions act as mediators and whether age and sex acted as moderators. METHODS: For this purpose, we analyzed data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children study, which comprises 727,865 observations from 44 nations at 4 measurement occasions. RESULTS: Multilevel analyses revealed a positive link between PA and life satisfaction. In addition, underweight and overweight perceptions mediated the effect of PA on life satisfaction. We further found that age and sex acted as moderators. In older adolescents, stronger effects were found in the links between PA and life satisfaction, PA and overweight perception, and both weight perceptions and life satisfaction. In addition, in female adolescents, the link between overweight perception and life satisfaction was stronger. Conversely, the links between PA and both weight perceptions were stronger for boys. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that weight perception explains part of the relationship between PA and life satisfaction in adolescents and that these effects vary as a function of age and sex.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Saúde Global , Satisfação Pessoal , Percepção de Peso , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Magreza/psicologia
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