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1.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3177, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: analyze associations between demographic, academic, health, stress, overweight and obesity characteristics among nursing students. METHOD: this is a cross-sectional study with 95 students from a private university in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A demographic, academic and health characterization questionnaire and the Assessment of Stress in Nursing Students (ASNS) scale were applied. Anthropometric measures were taken and descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: female students predominated in this study, mean age: 25.6±5.87 years. Weight gain was observed in 52.6% of the students, with the 'Professional training' session reporting high (29.5%) and very high (36.8%) levels of stress. None of the stress scale sessions was associated with overweight and obesity. CONCLUSION: overweight and obesity were associated with male participants, high blood pressure, weight gain since the beginning of the course, altered waist circumference, no physical activity, eating more in stressful situations, and consumption of unhealthy foods.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Circunferência da Cintura
2.
Orv Hetil ; 160(43): 1687-1697, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630554

RESUMO

Long-term successful weight control poses a huge challenge to people who are overweight and treat them in the obesogenic environment. After reaching a clinically significant (5-10%) weight loss, the goal is to maintain the weight loss achieved. However, this requires virtually constant resistance to temptations and requires sustained effort in terms of dietary restriction and physical activity, which requires a strong motivational base. From the point of view of behavior, motivation is the probability that the patient starts, pursues, or persistently follows a strategy that triggers change, that is, in the case of obesity, is committed to health-related behaviors that support weight management and abandons health risk behaviors that hinders weight control efforts. The present study describes the transtheoretical model of behavioral change and provides examples of practical ways to increase motivation and adherence at all stages of behavioral change. All this can contribute to the work of primary care and outpatient care professionals in supporting weight loss patients with excess weight. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(43): 1687-1697.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora/métodos , Exercício , Motivação , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Perda de Peso , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17274, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight status and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are rising public health concerns. An increasing number of reports indicate that individuals with ASD may have unhealthy weight status, but the evidence is mixed. To understand the weight status in individuals with ASD and provide strategies for prevention and intervention, we describe the protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at assessing the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight in ASD. METHODS: A broad range of key bibliographic databases including MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Science will be searched to identify studies reporting the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight in patients with ASD. Retrieved records will be independently screened by 2 authors and relevant estimates will be extracted from studies reporting data on obesity, overweight, and underweight prevalence among individuals with ASD. The assessment of study quality will be conducted primarily using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale and checklist proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Prevalence estimates of obesity and overweight will be separately pooled using random-effects model. The pooled estimates will be summarized and presented by regional groupings. Subgroup analysis will be conducted for variables (such as study setting, participants' age, and geographical region) across studies, depending on data availability. Between-study heterogeneity will be assessed using the I statistic and explored through subgroup analyses. This systematic review and meta-analysis will be reported following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses checklist and the meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology statements guidelines for meta-analysis and systematic reviews of observational studies. RESULTS: In this study, we will outline details of the aims and methods on the meta-analysis of weight status of individuals with ASD. CONCLUSION: The results of this study will summarize the current data of weight status of individuals with ASD. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO-National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42019130790).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Peso Corporal , Criança , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/psicologia
4.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Over the past decade, overweight and childhood obesity has increased markedly, and children are therefore dissatisfied with their body image due to the beauty canons established in today's society. The purpose of this paper was to examine the level of obesity and body satisfaction based on sociodemographic and contextual variables of the educational center as well as the relationship they have with the physical self-concept on a sample of primary school and compulsory secondary school students city of Badajoz. METHODS: The instruments used in the study were the questionnaire of Physical Self-concept (CAF) and questionnaire of Bodily Silhouettes. RESULTS: The study involved 1,093 schoolchildren aged between 11 and 14 years old (M = 11.6) from 19 educational centers. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high percentage of overweight students (20%) and a high percentage of satisfied students with their body image (79%). Regarding the relationship between the level of obesity and body satisfaction with sociodemographic and contextual variables we can see how obesity presents significant differences depending on the nature of the center and the educational offer. On the other hand, the correlation analyzes carried out reveal significant differences between the level of obesity and body dissatisfaction with some scales of physical self-concept. You can also observe significant differences between the level of obesity of the school with body dissatisfaction (more cases than expected of students satisfied with their body image with normal weight and fewer cases than expected of students satisfied with their body image with overweight and obesity).


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Peso Corporal , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(3): 314-321, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight-based stigmatization is frequent among overweight and obese people. AIM: To determine the association between weight-based stigmatization, psychological stress, cortisol, negative emotions, and eating behavior in a sample of middle-aged women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-two women aged 45 ± 8 years, 55% with overweight or obesity, were randomly allocated to watch a video called "Stigma: the human cost of obesity" or a control video about planet earth. The effect of watching either video on calorie consumption, psychological stress and cortisol reactivity was assessed. Cortisol was measured on four salivary samples. Psychological stress and negative emotions were self-reported. RESULTS: Among women who watched the stigmatizing video, there was a direct association between psychological stress and calorie intake, but negative emotions did not mediate this association. Moreover, psychological stress moderated the association between watching the stigmatizing video and the cortisol output (ß = 0.32; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Women with high psychological stress have a greater intake of calories. After watching the stigmatizing video, a greater psychological stress is associated with greater cortisol output.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 990, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary care-based behavior change obesity treatment has long featured the Calorie restriction (CC), portion control approach. By contrast, the MyPlate-based obesity treatment approach encourages eating more high-satiety/high-satiation foods and requires no calorie-counting. This report describes study methods of a comparative effectiveness trial of CC versus MyPlate. It also describes baseline findings involving demographic characteristics and their associations with primary outcome measures and covariates, including satiety/satiation, dietary quality and acculturation. METHODS: A comparative effectiveness trial was designed to compare the CC approach (n = 130) versus a MyPlate-based approach (n = 131) to treating patient overweight. Intervenors were trained community health workers. The 11 intervention sessions included two in-home health education sessions, two group education sessions, and seven telephone coaching sessions. Questionnaire and anthropometric assessments occurred at baseline, 6- and 12 months; food frequency questionnaires were administered at baseline and 12 months. Participants were overweight adult primary care patients of a federally qualified health center in Long Beach, California. Two measures of satiety/satiation and one measure of post-meal hunger comprised the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcomes included weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, dietary quality, sugary beverage intake, water intake, fruit and vegetable fiber intake, mental health and health-related quality of life. Covariates included age, gender, nativity status (U.S.-born, not U.S.-born), race/ethnicity, education, and acculturation. ANALYSIS: Baseline characteristics were compared using chi square tests. Associations between covariates and outcome measures were evaluated using multiple regression and logistic regression. RESULTS: Two thousand eighty-six adult patients were screened, yielding 261 enrollees who were 86% Latino, 8% African American, 4% White and 2% Other. Women predominated (95%). Mean age was 42 years. Most (82%) were foreign-born; 74% chose the Spanish language option. Mean BMI was 33.3 kg/m2; mean weight was 82 kg; mean waist circumference was 102 cm. Mean blood pressure was 122/77 mm. Study arms on key baseline measures did not differ except on dietary quality and sugary beverage intake. Nativity status was significantly associated with dietary quality. CONCLUSIONS: The two treatment arms were well-balanced demographically at baseline. Nativity status is inversely related to dietary quality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02514889 , posted on 8/4/2015.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Política Nutricional , Pobreza/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , California , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa
7.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4782, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and its association with overweight and obesity among adolescent students. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in public schools with adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. We used the questionnaire Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The body mass index percentiles were calculated by means of table from the Center for Control and Prevention of Diseases. Possible associations were assessed using the χ2 test and binary logistic regression model. The odds ratio and 95%CI were calculated. RESULTS: We evaluated 1,169 students, and 33.9% reported having had sexual intercourse. Of those, 33% did not use a condom during their last intercourse, and 32.7% had had four or more sexual partners thus far. Regarding nutritional status, 15.3% were overweight or obese. In relation to the non-use of condoms, we observed only an association with the number of lifetime sexual partners (OR: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.28-0.88). The number of lifetime sexual partners was associated with males (OR: 9.17; 95%CI: 4.16-20.22), sexual debut age at 13 years or less (OR: 2.51; 95%CI: 1.23-5.13) and drinking alcohol or using drugs before the last intercourse (OR: 6.16; 95%CI: 2.14-17.73). CONCLUSION: Risky sexual behavior rates were high and no association was found between risky sexual behaviors and overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 816, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to weight loss interventions is crucial to successful outcomes, yet little is known about how best to improve it. This suggests a need for developing and improving adherence strategies, such as formal commitments. This review aims to identify the effect of including a commitment device alongside lifestyle interventions on weight loss, and identify the most appropriate delivery mechanisms and target behaviours. METHODS: We searched five databases and hand-searched reference lists for trials of behavioural interventions to achieve weight loss among adults with excess weight or obesity. Interventions incorporating commitment devices were included in a narrative review and meta-analysis where appropriate. Commitment devices with financial incentives were excluded. RESULTS: Of 2675 unique studies, ten met the inclusion criteria. Data from three randomised trials including 409 participants suggests that commitment interventions increases short-term weight loss by a mean of 1.5 kg (95% CI: 0.7, 2.4). Data from two randomised trials including 302 patients suggests that benefits were sustained at 12 months (mean difference 1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.0, 3.4). Commitment devices appeared most successful when made publicly, and targeting diet rather than physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Using commitment devices, such as behavioural contracts, as part of a weight loss intervention may be useful in improving weight loss outcomes and dietary changes, at least in the short-term. However, evidence is limited and of variable quality so results must be interpreted with caution. Poor reporting of intervention details may have limited the number of identified studies. More rigorous methodology and longer term follow-ups are required to determine the effectiveness of behavioural contracts given their potential for use in public health interventions.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto , Dieta/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 701, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental support is an important element in overweight prevention programs for children. The purpose of this study was to examine everyday life situations in which mothers encounter difficulties encouraging healthy energy balance-related behavior in their school-age children. METHODS: We formed four focus groups containing 6-9 participants each. The participants were mothers of Dutch, Turkish, or Moroccan descent with a child 8-13 years of age. All focus group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and coded. Content was analyzed conventionally using ATLAS.ti 6. RESULTS: Twenty-seven difficult everyday life situations were identified in 14 settings. The five most frequently reported situations were a daily struggle regarding eating vegetables, eating breakfast on time before going to school, eating candy and snacks between meals, and spending excessive time watching television and using the computer. A perceived loss of parental control, the inability to establish rules and the failure to consistently enforce those rules were the most commonly cited reasons for why the mothers experience these situations as being difficult. CONCLUSIONS: We identified five difficult everyday life situations related to healthy energy balance-related behavior. These five difficult situations were used as the input for developing a web-based parenting program designed to prevent children from becoming overweight. We reasoned that if we use these situations and the underlying reasons, many parents would recognize these situations and are willing to learn how to deal with them and complete the e-learning.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições/psicologia , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos/etnologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Percepção , Turquia/etnologia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 697, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have demonstrated positive effects of physical activity on children's health such as improved cardiorespiratory function and decreased obesity. Physical activity has also been found to have positive effects on academic achievement and cognitive function. However, there are few high quality RCT studies on this topic at present and the findings remain controversial. METHODS: This protocol describes cluster randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of school-based exercise intervention among children in Mongolia. The intervention consists of 3-min sessions of high intensity interval training combined with music implemented two times a week at school during study periods. The participants are children in the fourth grade in public elementary schools in the Sukhbaatar district in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. The participants are cluster randomized by school and allocated either to the intervention or control group. The primary outcome is academic achievement. Secondary outcomes are obesity/overweight, physical fitness function, lifestyle, mental health, and cognitive function. DISCUSSION: This cluster-RCT is designed and implemented to assess the effectiveness of exercise intervention on academic achievement, cognitive function, and physical and mental health among school-age children in Mongolia. This study will provide evidence to promote physical activities among children in low- and middle- income countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN: UMIN000031062 . Registered on 1st February 2018.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Cognição , Terapia por Exercício/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Mongólia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Instituições Acadêmicas
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 2): 454, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last 150 years, advanced economies have seen the burden of disease shift to non-communicable diseases. The risk factors for these diseases are often co-morbidities associated with unhealthy weight. The prevalence of overweight/obesity among adults in the advanced countries of the English-speaking world is currently more than two-thirds of the adult population. However, while much attention has concentrated on changes in diet that might have provoked this rapid increase in unhealthy weight, changes in patterns of eating have received little attention. METHODS: This article examines a sequence of large-scale, time use surveys in urban Australia stretching from 1974 to 2006. The earliest survey in 1974 (conducted by the Cities Commission) was limited to respondents aged between 18 and 69 years, while the later surveys (by the Australian Bureau of Statistics) included all adult (15 years of age or over) living private dwellings. Since time use surveys capture every activity in a day, they contain much information about mealtimes and the patterns of eating. This includes duration of eating, number of eating occasions and the timing of eating. Inferential statistics were used to test the statistical significance of these changes and the size of the effects. RESULTS: The eating patterns of urban Australian adults have changed significantly over a 32-year period and the magnitude of this change is non-trivial. Total average eating time as main activity has diminished by about a third, as have eating occasions, affecting particularly luncheon and evening meals. However, there is evidence that eating as secondary activity that accompanies another activity is now almost as frequent as eating at mealtimes. Moreover, participants seem not to report it. CONCLUSIONS: Contemporary urban Australians are spending less time in organized shared meals. These changes have occurred the over same period during which there has been a public health concern about the prevalence of unhealthy weight. Preliminary indications are that societies that emphasize eating as a commensal, shared activity through maintaining definite, generous lunch breaks and prioritizing eating at mealtimes, achieve better public health outcomes. This has implications for a strategy of health promotion, but to be sure of this we need to study countries with these more socially organized eating patterns.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anomia (Social) , Austrália/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Comportamento Social , Fatores de Tempo , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Public Health Rep ; 134(4): 363-370, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rates of childhood obesity and parental incarceration have been increasing in the United States since the 1970s. We examined whether parental incarceration was associated with child overweight at age 9 and whether that association differed by which parent was incarcerated. METHODS: We ran cross-sectional logistic regression models predicting the likelihood of a child being overweight, conditional on whether the child's mother, father, or both parents had ever been incarcerated. Our sample included non-Hispanic black (n = 1638) and non-Hispanic white (n = 504) children who were surveyed at age 9 in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a stratified random sample of new and mostly unmarried parents in US cities with populations >200 000. Children were born between 1998 and 2000. RESULTS: Controlling for race, sex, parental socioeconomic status, maternal obesity, parental impulsivity, and child temperament, the odds of being overweight were significantly lower if a child's mother was the only parent ever incarcerated (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-0.83) or if both parents were ever incarcerated (aOR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38-0.87) compared with children whose parents were never incarcerated. Having a father who had ever been incarcerated had a comparatively meager and nonsignificant effect on the odds of a child being overweight (aOR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.64-1.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute to an emerging body of research suggesting that the consequences of parental incarceration for young children's physical health may differ by whether a child's mother or father has ever been incarcerated. Caution is warranted in generalizing the negative behavioral and mental health effects of parental incarceration to child physical health conditions, particularly for young children whose mothers have a history of incarceration.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Classe Social , Estados Unidos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Clin Obes ; 9(5): e12326, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232524

RESUMO

Our overall objective was to describe the parent-child, romantic, and family dynamics of adult weight management program (WMP) patients, and associations with children's and partners' weight status. First, we determined if family functioning mediated the effect between parent-child feeding practices and perceived child weight status, and romantic relationship anxiety and avoidance and perceived partner weight status. Second, we assessed if perceived child and partner weight status moderated the associations between family functioning and parent-child feeding practices and romantic relationship anxiety and avoidance, respectively. Patients (N=203) who resided with a child and partner from two WMPs completed assessments of parent-child feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), romantic relationship anxiety and avoidance (Relationship Structures Questionnaire), family functioning (Family Assessment Device General Functioning Scale), and perceived child and partner weight status. Bivariate analyses determined differences in weight status and relationship dynamics and family functioning, and mediation and moderation analyses were conducted to answer the two research questions. Family functioning was not a mediator between romantic relationship dynamics and partner weight status or parent-child dynamics and child weight status. Lower family functioning was associated with higher parent-child restrictive feeding practices, only among children with overweight/obesity. Similarly, lower family functioning was associated with higher anxiety and avoidance in romantic relationships, only for partners with overweight/obesity. Patients with children and/or partners with overweight/obesity reported more impaired family dynamics and functioning, compared to patients with children and/or partners with a healthy weight status.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Estatura , Manutenção do Peso Corporal , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Clin Obes ; 9(5): e12330, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243927

RESUMO

The aim of this research is to examine the relation between weight and cognitive restraint (CR), which is the intention to control food intake in order to maintain or lose weight, in a general French population sample. Is CR more prevalent in individuals with obesity than overweight, underweight or normal-weight subjects in this cross-sectional study? Are people affected by obesity non-restrained eaters? A total of 507 French people (80.2% women and 19.8% men), aged 18-78 years, responded to an online questionnaire. It appears that the most used questionnaire measuring CR has content validity problems as it seems to measure effective control and not the intention. Therefore, a numeric scale was used to answer the questions. Even if it is not possible in this study to test a causal link with latent variable modelling, our results seem to show that people with obesity more frequently intend to eat less or to eat healthier and/or to eat less sugar and fat than other people in order to control their weight. However, people affected by obesity do not succeed in so doing. These results raise the question of treatments advocating the increase of self-control. Finally, it would be necessary to obtain a real, scientific consensus on what CR is and on how to measure it in order to study the most effective treatments for people with overweight or obesity.


Assuntos
Cognição , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Perda de Peso
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 734, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of social class in the association between adiposity measures and self-rated health, and several studies have evaluated its influence as a confounder. The aim of the study is to investigate whether social class is an effect modifier in the association between adiposity measures and self-rated health in participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). METHOD: Cross-sectional design, including 6453 men and 7686 women. Body mass index (kg/m2) and waist circumference (cms) were assessed. Self-rated health was categorized as good, fair and poor. Socio-occupational class was based on the participants' occupation, education and per capita income. Multicovariate ordinal logistic model was used to evaluate the association between adiposity measures and self-rated health. RESULTS: For women, the low and medium socio-occupational class effects were higher for those with waist circumference between 80 and 88 cm or overweight. For men, the low and medium socio-occupational class effects were higher for those with adequate waist circumference or normal body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Social class is an effect modifier in the association between body mass index or waist circumference and self-rated health.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Emprego/psicologia , Ocupações , Classe Social , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Circunferência da Cintura
16.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 19(2): 186-197, mayo 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183279

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite of being scarce, evidence is growing on the existence of a group of overweight and obese individuals who do not consider their weight a risk factor for disease and who associate their weight and body with health, vigor, beauty and well-being. Consequently, they manifest a desire to maintain or even increase their weight. We propose an attempt of nomenclature, Oberexia, for this new social reality, and we describe its main characteristics and present empirical observational findings supporting the existence of this condition. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and characteristics of Oberexia in a national sample of Spanish 16 to 60-years-old adults. Methodology: Perceptions of body weight/size/shape and composition, and body satisfaction were assessed in overweight and obese adults through silhouettes, questions and discrepancies. Results: One in ten of the participants self-perceived their body as normal in weight or size. A total of 6.5% wanted to have overweight or obese bodies. A case-to-case analysis revealed that 4.2% of the participants wanted to maintain their appearance, and 1.8% wanted a body with greater weight. All these findings are related to fat mass instead of muscle mass. Conclusions: Our results support the existence of a subgroup of overweight and obese individuals who differ from the traditional subgroup of individuals with excess weight who are dissatisfied with their body. We encourage to explore the outcomes on health and the possible clinical implications of this condition


Introducción: Aunque escasa, existe evidencia creciente sobre la existencia de un grupo de personas con sobrepeso y obesidad que no consideran su exceso de peso un factor de riesgo para la enfermedad y asocian su peso y su cuerpo con salud, vigor, belleza y bienestar. Como consecuencia, manifiestan el deseo mantener o incluso incrementar su peso. Realizamos una propuesta de nomenclatura para esta realidad social, Oberexia, describimos sus principales características y presentamos resultados empíricos observacionales que apoyan la existencia de esta condición. Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo fue explorar la prevalencia y características de la Oberexia en una muestra nacional de adultos españoles de 16 a 60 años. Metodología: Las percepciones de peso/tamaño/forma y composición corporal de personas con sobrepeso y obesidad y su satisfacción corporal fueron evaluadas utilizando siluetas, preguntas y discrepancias. Resultados: Uno de cada diez participantes percibió su cuerpo como normal en términos de peso y tamaño. Un 6.5% de los participantes con exceso de peso quería tener cuerpos con sobrepeso u obesidad. Un análisis caso-a-caso reveló que el 4.2% de los participantes deseaba mantener su apariencia, y el 1.8% deseaba aumentar de peso. Un 3% de los participantes podrían ser casos de Oberexia. Estos hallazgos se refieren a masa grasa y no a masa muscular. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados apoyan la existencia de un subgrupo de personas con exceso de peso que difieren del tradicional subgrupo de individuos obesos que se encuentran insatisfechos con su cuerpo. Es momento de explorar las consecuencias para la salud de la Oberexia y las posibles implicaciones clínicas de esta condición


Apesar de escassas, crescem as evidências sobre a existência de um grupo de essoas com sobrepeso e obesidade que não consideram o excesso de peso um fator de risco para a doença e associam seu peso e corpo com saúde, vigor, beleza e bem-estar. Consequentemente, eles manifestam o desejo de manter ou mesmo aumentar seu peso. Fizemos uma proposta de nomenclatura para essa realidade social, Oberexia, descrevemos suas principais características e apresentamos resultados empíricos observacionais que sustentam a existência dessa condição. O bjetivo deste estudo foi explorar a prevalência e as características de Oberexia em uma amostra nacional de adultos espanhóis de 16 a 60 anos. As percepções de peso/tamanho/forma e composição corporal de pessoas com sobrepeso e obesidade e sua satisfação corporal foram avaliadas por meio de silhuetas, perguntas e discrepâncias. Um em cada dez participantes percebeu seu corpo como normal em termos de peso ou tamanho. Um 6.5% dos participantes com excesso de peso desejava ter corpos com sobrepeso ou obesidade. Uma análise caso-a-caso revelou que 4.2% dos participantes queriam manter a aparência e 1.8% desejavam ganhar peso. Un 3% dos participantes poderia ser casos de Oberexia. Todos esses achados referem -se à massa gorda e não à massa muscular. Nossos resultados confirmam a existência de um subgrupo de indivíduos com sobrepeso e obesidade que diferem do subgrupo tradicional de indivíduos com excesso de peso insatisfeitos com seu corpo. É momento de explorar as consequências para a saúde de a Oberexia e as possíveis implicações clínicas dessa condição


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/psicologia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 621, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the past decades, Malaysia has seen an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity which leads to significant health threats. Physical activity is beneficial in maintaining healthy body weight. The objective of this study was to measure physical activity of adults in Malaysia using objective measurement (accelerometer) and self-reported methods, as well as to determine their associations with (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measurements. METHODS: Four-hundred and ninety Malaysian adults (n = 490) aged 20 to 65 years old participated in this cross-sectional study. Their body weight, height, and WC measurements were measured according to standard procedures. Physical activity was assessed objectively with accelerometers for five to seven consecutive days. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to estimate the amount of time spent on various domains of physical activity. Mixed models were used to determine the associations between physical activity variables and both BMI and WC. RESULTS: The mean value of objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 13.5 min per day, in which male participants recorded a significantly higher amount of time compared to females. On the other hand, the mean self-reported total physical activity was 380 min per week; male participants reported a significantly higher amount of time on physical activity in the occupation/work and leisure/recreation domains while female participants spent significantly more time in the domestic/household chores domain. We also observed that the mean values of objectively measured total MVPA, self-reported time spent on walking for leisure/recreation, and total time amount of time spent on MVPA for leisure/recreation were significantly higher among participants with BMI of less than 25 kg/m2. The final statistical model yielded a significant negative association between objectively measured total MVPA and BMI, but not with WC measurement. No significant association was reported between self-reported total physical activity with BMI and WC measurement. CONCLUSIONS: Objectively measured MVPA was inversely associated with BMI, but not WC measurement. No significant association was observed between self-reported total physical activity and physical activity time measures across domains with both BMI and WC measurement.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício/psicologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Circunferência da Cintura , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Med Food ; 22(5): 479-489, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084538

RESUMO

Among the comorbidities of high body mass index, cardiovascular disease continued to be the leading cause of death and disability globally in 2015, while type 2 diabetes remained second. The primary objectives of this observational study were to confirm the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of our calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet with targeted dietary supplementation (PROG1) using globally recognized dietary supplementation. Fifty healthy overweight and obese subjects with cardiometabolic risk factors were assigned a modified Mediterranean diet, including protein shakes and targeted supplementation (PROG2), providing ∼68-76% of subject estimated calorie requirements. Salivary nitrite was assessed weekly and key cardiometabolic metrics were recorded at baseline and weeks 9 and 13. PROG2 was well tolerated with 86% compliance. The most common adverse effects were bloating, flatulence, and constipation, which were self-limiting. Subjects exhibited decreases (P < .01) from baseline of 12% in body weight, 18% in body fat, and 8.8% in waist circumference. Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) were reduced (P < .01), respectively, 19%, 22%, and 40%. Lipid ratios of TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL), TG/HDL, and oxidized LDL (oxLDL)/HDL were decreased 15% (P < .01), 35% (P < .01), and 13% (P < .05), respectively. Inflammation biomarkers, oxLDL and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, were reduced 17% (P < .01) and 30% (P < .05), respectively. Reductions of 9.0% for systolic (P < .01) and 12% (P < .01) for diastolic blood pressure were noted. In concert, the nitrogen dioxide salivary biomarker for nitric oxide was increased relative to baseline. PROG2 produced a dramatic 50% reduction in subjects meeting cardiometabolic syndrome criteria and a 38% decrease in Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk. These results confirmed our previous findings that the addition of targeted nutraceutical supplementation to a calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet with lifestyle modifications improves multiple longevity risk factors more effectively than diet and lifestyle modification alone.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075869

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the scientific evidence on the relationship between body image and body weight control in overweight ≥55-year-old adults. Methods: The literature search was conducted on MEDLINE database via PubMed, using terms related to body image, weight control and body composition. Inclusion criteria were scientific papers, written in English or Spanish, made on older adults. Exclusion criteria were eating and psychological disorders, low sample size, cancer, severe diseases, physiological disorders other than metabolic syndrome, and bariatric surgery. Results: Fifty-seven studies were included. Only thirteen were conducted exclusively among ≥55-year-old adults or performed analysis adjusted by age. Overweight perception was related to spontaneous weight management, which usually concerned dieting and exercising. More men than women showed over-perception of body image. Ethnics showed different satisfaction level with body weight. As age increases, conformism with body shape, as well as expectations concerning body weight decrease. Misperception and dissatisfaction with body weight are risk factors for participating in an unhealthy lifestyle and make it harder to follow a healthier lifestyle. Body image disturbance also made it more likely to underreport calorie intake. Conclusions: Aging is associated with a decrease in weight concerns and lower overweight perception, especially in women. However, when designing a program to improve body image in overweight ≥55-year-old adults, three items ought to be considered: physical activity, dietary and behavioral treatments.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 619, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With studies around the world suggesting a large proportion of people do not recognise that they are overweight (or feel satisfied with being overweight), this fuels the view that such 'misperceptions' need to be 'corrected'. However, few longitudinal studies have examined the consequences of under-perceived weight status, nor over-perceived weight status (when a person feels overweight when they are not) and weight-related satisfaction on trajectories in body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Five-year BMI trajectories were examined among 8174 participants in an Australian nationally representative cohort. Each person was classified into groups according to their neighbourhood socioeconomic circumstances, baseline BMI and answers to "how satisfied are you with your current weight?" and "do you consider yourself to be… acceptable weight / underweight / overweight?" Gender-specific multilevel linear regressions were used to examine five-year BMI trajectories for people in each group, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: At baseline, weight-related dissatisfaction and perceived overweight were generally associated with higher mean BMI for men and women, regardless of whether they were classified as 'normal' or overweight by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Mean BMI did not decrease among people classified as overweight who perceived themselves as overweight, or expressed weight-related dissatisfaction, regardless of where they lived. Among men and women with 'normal' BMI at baseline but expressing weight-related dissatisfaction, mean BMI increased disproportionately among those living in disadvantaged areas compared to their counterparts in affluent areas. Similarly, mean BMI rose disproportionately among people in disadvantaged areas who felt they were overweight despite having a 'normal' BMI by WHO criteria, compared to people with the same over-perceptions living in affluent areas. These differences exacerbated pre-existing socioeconomic inequities in mean BMI. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence was found to suggest accurate recognition of overweight or expressing weight-related dissatisfaction leads to a lower BMI. However, there was evidence of an increase in mean BMI among people who felt dissatisfied with, or over-perceived their 'normal' weight, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Correction of under-perceptions may not drive weight loss, but circumstances contributing to over-perception and dissatisfaction with weight status may contribute to increased weight gain and exacerbate socioeconomic inequities in BMI.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Percepção , Satisfação Pessoal , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos
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