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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239004, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915921

RESUMO

As the prevalence of overweight and obesity have risen over the past few decades, so have weight control attempts. Research has shown, however, that intentional weight loss results are often short-lived, with people regaining the weight over time. This can lead to weight cycling-losing and gaining weight repeatedly. Previous research, mostly done over two decades ago, concluded there was no relationship between weight cycling and psychological health. The goal of the current paper was to re-examine the relationship between weight cycling and depressive symptoms in a national sample of American adults (N = 2702; 50.7% female; mean age = 44.8 years). If, as hypothesized, there is a relationship between more frequent weight cycling and depressive symptoms, then internalized weight stigma will be examined as a potential mediator of the relationship. Results of a cross-sectional survey showed that 74.6% of adults report they have intentionally tried to lose weight. Amongst those who have tried to lose to weight, the average number of weight cycles over the lifetime was 7.82 cycles. Simultaneous regression showed that greater weight cycling was related to greater reported depressive symptoms (ß = .15, p < .001), controlling for age, gender, education, income, and body mass index. Internalized weight stigma was a partial mediator of this relationship. Discussion focuses on the potential implications for weight cycling and mental health.


Assuntos
Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Depressão/etiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/patologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso
2.
Public Health ; 186: 57-62, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Some studies reveal that socio-economic status, behavioural factors, accessibility to supermarket or food store, are associated with the prevalence of obesity and overweight. In this study, we aimed to examine to what extent socio-economic, behavioural and built environment characteristics can contribute to spatial disparities in adult obesity. STUDY DESIGN: The spatial analysis was undertaken to understand the association of spatial disparities in adult obesity and spatial disparities in socio-economic, behavioural and built environment characteristics. METHODS: A spatial regression model which can remove the impact of auto-correlation in the residuals of conventionally regression models was applied to modelling local-scale rate of adult obesity (N = 59). RESULTS: Owing to the presence of residual spatial auto-correlation in the non-spatial regression model estimated, a spatial regression model was set up successfully to model local-scale rate of adult obesity across New York City (R2 = 0.8353, N = 59). Compared with socio-economic and built environment factors, behavioural factors make statistically significant contributions to spatial disparities in the prevalence of adult obesity (POAO). Particularly, two behavioural factors ('sugary drinks consumption' and 'fruits and vegetable consumption') can explain more than 70% of the variance of POAO (adjusted R2 = 0.7323, N = 59). Surprisingly, physical activity prevalence (percent of physically active adults) makes no statistically significant contributions. CONCLUSIONS: The results further suggest that the reduction of adult obesity prevalence could benefit more from decreasing intake of sugary drinks than increasing physical activity. The local government and policy are advised to prioritise decreasing exposure of residents to sugary drinks through restricting advertising or increasing taxes rather than increasing neighbourhoods' walkability through urban planning.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Prevalência , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664602

RESUMO

Adolescence is a rapid life stage requiring special attention wherein personal autonomy is developed to govern independent lifestyles. Unhealthy lifestyles are integral to prevailing adolescent physical inactivity patterns. Understudied 16-18-year-olds were investigated to establish physical activity prevalences and influencing health-related lifestyle factors. Adolescents were recruited randomly across 2017-2019 from Farnborough College of Technology and North Kent College, UK. Demographic and health-related lifestyle information were gathered anonymously and analysed using SAS® 9.4 software. Among the 414 adolescents included (48.3% male and 51.7% female), the mean (standard deviation (SD)) age was 16.9 (0.77). Approximately 15.2% smoked and 20.8% were overweight/obese. There were 54.8% perceiving themselves unfit and 33.3% spent >4 h/day on leisure-time screen-based activity. Around 80.4% failed to meet the recommended fruit/vegetable daily intake and 90.1% failed to satisfy UK National Physical Activity Guidelines, particularly females (p = 0.0202). Physical activity levels were significantly associated with gender, body mass index, smoking status, leisure sedentary screen-time, fruit/vegetable consumption and fitness perceptions. Those who were female, overweight/obese, non-smoking, having poor fitness perceptions, consuming low fruit/vegetables and engaging in excess screen-based sedentariness were the groups with lowest physical activity levels. Steering physical activity-oriented health interventions toward these at-risk groups in colleges may reduce the UK's burden of adolescent obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico , Estilo de Vida , Sobrepeso/terapia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Verduras
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645883

RESUMO

Sexual minority women are disproportionately impacted by obesity yet are underrepresented in weight stigma research. This Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study is a secondary analysis that aimed to elucidate the frequency and contextual characteristics of perceived experiences of lifetime and momentary weight stigma among sexual minority women with overweight/obesity. Participants were 55 sexual minority women ages 18-60 with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. Perceived lifetime weight stigma events were assessed at baseline. For the subsequent five days, participants used a smartphone to complete five daily, random EMA prompts assessing the frequency/characteristics of perceived weight stigma events in daily life. All participants reported at least one lifetime weight stigma event. During the EMA period, participants reported 44 momentary weight stigma events (M = 0.80), with 24% of participants reporting at least one event. During most instances of weight stigma, women perceived the stigma's cause to be their weight and another minority identity (e.g., sexual orientation). Findings showing high rates of perceived lifetime weight stigma in this sample and frequent co-occurrence of perceived weight stigma with stigma due to other marginalized identities in daily life underscore the need for future, larger studies investigating weight stigma through an intersectional lens in sexual minority women with overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estigma Social , Preconceito de Peso/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Preconceito de Peso/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200040, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the agreement between body self-image (based on the Stunkard figure rating scale) and nutritional status and to evaluate body satisfaction among the Khisêdjê indigenous people of Parque Indígena do Xingu (Xingu Indigenous Park). METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 131 natives aged 20 and older. Data on body image, body mass index and waist circumference were collected. Kappa statistics, χ2 (p < 0.05), crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and Student's t-test were used for data analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was respectively 42 and 5.3%. The percentage of satisfaction with body profile was 61.8% with no difference between the sexes. There was good agreement between actual and ideal self-image (p < 0.001), but poor agreement between actual and ideal self-image with nutritional status for both sexes. A higher prevalence of body dissatisfaction due to overweight was detected in individuals with central obesity and overweight. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that body self-image evaluated by the Stunkard silhouette scale has little applicability as an indicator of nutritional status among the indigenous Khisêdjê of Xingu Indigenous Park.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/psicologia , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479544

RESUMO

Many women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) report high depression rates. The relationship between PCOS and these high depression rates is unclear. Two-component lifestyle interventions have revealed short-term effects on depression scores in this group of women. In general, 3-component interventions including diet, exercise, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) are more effective in the long-term to improve emotional well-being. This has not yet been studied in women with PCOS. This study examined the effect of 20 CBT lifestyle (LS) sessions combined with a healthy diet and physical therapy with or without 9 months additional feedback through Short Message Service (SMS) via mobile phone, compared to care as usual (CAU, involving advice to lose weight). In this secondary analysis, 155 women with PCOS and a BMI above 25 kg/m2 were eligible. Depression scores decreased significantly in the LS programme compared to CAU (P = 0.045). In both the LS programme without SMS (P = 0.036) and the LS programme with SMS (P = 0.011) depression scores decreased while no change was observed in CAU (P = 0.875). Self-esteem scores improved significantly in the LS programme compared to CAU (P = 0.027). No differences in body image scores were observed in LS participants compared to CAU (P = 0.087), although body image improved significantly in both the LS without SMS (P = 0.001) and with SMS (P = 0.008) study arms. We found no significant mediating role by androgens in the relationship between LS participants and emotional well-being. Only weight-loss mediated the relationship between LS and self-esteem. To conclude, a three-component lifestyle intervention programme with or without additional SMS resulted in significant improvements in depression and self-esteem compared to CAU, in women with PCOS, obesity, and a wish to achieve a pregnancy. Testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA, insulin, HOMA-IR, and cortisol did not mediate this effect. Weight loss mediated the effects on self-esteem but not on depression and body-image. This suggests that lifestyle treatment independent of weight loss can reduce depression and body-image, but both lifestyle treatment and weight loss can improve self-esteem. Thus, a three-component lifestyle intervention based on CBT could prove successful in improving mood in women with PCOS who are overweight or obese and attempting to become pregnant.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/reabilitação , Dieta Saudável , Sobrepeso/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/reabilitação , Adulto , Imagem Corporal , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/psicologia , Autoimagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso , Saúde da Mulher
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234355, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555712

RESUMO

Snacks, while widely consumed in the United States (U.S.), do not have a standard definition, complicating research to understand associations, if any, with weight status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between snacking frequency and weight status using various snacking definitions that exist in the scientific literature among U.S. adults (NHANES 2013-2016; ≥20y n = 9,711). Four event-based snacking definitions were operationalized including participant-defined snacks, eating events outside of meals, and operationally defined snacks based on absolute thresholds of energy consumed (>50 kcal). Weight status was examined using body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and sagittal abdominal diameter risk. Logistic regression models examined snacking frequency and associations with weight status. Outcomes varied by the definition of a snack employed, but the majority of findings were null. Mean energy from snacks was significantly higher among women with obesity compared to women with normal weight when a snack was defined as any event outside of a typical mealtime (i.e. other than breakfast, lunch, dinner, super, brunch), regardless of whether or not it contributed ≥50 kcal. Further investigation into ingestive behaviors that may influence the relationship between snacking frequency and weight status is needed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Lanches/classificação , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Dieta/psicologia , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Lanches/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Circunferência da Cintura
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560531

RESUMO

Menopause is a natural period resulting from the decrease in hormonal activity of the ovaries. Growing hormonal deficiencies and changes in the body influence a variety of functions in women, leading to depression and decreased quality of life. The relationship between body composition, the severity of depressive and climacteric symptoms and the quality of life of women with type 2 diabetes and healthy women in the perimenopausal period was studied. Statistically significant differences were observed between the study and control groups regarding all body composition parameters except for protein and the content of torso soft tissues (p < 0.05). In both the study and control groups, resulting symptoms were significantly correlated with numerous body composition parameters (e.g., body mass, fat tissue mass, minerals, abdominal circumference), while symptoms of depression were significantly correlated with similar parameters only in the control group. A statistically relevant relationship was observed between the study and control groups with respect to quality of life in certain domains. The quality of life of women suffering from type 2 diabetes was worse compared with healthy women. Analysis of body composition showed significant differences between healthy women and those with type 2 diabetes. Healthy women showed a tendency to establish a link between body composition and depressiveness.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Perimenopausa/fisiologia , Perimenopausa/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Psicologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545437

RESUMO

Although previous evidence suggests that happiness is lower among individuals with obesity, research on the correlates of subjective well-being (SWB) is warranted to increase our knowledge. We aim to explore excess weight (i.e., measured and self-reported body mass index (BMI)), body image and satisfaction, self-stigma, positivity, and happiness among Spanish adults with overweight or obesity. We further aim to investigate the predictors of SWB in this sample. A convenience sample of 100 individuals with excess weight completed self-reports on the study variables and were weighed and their height measured. On average, the participants reported body perceptions revealing minor excessive weight, moderate body satisfaction, low-to-moderate weight-related stigma, and elevated positivity and happiness. BMI and gender/sex independently affected these variables, but there were no significant interaction effects. Furthermore, individuals with overweight or obesity with higher body satisfaction and elevated positivity were more likely to report being happy, independent of their age, gender/sex, weight, and weight-related stigma. Mediation effects were found for body satisfaction and positivity in the relationship between weight and happiness. Moreover, positive orientation suppressed the pervasive influence of stigma on SWB. Our findings confirm the key role of body image dimensions and weight-related stigma for happiness and add support to the relevance of positivity for overall well-being of individuals with excess weight. These results may inform obesity management actions focused on inclusive aesthetic models, combating social stigmatization and enhancing positivity for a flourishing and fulfilling life.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Satisfação Pessoal , Estigma Social , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Espanha
10.
J Sports Sci ; 38(17): 1997-2004, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497454

RESUMO

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient exercise protocol to improve metabolic health, but direct comparisons with higher-volume moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) under unsupervised settings are limited. This study compared low-volume HIIT and higher-volume MICT interventions on cardiometabolic and psychological responses in overweight/obese middle-aged men. Twenty-four participants (age: 48.1±5.2yr; BMI: 25.8±2.3kg·m-2) were randomly assigned to undertake either HIIT (10 X 1-min bouts of running at 80-90% HRmax separated by 1-min active recovery) or MICT (50-min continuous jogging/brisk walking at 65-70% HRmax) for 3 sessions/week for 8 weeks (2-week supervised + 6-week unsupervised training). Both groups showed similar cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) improvement (HIIT: 32.5±5.6 to 36.0±6.2; MICT: 34.3±6.0 to 38.2±5.1mL kg-1 min-1, p < 0.05) and %fat loss (HIIT: 24.5±3.4 to 23.2±3.5%; MICT: 23.0±4.3 to 21.5±4.1%, p< 0.05) over the 8-week intervention. Compared to baseline, MICT significantly decreased weight and waist circumference. No significant group differences were observed for blood pressure and cardiometabolic blood markers such as lipid profiles, fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin. Both groups showed similar enjoyment levels and high unsupervised adherence rates (>90%). Our findings suggest that low-volume HIIT can elicit a similar improvement of cardiovascular fitness as traditional higher-volume MICT in overweight/obese middle-aged men.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Cooperação do Paciente , Prazer , Fatores de Tempo , Circunferência da Cintura , Perda de Peso
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1012, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical science students represent valuable labour resources for better future medicine and medical technology. However, little attention was given to the health and well-being of these early career medical science professionals. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of lifestyle components on cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery measured after moderate exercise in this population. METHODS: Volunteers without documented medical condition were recruited randomly and continuously from the first-year medical science students during 2011-2014 at the University of Surrey, UK. Demographics and lifestyle components (the levels of smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, weekend outdoor activity and screen-time, daily sleep period, and self-assessment of fitness) were gathered through pre-exercise questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) and heart rate recovery were determined using Åstrand-Rhyming submaximal cycle ergometry test. Data were analysed using SPSS version 25. RESULTS: Among 614 volunteers, 124 had completed both lifestyle questionnaire and the fitness test and were included for this study. Within 124 participants (20.6 ± 4 years), 46.8% were male and 53.2% were female, 11.3% were overweight and 8.9% were underweight, 8.9% were current smokers and 33.1% consumed alcohol beyond the UK recommendation. There were 34.7% of participants admitted to have < 3 h/week of moderate physical activity assessed according to UK Government National Physical Activity Guidelines and physically not fit (feeling tiredness). Fitness test showed that VO2max distribution was inversely associated with heart rate recovery at 3 min and both values were significantly correlated with the levels of exercise, self-assessed fitness and BMI. Participants who had < 3 h/week exercise, or felt not fit or were overweight had significantly lower VO2max and heart rate recovery than their peers. CONCLUSION: One in three new medical science students were physically inactive along with compromised cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery, which put them at risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Promoting healthy lifestyle at the beginning of career is crucial in keeping medical science professionals healthy.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 996, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies show a positive association between household wealth and overweight in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries; however, the manner in which this relationship differs in the presence of educational attainment has not been well-established. This study examined the multiplicative effect modification of educational attainment on the association between middle-income and rich household wealth and overweight status among adult females in 22 SSA countries. We hypothesized that household wealth was associated with a greater likelihood of being overweight among middle income and rich women with lower levels of educational attainment compared to those with higher levels of educational attainment. METHODS: Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from 2006 to 2016 for women aged 18-49 years in SSA countries were used for the study. Overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2. Household wealth index tertile was the exposure and educational attainment, the effect modifier. Potential confounders included age, ethnicity, place of residence, and parity. Descriptive analysis was conducted, and separate logistic regression models were fitted for each of the 22 SSA countries to compute measures of effect modification and 95% confidence intervals. Analysis of credibility (AnCred) methods were applied to assess the intrinsic credibility of the study findings and guide statistical inference. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight ranged from 12.6% in Chad to 56.6% in Swaziland. Eighteen of the 22 SSA countries had measures of effect modification below one in at least one wealth tertile. This included eight of the 12 low-income countries and all 10 middle income countries. This implied that the odds of overweight were greater among middle-income and rich women with lower levels of educational attainment than those with higher educational attainment. On the basis of the AnCred analysis, it was found that the majority of the study findings across the region provided some support for the study hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: Women in higher wealth strata and with lower levels of educational attainment appear to be more vulnerable to overweight compared to those in the same wealth strata but with higher levels of educational attainment in most low- and middle- income SSA countries.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Chade , Estudos Transversais , Essuatíni , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 712, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the association between weight misperception and psychological symptoms in the Determinants of young Adults Social well-being and Health (DASH) longitudinal study. METHODS: A longitudinal sample of 3227 adolescents, in 49 secondary schools in London, aged 11-16 years participated in 2002/2003 and were followed up in 2005/2006. A sub-sample (N = 595) was followed up again at ages 21-23 years in 2012/2013. An index of weight misperception was derived from weight perception and measured weight. Psychological well- being was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at 11-16 years and the General Health Questionnaire at 21-23 years. Associations with weight misperception was assessed using regression models, adjusted for socio-economic and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: White British males and females were more likely than ethnic minority peers to report accurate perceptions of measured weight. At 11-13y, 46% females and 38% males did not have an accurate perception of their measured weight. The comparable figures at 14-16y were 42 and 40%. Compared with male adolescents, more females perceived themselves as overweight or were unsure of their weight but measured normal weight, and this was more pronounced among Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. At 14-16y, more males perceived themselves as underweight but measured normal weight, and this was more pronounced among Indians. Compared with those who had an accurate perception of their normal weight, a higher likelihood of probable clinically-relevant psychological symptoms was observed among those who measured normal weight but perceived themselves to be underweight (females Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.87 95% CI 1.03-3.40; males OR = 2.34 95% CI 1.47-3.71), overweight (females only OR = 2.06 95% CI 1.10-3.87), or unsure of their weight (males only OR = 1.61 95% CI 1.04-2.49). Among females, the association was driven by internalising rather than externalising symptoms. An accurate perception of overweight was associated with higher psychological symptoms in adolescence and early 20s. Ethnic specific effects were not evident. CONCLUSION: Weight misperception may be an important determinant of psychological symptoms in young people, with an accurate perception of normal weight status being protective. Culturally targeted interventions should be considered to promote healthy perceptions of body image.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Percepção de Peso , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Magreza/psicologia , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232813, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428002

RESUMO

Worldwide, nearly 3 million people die every year because of being overweight or obese. Although obesity is a metabolic disease, behavioral aspects are important in its etiology. Hunger changes the rewarding potential of food in normal-weight controls. In obesity, impairments related to reward processing are present, but it is not clear whether these are due to mental disorders more common among this population. Therefore, in this pilot study, we aimed at investigating whether fasting influence mood reactivity to reward in people with obesity. Women with obesity (n = 11, all mentally healthy) and normal weight controls (n = 17) were compared on a computerized monetary reward task (the wheel of fortune), using self-reports of mood and affect (e.g., PANAS and mood evaluation during the task) as dependent variables. This task was done in 2 satiety conditions, during fasting and after eating. Partially, in line with our expectation of a reduced affect and mood reactivity to monetary reward in participants with obesity accentuated by fasting, our results indicated a significant within-group difference across time (before and after the task), with monetary gains significantly improving positive affect in healthy controls (p>0.001), but not in individuals with obesity (p = 0.32). There were no significant between-group differences in positive affect before (p = 0.328) and after (p = 0.70) the task. In addition, women with obesity, compared to controls, reported more negative affect in general (p < 0.05) and less mood reactivity during the task in response to risky gains (p < 0.001) than healthy controls. The latter was independent of the level of satiety. These preliminary results suggest an impairment in mood reactivity to monetary reward in women with obesity which is not connected to the fasting state. Increasing the reinforcing potential of rewards other than food in obesity may be one target of intervention in order to verify if that could reduce overeating.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Fome/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Jejum/fisiologia , Jejum/psicologia , Feminino , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Recompensa
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 652, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the current worldwide epidemic of obesity, there is a demand for interventions with higher impact, such as those carried out in the primary health care (PHC) setting. Here we evaluate the effect of intervention performed according to the stages of change of the transtheoretical model (TTM) for weight management. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial in Brazilian PHC offered free physical exercise and nutrition education. The participants were women, aged 20 years or older who were obese or overweight, users in PHC service. The intervention group (IG, n = 51) received the same orientation as the comparison group (CG, n = 35) plus individual health counseling based on the TTM aimed at weight loss, which lasted 6 months. The outcome measures were anthropometric, food, and nutrient profiles. Inflammatory parameters were evaluated in a random subsample. The inter-group and intra-group differences were evaluated using interntion-to-treat analysis, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) used to assess intervention effectiveness. RESULTS: There was a difference between groups of - 1.4 kg (CI95%: - 2.5; - 0.3) in body weight after the intervention. About 97% of women in the IG reported benefits of the intervention and presented positive changes in diet, biochemical markers, and anthropometry. The IG showed better body mass index, resistine, and blood glucose results compared to the CG during follow-up. CONCLUSION: The individualized TTM-based intervention, combined with usual care, was an effective strategy in PHC. These results should encourage the use of interdisciplinary practices; nevertheless, research to identify additional strategies is needed to address barriers to weight maintenance among obese low-income women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered with Brazilian clinical trials under the code: RBR-8t7ssv, Registration date: 12/12/2017 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Ciências Biocomportamentais/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Pobreza , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
16.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1301-1309, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the associations of overweight and obesity (ov/ob) and changes in weight status with academic performance among Chinese adolescents. METHODS: Self-reported weight and height were collected from adolescents (n = 10,279) each year from seventh grade (baseline, 2013-2014) to ninth grade (2015-2016). Academic performance included standardized scores on math, Chinese, and English examinations and responses to a school-life experience scale. RESULTS: All adolescents with ov/ob had lower academic performance than their counterparts without overweight (ß = -0.46 to -0.08; P < 0.05), except for school-life experience for boys. All adolescents with obesity had lower academic performance than their counterparts without obesity (ß = -0.46 to -0.17; P < 0.01), except for English test scores for boys. Changes in weight status between grades 7 and 9 impacted academic performance at grade 9. Adolescents with ov/ob throughout grades 7 to 9 and those who developed ov/ob from normal weight had lower test scores (ß = -0.80 to -0.25; P < 0.05) than those who maintained normal weight. Those who developed ov/ob after having normal weight had poorer school-life experiences (ß = -0.55 to -0.25; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Ov/ob and maintaining and developing ov/ob had adverse academic impacts on adolescents. Relevant stakeholders should consider detrimental impacts of obesity on academic outcomes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Adolescente , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente
17.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5268, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428066

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate the effect of an interdisciplinary intervention with a motivational approach on exercise capacity and usual physical activity levels in overweight and obese adolescents. Methods This is a randomized, controlled clinical trial with single blinding of subjects. Adolescents aged 15 to 18 years with overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥ 85 percentile) were included. The adolescents were randomized into two groups: interdisciplinary intervention or control - traditional approach aiming at lifestyle modifications. The initial evaluations were carried out, including the cardiopulmonary exercise test and the physical activity level measurement by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a pedometer. The evaluations were performed in two moments: time zero (time of inclusion in the study) and after 3 months (end of intervention). There were 12 sessions with weekly meetings. Results A total of 37 participants were included, 19 in the Intervention Group. There were no significant differences in the baseline demographic, anthropometric and physical activity characteristics between groups, with mean age of 17.3±1.0 years in the Control Group, and 16.8±0.9 years in the Intervention Group (p=0.14). The motivational intervention did not cause significant differences (p>0.05) in the comparison of the variables of exercise capacity and usual physical activity (questionnaire and pedometer) between groups. Conclusion The intervention with a motivational approach did not alter exercise capacity and levels of usual physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents. Clinical Trial Registry: NCT02455973 and REBEC: RBR-234nb5.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Teste de Esforço/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Método Simples-Cego , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(691): 769-772, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320151

RESUMO

Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with obesity and a quarter of adolescents with weight excess may suffer from the complete or a partial form of this disorder. A systematic screening for BED should be performed in this population as non-identification will complicate the patient's management. A short screening tool, -named ADO-BEDs, was specifically developed for these adolescents. This latter tool appears to be useful to guide the medical consul-tation. As such, the health professional will be able to refer the -patient for further evaluation in case of BED suspicion. Health -professionals should be aware that body dissatisfaction or teasing triggered by the adolescent's body are not an incentive to lose weight and increase the risk of eating disorders. Therefore, negative comments should be avoided in consultation.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Obesidade/complicações , Adolescente , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Humanos , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Risco , Perda de Peso
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 411, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Goals play an important role in the choices that individuals make. Yet, there is no clear approach of how to incorporate goals in discrete choice experiments. In this paper, we present such an approach and illustrate it in the context of lifestyle programs. Furthermore, we investigate how non-health vs. health goals affect individuals' choices via non-goal attributes. METHODS: We used an unlabeled discrete choice experiment about lifestyle programs based on two experimental conditions in which either a non-health goal (i.e., looking better) or a health goal (i.e., increasing life expectancy) was presented to respondents as a fixed attribute level for the goal attribute. Respondents were randomly distributed over the experimental conditions. Eventually, we used data from 407 Dutch adults who reported to be overweight (n = 212 for the non-health goal, and n = 195 for the health goal). RESULTS: Random parameter logit model estimates show that the type of goal significantly (p < 0.05) moderates the effect that the attribute diet has on lifestyle program choice, but that this is not the case for the attributes exercise per week and expected weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: A flexible diet is more important for individuals with a non-health goal than for individuals with a health goal. Therefore, we advise policy makers to use information on goal interactions for developing new policies and communication strategies to target population segments that have different goals. Furthermore, we recommend researchers to consider the impact of goals when designing discrete choice experiments.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Objetivos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Adulto , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Motivação , Países Baixos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Public Health ; 182: 151-154, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A constant challenge in addressing the issue of obesity is the validity and reliability of self-reported measurements to calculate body mass index, that assesses the prevalence of obesity in a population. The objective of this study is to analyze both awareness and accuracy of mothers who are overweight or obese, in reporting their own and their child's height and weight measurements. STUDY DESIGN: cross-sectional study. METHODS: In this study, mothers were asked over phone to self-report height and weight for them and their child. This was followed by objective measurement of maternal and child height and weight by study staff in a clinical setting. The descriptive and statistical analysis of the data obtained were carried out using SAS software. RESULTS: 1) The mean weight of mothers who inaccurately self-reported their weight was 9.5 kg greater than the mean weight of those who reported accurately (P < 0.001). (2) Despite being aware of, and reporting their own measurements, 50% (n = 116) of mothers reported not knowing their child's height and 23% (n = 54) of them reported not knowing their child's weight. CONCLUSION: Strategies to tackle both maternal awareness and accuracy of child's measurements can help with early identification of child's obesity risk and prevention of long-term consequences.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Autorrelato
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