Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.798
Filtrar
1.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 417-426, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations among visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body fat percentage (%), and android/gynoid ratio (A/G ratio) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and verify if the parameters representative of visceral obesity correlate with and exhibit the same frequency as body composition variables; anthropometric indices; and metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included 94 women with PCOS. Hormonal, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters were analyzed in all women. Free androgen index (FAI) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), as well as LAP, VAI, and anthropometric indices, were calculated. The regions of interest (ROIs) in body composition and body composition indices were evaluated using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Overall, 32 variables were selected as markers of body fat distribution. RESULTS: Among the 32 markers evaluated, 29 correlated with LAP, whereas 25 correlated with VAI, 19 with body fat (%), and 30 with A/G ratio. Additionally, some markers correlated with the four adiposity indices evaluated: ROIs, except for total mass and leg fat (%); body composition (body mass index, waist circumference, and hip circumference) indices; fasting insulin; and C-reactive protein. CONCLUSION: LAP and VAI may be sensitive measures for screening and preventing metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in PCOS, with LAP being more sensitive than VAI, and the A/G ratio may be more sensitive than body fat percentage.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Composição Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Produto da Acumulação Lipídica , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 621-626, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238608

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the control attempts of body weight and its related factors among overweight and obese adults in China. Methods: Data was from the 2013 Chinese Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Program, which covered 302 surveillance sites. 179 570 adults, selected through multistage stratified cluster sampling method, were interviewed. Demographic characteristics and weight-control attempts were collected via face-to-face interview. BMI, waist circumstance and blood pressure were individually measured under physical examination. Venous blood samples were obtained and tested for FPG, OGTT-2h, TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C. A total of 87 545 overweight and obese patients were included in this study, with the exclusion of 152 patients having the missed critical information. Rates on weight control and attempts were analyzed, using the complex weighting on samples to represent the overall overweight and obese adults in China. Results: The rate of weight-control attempts was 16.3% (95%CI: 14.9%-17.7%). Among all the 12 133 patients who had undergone weight-control measures, the proportions of different attempts were as follows: diet (40.9%, 95%CI: 38.4%-43.3%), combination of diet and physical activity (31.5%, 95%CI: 28.9%-34.0%), physical activity (22.8%, 95%CI: 21.0%-24.6%) and drug control (1.3%, 95%CI: 1.0%-1.7%). Factors as: being female (OR=1.26, 95%CI: 1.15-1.38), at younger age (18-44 years old, OR=1.51, 95%CI: 1.31-1.74), with high education levels (college degree or above, OR=4.52, 95%CI: 3.76-5.43), having high annual income (≥24 000 Yuan, OR=1.94, 95%CI: 1.63-2.30) etc., appeared as favorable factors for taking the measures vs. rural residency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.55- 0.72) as the unfavorable one. Conclusion: The rate of weight-control attempts appeared low among the overweight and obese adults who were affected by factors as age, education and income level. Personalized intervention measures should be carried out for people with different characteristics.


Assuntos
Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Dieta , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
Phytother Res ; 33(8): 2094-2101, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225673

RESUMO

Our double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-escalation, clinical trial aimed to test the effect of a combined nutraceutical containing bergamot extract (120-mg flavonoids), phytosterols, vitamin C, and chlorogenic acid from dry artichoke extract on 90 overweight dyslipidemic subjects. Participants were randomly allocated to treatment with two pills of either active treatment or placebo, or a combination of both (a pill per treatment). After 8 weeks, all active-treated groups experienced a significant improvement in triglycerides (TG) versus placebo and in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) versus baseline and placebo treatments. In the high-dose-treated group, also total cholesterol (TC), nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), γ-glutamil transpeptidasi, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) significantly decreased. At 24-week follow-up, TG levels maintained lower than baseline in all groups. All patients allocated to either low-dose or high-dose active treatment experienced a significant decrease in TG, LDL-C, and homeostatin model assessment of insulin resistance. In subjects taking high-dose active treatment, adiponectin significantly increased, whereas TC, non-HDL-C, insulin (fasting plasma insulin), leptin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, hs-CRP, and TNF-α were significantly reduced. The tested nutraceutical showed to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, adipokines pattern, and systemic inflammation in dyslipidemic overweight subjects.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/química , Sobrepeso/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 153: 166-175, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150725

RESUMO

AIM: Excessive visceral adiposity is a major risk factor for developing insulin resistance and systemic low-grade inflammation. Ramadan diurnal fasting (RDF) is a religious ritual practiced by more than one billion Muslim throughout the world. It has been considered as one of the most common types of complementary and integrative health practices. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of RDF on visceral adiposity, circulating adipokines and glucoregulatory markers in patients with overweight or obesity. METHODS: Overweight and obese subjects (n = 61; 23 men and 38 women) were included in the study. Body weight, visceral fat tissue area (measured by 3D-MRI), glucoregulatory factors, serum adipokines concentrations, dietary intake, and physical activity were assessed one week before and at the end of the lunar month of Ramadan. RESULTS: From baseline, body weight and visceral fat tissue area serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure significantly decreased (P < 0.05 for each) at the end of Ramadan. The serum levels of adiponectin, IL-6, TNF-α, and IGF-1 significantly decreased (P < 0.05 for each), but serum visfatin, leptin, apelin, IL-10, and IL-10/IL-6 ratio significantly increased (P < 0.05 for each) at the end of Ramadan. Changes in visceral adiposity significantly correlated with changes in plasma glucose (r = 0.4, P < 0.5) and resistin (r = 0.44, P < 0.001) at the end of Ramadan. CONCLUSION: RDF lowers visceral adiposity, body weight and variably affects adipokines without adversely affecting markers of glucose homeostasis in individuals with overweight or obesity.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Jejum , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Islamismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(19): e15460, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083178

RESUMO

Nesfatin-1, a recently discovered anorexigenic neuropeptide, seems to play an important role in hypothalamic pathways regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of serum nesfatin-1 level with metabolic and anthropometric parameters in children and adolescents.This study prospectively included 78 Korean children and adolescents (42 obese/overweight group and 36 healthy control group). Fasting serum nesfatin-1 was quantitatively assayed by ELISA. Lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured as metabolic parameters.Serum nesfatin-1 levels were significantly lower in obese/overweight group than in control group (median 1.4 vs 2.0 ng/mL; P = .003). Pubertal subjects have the lower serum nesfatin-1 level than pre-pubertal subjects (median 1.5 vs 2.6 ng/mL; P = .02). Nesfatin-1 levels negatively correlated with chronological age (r = -0.37; P = .001), BMI (r = -0.33; P = .003), and BMI SDS (r = -0.26; P = .02).In conclusion, our results suggest that serum nesfatin-1 negatively correlated with BMI in children and adolescents. It suggests that nesfatin-1 might have an important role in regulation of food intake in obese children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/sangue , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20180547, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038539

RESUMO

Dynamic thiol-disulfide homeostasis is considered to have critical roles in maintenance of physiological functioning. We aimed to reveal whether there is any specific aberration in thiol-disulfide homeostasis in three distinct categories of individuals, including those who 1) exercise regularly (fitness group), 2) have a sedentary lifestyle (sedentary group) and 3) are overweight or obese (overweight/obese group). 72 male individuals were included in the study, 21 of whom were in fitness group, 28 of whom were overweight or obese and 23 of whom had a sedentary lifestyle. Plasma native thiol (-SH) and total thiol [(-SH) + (-S-S-)] levels were quantitatively determined. Total thiol levels in sedentary group were significantly lower than those in overweight/obese (p<0.05) and fitness groups (p<0.001). Also, disulfide values in fitness group were significantly higher than those in sedentary and overweight/obese groups (p<0.005, p<0.05). On the other hand, disulfide level, reduced and oxidized thiol ratios and oxidation/reduction ratio in fitness group differed significantly from the other groups (p<0.05). Thiol-disulfide homeostasis varies depending on lifestyle. The results of our study indicate that higher total thiol and disulfide levels are conspicuously distinctive features of thiol-disulfide homeostasis in individuals exercising regularly.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/sangue , Exercício/fisiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Comportamento Sedentário , Compostos de Sulfidrila/sangue , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
7.
Mar Drugs ; 17(5)2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067674

RESUMO

Low-fat diets, lipid-modifying nutraceuticals and a higher level of physical activity are often recommended to reduce dyslipidemia. A double-blind, randomized, crossover, controlled trial was designed to evaluate the independent and synergistic effects of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima supplementation (4.5 g·day-1) with or without performing a physical exercise program (PEP: aerobic exercise (3 days·week-1) + high-intensity interval training (2 days·week-1)) on blood lipids and BMI of 52 sedentary men with excess body weight. During six weeks, all participants were assigned to four intervention treatments (Spirulina maxima with PEP (SE), placebo with PEP (Ex), Spirulina maxima without PEP (Sm), placebo without PEP (C; control)) and plasma lipids were evaluated spectrophotometrically pre- vs. post intervention in stratified subgroups (overweight, obese and dyslipidemic subjects). Pre/post comparisons showed significant reductions in all plasma lipids in the SE group, particularly in those with dyslipidemia (p ≤ 0.043). Comparing the final vs. the initial values, BMI, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in all treatment groups compared to C. Changes were observed mostly in SE interventions, particularly in dyslipidemic subjects (p < 0.05). Spirulina maxima supplementation enhances the hypolipidemic effect of a systematic PEP in men with excess body weight and dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Exercício , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Spirulina , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Dislipidemias/sangue , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
8.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(2): 192-197, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis and obesity are somewhat related to a low-grade systemic inflammatory response. OBJECTIVES: To determine leptin and adiponectin levels in psoriasis patients compared to control patients matched for weight. METHODS: A case-control study was performed, evaluating 113 psoriasis patients and 41 controls with other dermatologic diseases. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity was 33% in cases and 21.9% in controls. All evaluated comorbidities were more prevalent among cases. When stratified by weight, the comorbidities were more frequent in overweight patients. We found no correlation between being overweight (p=0.25), leptin (p=0.18) or adiponectin (p=0.762) levels and psoriasis severity. When overweight cases and controls were compared, we found differences in the adiponectin values (p= 0.04). The overweight cases had lower adiponectin levels than the overweight controls. We found no differences in the leptin dosage between cases and controls. The overweight cases had higher leptin values than the normal weight cases (p<0.001). STUDY LIMITATIONS: Several patients used systemic anti-inflammatory medication. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of obesity among psoriasis cases (33%) was higher than in the general population (17.4%). We did not find any correlation between severity of psoriasis and inflammatory cytokines and the condition of being overweight. The overweight cases had lower values of adiponectin than the overweight controls. It seems, therefore, that there is a relationship between adiponectin and psoriasis, but this relationship depends on the presence of obesity.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Prevalência , Psoríase/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 136(5): 351-361, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037768

RESUMO

The plasma very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentration is an effective blood biochemical indicator that could be used to select lean chicken lines. In the current study, we used Genome-wide association study (GWAS) method to detect SNPs with significant effects on plasma VLDL concentration. As a result, 38 SNPs significantly associated with plasma VLDL concentration were identified using at least one of the three mixed linear model (MLM) packages, including GRAMMAR, EMMAX and GEMMA. Nearly, all these SNPs with significant effects on plasma VLDL concentration (except Gga_rs16160897) have significantly different allele frequencies between lean and fat lines. The 1-Mb regions surrounding these 38 SNPs were extracted, and twelve important regions were obtained after combining the overlaps. A total of 122 genes in these twelve important regions were detected. Among these genes, LRRK2, ABCD2, TLR4, E2F1, SUGP1, NCAN, KLF2 and RAB8A were identified as important genes for plasma VLDL concentration based on their basic functions. The results of this study may supply useful information to select lean chicken lines.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Lipoproteínas VLDL/sangue , Animais , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/genética , Galinhas/sangue , Frequência do Gene , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/genética , Sobrepeso/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 74: e890, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the effects of diet on the inflammatory response in middle-aged and elderly people with hypertension. METHODS: Thirty overweight or obese patients with stage one hypertension (age range, 45-75 years) were allocated to either the intervention or control group (n=15 per group; age- and sex-matched). Patients in the intervention group consumed a food powder supplement (100 g) instead of a regular meal. The control group maintained their normal dietary habits. This study lasted for six weeks. Blood pressure, inflammatory marker levels, and energy intake were measured before and after the study. RESULTS: After 6 weeks, the diet composition of the intervention group changed significantly (p<0.05). The intake of proteins, dietary fibre, monounsaturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat increased significantly (p<0.05), while the total energy intake trended towards an increase (p>0.05). In the control group, the total energy intake decreased significantly (p<0.05). The levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) decreased, and adiponectin increased significantly in the intervention group (p<0.05); however, no significant changes were observed in the inflammatory marker levels of the control group. In the intervention group, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p<0.05), and diastolic blood pressure also exhibited a decreasing trend. No significant change in blood pressure was observed in the control group. CONCLUSION: The consumption of a food powder supplement can improve diet composition, decrease blood pressure and reduce inflammation in middle-aged and elderly overweight or obese hypertensive patients. The food powder supplement may also have an anti-atherosclerotic effect in hypertensive patients.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Hipertensão/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , China , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/sangue , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pós/uso terapêutico , População Rural
11.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934797

RESUMO

Raised blood lipid levels are associated with a risk of a cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moderate reductions in several CVD factors such as total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol concentrations may be more effective in reducing overall risk than a major reduction in just one. A blind, randomised controlled trial was conducted with 120 healthy overweight (BMI 25⁻30) adults aged 25⁻70 years who were non-smokers, not diabetic and of low risk of cardiovascular disease, as assessed by the Framingham risk equation. Participants consumed 4.5 g PolyGlycopleX (PGX) as softgel capsules (PGXS) or 5 g PGX granules (PGXG) or 5 g rice flour (RF) with meals three times a day for 12 weeks. Total, LDL and non-HDL cholesterol were all significantly reduced (-6%, -5% and -3.5%, respectively) post the PGX granule treatment; however, PGX in softgel capsule form did not affect blood lipid profiles. Daily consumption of PGX granules in overweight low CVD risk adults produced lipid changes indicating a CVD preventative benefit.


Assuntos
Alginatos/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sobrepeso/sangue , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018503

RESUMO

Obesity is a well-described risk factor resulting in premature aging of the cardiovascular system ultimately limiting longevity. Premature cardiac death and aging is the hallmark of Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome (HGPS), a disease caused by defined mutations in the lamin A gene leading to a shortened prelamin A protein known as progerin. Since small amounts of progerin are expressed in healthy individuals we aimed to investigate the association of Body-Mass-Index (BMI) with respect to expression of progerin mRNA in blood samples of patient with known cardiovascular disease. In this cross-sectional retrospective analysis, 111 patients were consecutively included of which 46 were normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2) and 65 overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2). Blood samples were analyzed for quantitative expression of progerin mRNA. Progerin as well as high-sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) levels were significantly upregulated in the overweight group. Linear regression analyses showed a significant positive correlation of BMI and progerin mRNA (n = 111; r = 0.265, p = 0.005), as well as for hs-CRP (n = 110; r = 0.300, p = 0.001) and for Hb1Ac (n = 110; r = 0.336, p = 0.0003). Our data suggest that BMI strongly correlates with progerin mRNA expression and inflammation. Progerin might contribute to well described accelerated biologic aging in obese individuals.


Assuntos
Lamina Tipo A/genética , Sobrepeso/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Regulação para Cima , Adulto , Idoso , Senilidade Prematura/sangue , Senilidade Prematura/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(1): 96-102, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834755

RESUMO

Introduction: Background: there is limited information about the usefulness of the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) to identify Colombian adolescents with cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF). Objective: to compare the utility of WHtR, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) to identify adolescents with CRF. Methods: a study with 346 youths (aged 14.0 ± 2.3 years) was performed. Anthropometric measurements were collected and BMI, WC and WHtR were calculated. Fasting blood lipids, glucose and insulin were measured; the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was computed. The presence of multiple non-WC metabolic syndrome (MetS) factors (high HOMA-IR, high triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) was analyzed. The area under the curve (AUC) and the odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Results: the BMI, WC and WHtR were comparable at identifying adolescents with high HOMA-IR (AUC = 0.686, 0.694 and 0.641, respectively), low HDL-C (AUC = 0.623, 0.652 and 0.572, respectively) and multiple non-WC MetS factors (AUC = 0.694, 0.715 and 0.688, respectively). The OR of having multiple non-WC MetS factors was similar in overweight adolescents (1.65, 95% CI: 0.86-3.14) and those with WHtR ≥ 0.50 (3.76, 95% CI: 1.95-7.3). There were no OR differences of having multiple non-WC MetS factors among adolescent with obesity (9.88, 95% CI: 3.1-31.7), WC ≥ P90 (18.3, 95% CI: 4.0-83.5) and WHtR ≥ 0.55 (11.0, 95% CI: 3.0-4.4). Conclusions: WHtR, BMI and WC have similar capacities to identify Colombian adolescents with CRF. WHtR showed to be an alternative tool to BMI and WC measurements when screening adolescents for cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Criança , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
14.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(1): 80-86, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836761

RESUMO

Introduction: Background: the aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutrients, anthropometric parameters, health indicators, adipokines and insulin levels in a population of young undergraduates. Method: in this study, 378 young undergraduates were invited to participate. Due to the inclusion criteria and their own decision of participating, 90 attended the anthropometric, health indicators: waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WHtR), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) studies and completed the questionnaire of frequency of food intake; and 34 participants were selected to perform the determination of biochemical parameters, insulin and adipokines levels: leptin, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Results: according to WC, WHR and WHtR, obese population showed health, cardiovascular and metabolic risk. Overweight population showed cardiometabolic risk. In general, lipid intake was higher than 30%, being animal fat the most consumed. The levels of leptin (women: 17.2 ± 9.2, 28 ± 11.3, 36.8 ± 17.8; men: 4.3 ± 3.6, 9.5 ± 3.1, 24.6 ± 16.4 to lean overweight and obese, respectively) and insulin (women: 408 ± 182, 438 ± 187, 768 ± 167; men: 244 ± 88, 520 ± 256, 853 ± 590) increased along with body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), visceral fat area (VFA), WC, WHR and WHtR. Lean (2.4 ± 1.3), overweight (2.2 ± 0.9) and obese (4.3 ± 1.1) women and overweight (2.8 ± 1.2) and obese (5.0 ± 3.1) men showed insulin resistance according to HOMA-IR. Significant correlation between leptin and HOMA-IR was found (p = 0.41). BMI, BFP, VFA, WC, and WHtR positively correlated with leptin (p = 0.67, 0.75, 0.66, 0.60, 0.67, respectively) and insulin (p = 0.37, 0.40, 0.48, 0.49, 0.42, respectively), while WHR only with insulin (p = 0.43). No significant differences were found in the other adipokines. Conclusion: the use of health indicators such VFA, WC, WHR, WHtR and HOMA-IR are useful tools in the determination of health, cardio vascular and metabolic risk and are correlated with levels of leptin and insulin in the studied population.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Antropometria , Dieta , Adiposidade , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 28: 313-316, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency and obesity may be related to the pathogenesis and disease activity of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to assess the correlation between the serum level of 25(OH) vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) in a sample of Egyptian MS patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was an observational study that included 130 MS patients who were recruited consecutively among the patients attending the MS unit of Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, in the period between December 2017 and March 2018. The serum level of 25(OH) D, BMI and EDSS were recorded. RESULTS: Females represented 77.7% of the study sample, the mean age was 32.4 ±â€¯8.2 years. MS types were: RRMS 83.1%, SPMS 14.6% and PPMS in 2.3%. Serum level of 25(OH) vitamin D was deficient (less than 10 ng/ml) in 69.2% and insufficient (10-30 ng/ml) in 19.2% of the study population. The mean BMI was 25.5 ±â€¯4.7 kg/m² (classified as overweight). The mean EDSS was 3.5 ±â€¯1.9. The relationship between the EDSS score and 25(OH) D level was inversely correlated, all patients with EDSS ≤ 2 had sufficient levels while all patients with EDSS ≥ 4.5 had deficient levels. High EDSS scores were statistically correlated (p < 0.001) to high BMI and low Log 25(OH) D levels. An inverse correlation was found between the BMI and log 25(OH) D. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency and overweight are predominant among Egyptian MS patients. The EDSS was positively correlated to the BMI and negatively correlated to 25(OH) D. These factors may possibly play a role in the pathogeneses and progression of MS in Egypt.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
16.
Food Funct ; 10(3): 1747-1759, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for many deadly diseases. Meanwhile, the prevalence of obesity has been continuously increasing in many countries. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that confer health benefits on hosts. Probiotic supplementation could reduce body weight, body mass index (BMI) and fat percentage. However, it is unclear whether supplementation with probiotics is beneficial to lower blood lipid levels for obese or overweight people. METHODS: In this study, a comprehensive search across multiple databases was performed to identify studies that focused on the effects of probiotics on blood lipid levels in overweight or obese subjects. The meta-analysis included studies that compared the variations in blood lipid (total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride (TG)) concentrations between overweight and obese subjects who were supplemented with probiotics versus the controls who were not supplemented with probiotics. RESULTS: Our findings indicated that probiotic supplementation in obese or overweight people was associated with significantly larger reductions in TC and LDL levels compared to a lack of probiotic supplementation in the control subjects. However, there was no significant difference in the variations between HDL and TG concentrations. CONCLUSION: Probiotic supplementation reduced TC and LDL concentrations in obese or overweight people. Additional data from large clinical trials are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of probiotics in the regulation of blood lipid levels in obese or overweight people.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Hiperlipidemias/terapia , Lipídeos/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Probióticos , Adulto , Glicemia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 5634-5646, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904311

RESUMO

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ceramide causes insulin resistance in obese diabetic nonruminants. Because previous work suggests that liver-derived ceramide may impair insulin action in postpartum cows, our objectives were to characterize peripartal changes in lipoprotein ceramides. We further studied the effects of prepartum adiposity on lipoprotein ceramide levels. Twenty-eight pregnant Holstein cows (parity = 3.65 ± 1.62) with lean (body condition score, BCS = 2.97 ± 0.16; body weight, BW = 630 ± 55.2 kg; n = 15) or overweight (BCS = 3.93 ± 0.27; BW = 766 ± 46.1 kg; n = 13) body condition 28 d before expected parturition were evaluated. Sampling occurred on d -20.5 ± 1.74, -13.8 ± 1.71, -7.84 ± 4.07, -6.71 ± 1.00, -3.92 ± 0.64, and -1.28 ± 0.61 (before parturition); daily until d 8 postpartum; and on d 10, 12, 14, 21, and 28. Adipose tissue and liver were biopsied on d -7.84 ± 4.07 and 10. Postpartum insulin sensitivity was assessed using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Lipoprotein fractions were isolated using liquid chromatography. Sphingolipids were quantified using mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures. Overweight cows had a higher BCS and BW at enrollment relative to lean cows, but BCS and BW were similar postpartum. Overweight cows lost more body condition (0.97 ± 0.36 vs. 0.55 ± 0.16 BCS units) and BW (291 ± 67.3 vs. 202 ± 54.5 kg) during transition relative to lean cows. Adipocyte volume and counts declined from prepartum to postpartum (50.4 and 13.7%, respectively), and adipocyte volume was greater (48.2%) in overweight cows prepartum relative to lean cows. Although DMI was comparable between BCS groups, milk yield tended to be greater in overweight cows. Plasma free fatty acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate and liver lipid levels were 40, 16, and 37% greater, respectively, in overweight cows compared with lean cows. Glucose infusion rate during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tended to be lower in overweight cows. Ceramide levels within triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fractions declined postpartum, whereas LDL ceramide increased postpartum. Overweight cows had lower triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein C16:0-ceramide levels relative to lean cows. Prepartum LDL C24:0-ceramide levels were greater in overweight cows relative to lean cows. Independent of prepartum adiposity, we concluded that serum LDL ceramide levels are elevated in early-lactation cows experiencing adipose tissue free fatty acid mobilization and hepatic steatosis.


Assuntos
Bovinos/sangue , Ceramidas/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Resistência à Insulina , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/veterinária , Paridade , Parto/fisiologia , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Gravidez , Esfingolipídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
J Med Food ; 22(4): 427-432, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897012

RESUMO

Multiple studies have examined the impacts of various nuts on appetitive and metabolic effects; however, fewer studies have addressed the impacts of mixed nuts. The objective was to examine the acute effects of consumption of an isocaloric (253 kcal) snack of mixed nuts or pretzels on appetite hormones, glucose and insulin responses, and subjective appetite ratings in overweight and obese adults. In a two-arm randomized controlled trial, overweight and obese adults consumed either mixed nuts (n = 27) or pretzels (n = 27) with 16 men and 11 women per group. After an overnight fast, blood glucose, insulin, and appetite hormone were measured at baseline and 60 min post snack consumption. Appetite/satiety questionnaires were completed at baseline and 20, 40, 60, 90, 120 min after snack consumption. Both snacks increased satiety and reduced hunger over time. The pretzels group exhibited higher subjective satiety and lower hunger (P < .001) following consumption than the mixed nuts group. Pretzel consumption increased glucose and insulin (P < .001), while no elevation was detected in the mixed nuts at 60 min post snack consumption. Leptin and ghrelin concentrations were significantly lower for the mixed nuts group at 60 min compared with baseline (P < .05). Mixed nuts promote satiety in overweight and obese adults while maintaining stable blood glucose and insulin levels. These results suggest that mixed nuts snack may be beneficial for those who are overweight or obese. Future mixed nuts studies are warranted to examine long-term effects.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Nozes/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Apetite , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Saciação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Int ; 126: 445-453, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prospective associations between exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and longitudinal measurements of glucose metabolism in high-risk overweight and obese Hispanic children. METHODS: Forty overweight and obese Hispanic children (8-14 years) from urban Los Angeles underwent clinical measures and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) at baseline and a follow-up visit (range: 1-3 years after enrollment). Baseline plasma perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and the plasma metabolome were measured by liquid-chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association between baseline PFASs and changes in glucose homeostasis over follow-up. A metabolome-wide association study coupled with pathway enrichment analysis was performed to evaluate metabolic dysregulation associated with plasma PFASs concentrations. We performed a structural integrated analysis aiming to characterize the joint impact of all factors and to identify latent clusters of children with alterations in glucose homeostasis, based on their exposure and metabolomics profile. RESULTS: Each ln (ng/ml) increase in PFOA and PFHxS concentrations was associated with a 30.6 mg/dL (95% CI: 8.8-52.4) and 10.2 mg/dL (95% CI: 2.7-17.7) increase in 2-hour glucose levels, respectively. A ln (ng/ml) increase in PFHxS concentrations was also associated with 17.8 mg/dL increase in the glucose area under the curve (95% CI: 1.5-34.1). Pathway enrichment analysis showed significant alterations of lipids (e.g., glycosphingolipids, linoleic acid, and de novo lipogenesis), and amino acids (e.g., aspartate and asparagine, tyrosine, arginine and proline) in association to PFASs exposure. The integrated analysis identified a cluster of children with increased 2-h glucose levels over follow up, characterized by increased PFAS levels and altered metabolite patterns. CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-concept analysis shows that higher PFAS exposure was associated with dysregulation of several lipid and amino acid pathways and longitudinal alterations in glucose homeostasis in Hispanic youth. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings and fully elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Caprilatos/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Glucose/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/sangue , Adolescente , Aminoácidos/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Homeostase , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Los Angeles , Masculino , Metabolômica
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e190305, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848805

RESUMO

Importance: Individually, higher body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption increase the risk of liver disease. Evidence of a joint association is mixed; however, previous studies have not used causal inference methods robust to confounding and reverse causation. Understanding any true effect is key to developing effective interventions to reduce liver disease. Objective: To investigate the joint association of BMI and alcohol consumption with liver injury biomarkers and incident liver disease using factorial mendelian randomization (MR). Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based cohort study (Copenhagen General Population Study) recruited a random sample of Copenhagen, Denmark, residents aged 20 years or older of white, Danish descent (N = 98 643) between November 25, 2003, and July 1, 2014. Data were also obtained from ongoing links to national registers, and then analyzed from September 30, 2016, to April 23, 2018. Exposures: High and low BMI and alcohol consumption categories from baseline-measured or self-reported observational data and genetic variants predicting BMI and alcohol consumption. Main Outcomes and Measures: Plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and γ-glutamyltransferase [GGT]) and incident cases of liver disease from hospital records were the outcomes. Results: Of the 98 643 individuals recruited, 91 552 (54 299 [45.2%] women; mean [SD] age, 58 [13.05] years) with no baseline liver disease were included in main analyses. Individuals had a mean (SD) BMI of 26.2 (4.3) and consumed a mean (SD) of 10.6 (10.2) U/wk of alcohol. In factorial MR analyses, considering the high BMI/high alcohol group as the reference, mean circulating ALT and GGT levels were lowest in the low BMI/low alcohol group (ALT: -2.32%; 95% CI, -4.29% to -0.35%, and GGT: -3.56%; 95% CI, -5.88% to -1.24%). Individuals with low BMI/high alcohol use and high BMI/low alcohol use also had lower mean circulating ALT levels (low BMI/high alcohol use: -1.31%; 95% CI, -1.88% to -0.73%, and high BMI/low alcohol use: -0.81%; 95% CI, -2.86% to 1.22%) and GGT levels (low BMI/high alcohol use: -0.91%; 95% CI, -1.60% to -0.22%, and high BMI/low alcohol use: -1.13%; 95% CI, -3.55% to 1.30%) compared with the high BMI/high alcohol use reference group. These patterns were similar in multivariable factorial analyses. For incident liver disease (N = 580), factorial MR results were less conclusive (odds ratio of liver disease vs high BMI/high alcohol group: 1.01; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.18, for the low BMI/high alcohol group, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.88 for the high BMI/low alcohol group, and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.41 to 1.56 for the low BMI/low alcohol group). Conclusions and Relevance: Interventions to reduce both BMI and alcohol consumption might reduce population levels of biomarkers of liver injury more than interventions aimed at either BMI or alcohol use alone. However, it is not clear whether this intervention will directly translate to a reduced risk of liver disease.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hepatopatias , Sobrepeso , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/psicologia , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA