Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 70
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344950

RESUMO

Our purpose was to study the relationship of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with urinary factors that favor the formation of renal calcium and uric acid stones in overweight and obese participants who had metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study examined 267 participants. A well-known MedDiet score (range 0-9) was calculated for each patient, and patients were then categorized has having low (≤3), medium (4-5), or high (≥6) adherence to the MedDiet. Baseline characteristics and urinary parameters were also analyzed. High calcium salt urinary crystallization risk (CaUCR) and high uric acid urinary crystallization risk (UrUCR) were calculated from urinary parameters using pre-defined criteria. More than half of patients with MedDiet scores ≤3 had high UrUCR (55.4%) and high CaUCR (53.8%). In contrast, fewer patients with high adherence (≥6) to the MedDiet had high UrUCR (41.2%) and high CaUCR (29.4%). Relative to those with low adherence, individuals with high adherence had a prevalence ratio (PR) of 0.77 for a high UrUCR (95% CI: 0.46-1.12; p for trend: 0.069) and a PR of 0.51 for a high CaUCR (95% CI: 0.26-0.87; p for trend: 0.012) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, type 2 diabetes, and total energy intake. Our findings indicate that greater adherence to the MedDiet was associated with a reduced CaUCR and a reduced UrUCR. This suggests that adequate dietary management using the MedDiet patterns may prevent or reduce the incidence and recurrence of calcium salt and uric acid renal stones.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Urolitíase/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/urina , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Urolitíase/diagnóstico , Urolitíase/epidemiologia , Urolitíase/urina
2.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252632

RESUMO

Asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and SDMA, respectively) are risk factors for the cardiovascular and renal systems. There is a paucity of data in humans regarding variations of protein L-arginine (Arg) methylation leading to ADMA and SDMA. In this study, we introduced and used Arg dimethylation indices based on the creatinine-corrected urinary excretion of SDMA and ADMA, and its major metabolite dimethylamine (DMA). The main objective of the present study was to assess whether, and to which extent, a high-fat protein meal (HFM), a classical allostatic load eliciting various adverse effects, may contribute to Arg dimethylation in proteins in humans. Reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods were used to measure the concentration of ADMA, DMA, SDMA, and creatinine in spot urine samples collected before (0 h), and after (2, 4, 6 h) three HFM sessions in 10 healthy overweight individuals. At baseline, urinary ADMA, DMA, and SDMA excretion correlated positively with circulating TNF-α and IL-6. Arg dimethylation indices did not change postprandially. Our study shows that three HFMs do not contribute to Arg dimethylation in proteins. The proposed indices should be useful to determine extent and status of the whole-body Arg dimethylation in proteins in humans under various conditions.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Sobrepeso/urina , Período Pós-Prandial , Adulto , Arginina/urina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Rica em Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Urinálise/métodos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Environ Int ; 127: 754-763, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are synthetic chemicals found in many consumer products, including furniture, electronics, processed foods, and building materials. Emerging in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that OPEs are metabolism disrupting compounds; however, epidemiologic studies investigating their associations with adiposity markers are sparse. OBJECTIVE: We examined cross-sectional associations between OPE biomarkers and adiposity measures among U.S. children and adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES: 2013-2014). METHODS: Concentrations of five OPE metabolites were quantified in urine: diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP), dibutyl phosphate (DBUP), and bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCPP). We conducted covariate-adjusted logistic and linear regressions to examine associations between log2-transformed and dichotomized OPE metabolite concentrations and obesity, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), separately among 784 children (6-19 years) and 1672 adults (≥20 years). We also assessed heterogeneity of associations by sex. RESULTS: DBUP concentrations were inversely associated with the prevalence odds of being obese vs. normal weight in children (adjusted Prevalence Odds Ratio, aPOR: 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.95) and adults (aPOR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72, 0.96). DBUP was also significantly associated with lower BMI z-scores (ß:-0.08, 95% CI:-0.17, 0.01) and WC (ß:-0.71, 95% CI: -1.49, 0.07) in children. BCEP concentrations were associated with increased prevalence odds of being overweight vs. normal weight (aPOR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.32) among children; similar, albeit not statistically significant, relationships were observed with other child adiposity outcomes. Among adults, detectable BCPP concentrations were associated with increased prevalence odds of being obese vs. normal weight (aPOR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.38) and having a high vs. normal WC (aPOR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.07) as well as higher BMI (ß: 1.31, 95% CI: 0.30, 2.33). Other OPE metabolites were not consistently associated with adiposity measures among adults. Although associations of BCPP exposure with adiposity outcomes were generally inverse among boys, but not girls, we did not observe consistent evidence of sexually-dimorphic associations for other OPE metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to select OPEs may be differentially associated with body size among children and adults. Given the cross-sectional design of the present study, future prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/urina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/urina , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
4.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(3): 1223-1235, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476238

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We studied the health benefits of low calorie cranberry beverage consumption on glucoregulation, oxidative damage, inflammation, and lipid metabolism in overweight but otherwise healthy humans. METHODS: 78 overweight or obese men and women (30-70 years; BMI 27-35 kg/m2) with abdominal adiposity (waist: hip > 0.8 for women and > 0.9 for men; waist: height ≥ 0.5) consumed 450 mL placebo or low calorie, high polyphenol cranberry extract beverage (CEB) daily for 8 week in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design trial. Blood and urine samples were collected after overnight fast at baseline and after 8 weeks of daily beverage consumption. Blood and urine samples were also collected during 3 oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) challenges: (1) pre-intervention without the test beverages, (2) following a single dose of placebo or CEB at baseline (week 0), and (3) following a single dose of placebo or CEB at 8 week. RESULTS: Compared to placebo, a single CEB dose at baseline lowered endothelin-1 and elevated nitric oxide and the reduced:oxidized glutathione ratio (P < 0.05). Interferon-γ was elevated (P < 0.05) after a single CEB dose at baseline; however, after 8 week of CEB intervention, fasting C-reactive protein was lower (P < 0.05). CEB consumption for 8 week also reduced serum insulin and increased HDL cholesterol compared to placebo (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An acute dose of low calorie, high polyphenol cranberry beverage improved antioxidant status, while 8 week daily consumption reduced cardiovascular disease risk factors by improving glucoregulation, downregulating inflammatory biomarkers, and increasing HDL cholesterol.


Assuntos
Bebidas , HDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/urina , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/urina , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem
5.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 27(5): 1067-1076, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is linked to metabolic diseases characterized by insulin resistance, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the metabolic disorders of uncomplicated obesity to identify early alterations in biological systems. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Metabolic differences between overweight/obese (n=36) and normal-weight (n=35) young Chinese men without known metabolic disorders were assessed. Metabolic profiling of the serum and urine was performed using ultra-performance liquidchromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was undertaken to reveal and classify the differences between the two groups. RESULTS: Compared to normal-weight men, obese men had higher levels of the serum metabolites phenylalanine, Phe-Phe, and L-tryptophan, whereas those of p-cresol sulfate and p-cresol were less in obesity. Urinary metabolites phenylacetamide, L-glutamine, phenylacetylglutamine, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresol, and p-cresol sulfate were greater in obese men. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that disorders involving aromatic amino acids and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) have microbiomic involvement in the uncomplicated phase of obesity.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/urina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cresóis/sangue , Cresóis/urina , Análise Discriminante , Glutamina/análogos & derivados , Glutamina/urina , Humanos , Indicã/urina , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/urina , Fenilalanina/sangue , Triptofano/sangue , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Bras Nefrol ; 40(1): 35-43, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796583

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (MS) are associated with low urinary pH and represent risk factors for nephrolithiasis, especially composed by uric acid. Acidogenic diets may also contribute to a reduction of urinary pH. Propensity for calcium oxalate precipitation has been shown to be higher with increasing features of the MS. OBJECTIVE: A retrospective evaluation of anthropometric and body composition parameters, MS criteria and the dietary patterns of overweight and obese calcium stone formers and their impact upon urinary pH and other lithogenic parameters was performed. METHODS: Data regarding anthropometry, body composition, serum and urinary parameters and 3-days dietary records were obtained from medical records of 102(34M/68F) calcium stone formers. RESULTS: A negative correlation was found between urinary pH, waist circumference and serum uric acid levels (males). The endogenous production of organic acids (OA) was positively correlated with triglycerides levels and number of features of MS (males), and with glucose, uric acid and triglycerides serum levels, and number of features of MS (females). No significant correlations were detected between Net Acid Excretion (NAE) or Potential Renal Acid Load of the diet with any of the assessed parameters. A multivariate analysis showed a negative association between OA and urinary pH. CONCLUSION: The endogenous production of OA and not an acidogenic diet were found to be independently predictive factors for lower urinary pH levels in calcium stone formers. Hypercalciuric and/or hyperuricosuric patients presented higher OA levels and lower levels of urinary pH.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Dieta , Cálculos Renais/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/urina , Cálcio/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/química , Cálculos Renais/complicações , Cálculos Renais/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/urina , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/urina , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(15): 5598-5605, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Casein and whey proteins differ in amino acid composition and absorption rate; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey proteins by exogenous hydrolysis. In view of these compositional differences, we studied the metabolic responses to intake of casein, hydrolyzed casein, and whey proteins in overweight and moderately obese men and women by investigating select urinary and blood plasma metabolites. RESULTS: A total of 21 urinary and 23 plasma metabolites were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The postprandial plasma metabolites revealed a significant diet-time interaction for isoleucine (P = 0.001) and tyrosine (P = 0.001). The level of isoleucine and tyrosine peaked 90 min postprandially with a 1.4-fold difference following intake of whey proteins compared with either casein or hydrolyzed casein. A 1.2-fold higher urinary level of lactate was observed after intake of whey proteins compared with intake of intact casein (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The plasma metabolites revealed different amino acid profiles reflecting the amino acid composition of casein and whey proteins. Furthermore, the results support that casein hydrolysates neither affect the postprandial amino acid absorption rate nor the amino acid level compared with that of intact casein. The urinary lactate increases following whey protein intake might indicate a higher metabolism of glucogenic amino acids. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Caseínas/química , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Adulto , Caseínas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Isoleucina/sangue , Isoleucina/urina , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/urina , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/urina , Plasma/química , Período Pós-Prandial , Tirosina/sangue , Tirosina/urina , Urina/química , Adulto Jovem
8.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 20(8): 1878-1884, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577550

RESUMO

AIMS: Methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) inhibition has been shown to result in significant weight loss and improved glucose control. This Phase 1 clinical trial assessed the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics and preliminary efficacy of a novel MetAP2 inhibitor, ZGN-1061. METHODS: This clinical trial included a single ascending dose (SAD) phase in healthy subjects (BMI, 23 to <30 kg/m2 ) and a multiple ascending dose (MAD) phase in otherwise healthy subjects (BMI, 27 to 40 kg/m2 ). SAD phase doses, administered subcutaneously (SC), were 0.2, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 3.6 and 4.8 mg and the MAD phase evaluated doses of 0.2, 0.6 and 1.8 mg twice weekly SC for 4 weeks. RESULTS: The SAD phase included 39 subjects (ZGN-1061, N = 28; placebo, N = 11); 90% were male and BMI was 26.4 kg/m2 . ZGN-1061 was well tolerated across all doses, with the most frequent adverse events being mild headache and procedural-related irritation. There were no severe or serious adverse events. All doses of ZGN-1061 were rapidly absorbed and cleared, resulting in short duration of exposure that is anticipated to minimize potential off-drug target risks. The MAD phase included 29 subjects (ZGN-1061, N = 22; placebo, N = 7); 76% were male and BMI was 33.5 kg/m2 . Safety observations were consistent with SAD findings. Efficacy measures in the MAD phase indicated trends for weight change (-1.5 kg total ZGN-1061 vs -0.2 kg placebo) and other biomarker changes. CONCLUSIONS: ZGN-1061 was well tolerated with no safety signals in all doses tested. In addition, the desired pharmacokinetic profile and preliminary efficacy observations with ZGN-1061 support evaluation in larger and longer clinical trials.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Drogas em Investigação/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Morfolinas/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteases/administração & dosagem , Absorção Fisiológica , Adulto , Aminopeptidases/metabolismo , Fármacos Antiobesidade/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacocinética , Azetidinas/efeitos adversos , Azetidinas/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Drogas em Investigação/efeitos adversos , Drogas em Investigação/farmacocinética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Morfolinas/efeitos adversos , Morfolinas/farmacocinética , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/urina , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/urina , Inibidores de Proteases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacocinética , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Environ Int ; 113: 91-99, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421411

RESUMO

A higher body mass index (BMI) has been positively associated with the rate of excretion of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites in urine in data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), suggesting an association between DEHP exposure and BMI. The association, however, may be due to the association between body mass maintenance and higher energy intake, with higher energy intake being accompanied by a higher intake of DEHP. To examine this hypothesis, we ran a Monte Carlo simulation with a DEHP physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for adult humans. A realistic exposure sub-model was used, which included the relation of body weight to energy intake and of energy intake to DEHP intake. The model simulation output, when compared with urinary metabolite data from NHANES, supported good model validity. The distribution of BMI in the simulated population closely resembled that in the NHANES population. This indicated that the simulated subjects and DEHP exposure model were closely aligned with the NHANES population of interest. In the simulated population, the ordinary least squares regression coefficient for log(BMI) as a function of log(DEHP nmol/min) was 0.048 (SE 0.001), as compared with the reported value of 0.019 (SE 0.005). In other words, given our model structure, the higher energy intake in the overweight and obese, and the concomitant higher DEHP exposure, describes the reported relationship between BMI and DEHP.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dietilexilftalato/urina , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Obesidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Simulação por Computador , Dietilexilftalato/farmacocinética , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/urina , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/urina
10.
Urolithiasis ; 46(6): 523-533, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423725

RESUMO

To study the impact of body mass index (BMI) on quantitative 24-h urine chemistries in stone forming patients and to explore how overweight and obesity contribute to urolithiasis. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science was performed in July 2017 and updated in October 2017 to detect relevant studies. After that, we screened all the relevant articles in accordance with the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data of eligible studies were extracted, and then, a meta-analysis was conducted via RevMan 5.3 software. Nine studies, involving 5965 stone forming patients who underwent 24-h urine collection for chemistry analysis, were included in our analysis. BMI was used to clarify the body size. BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 group, including overweight and obesity patients, erected more calcium (WMD 34.44 mg; 95% CI 11.33-57.55; p = 0.003), oxalate (WMD 3.44 mg; 95% CI 1.40-5.49; p = 0.001), urate (WMD 97.71 mg; 95% CI 63.05-132.38; p < 0.00001), and sodium (WMD 26.64 mg; 95% CI 18.23-35.05; p < 0.00001) in 24 h than BMI < 25 kg/m2 group. However, the BMI < 25 kg/m2 group showed higher pH of urine (WMD 0.12; 95% CI 0.04-0.20; p = 0.004). There was no significant difference in 24-h urine volume (WMD - 29.30 ml; 95% CI - 122.03 to - 63.42; p = 0.54), citrate (WMD - 34.03 mg; 95% CI - 72.88 to 4.82; p = 0.09), magnesium (WMD - 4.50 mg; 95% CI - 10.48 to 1.48; p = 0.14), phosphate (WMD - 89.38 mg; 95% CI - 219.23 to 40.47; p = 0.18), and creatinine (WMD - 191.98 mg; 95% CI - 395.35 to 11.38; p = 0.06) between the two groups. All the results kept the same tendency when gender was taken in consideration. Sensitivity analysis generated similar results. The current evidence suggested that patients with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 erected more promotions but not inhibitors of urolithiasis than those with BMI < 25 kg/m2, which increased the risk of urolithiasis in overweight and obesity individuals.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Sobrepeso/complicações , Urina/química , Urolitíase/urina , Cálcio/urina , Ácido Cítrico/urina , Creatinina/urina , Humanos , Magnésio/urina , Obesidade , Sobrepeso/urina , Oxalatos/urina , Fosfatos/urina , Fatores de Risco , Ácido Úrico/urina , Urolitíase/etiologia
11.
J Nephrol ; 31(3): 395-403, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29090382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) traits with urinary calcium (UCE) or oxalate excretion (UOE) is uncertain in calcium stone formers (CSFs). Our aim was to investigate this association in a large group of Caucasian CSFs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of CSFs evaluated at our Kidney Stone Clinic from 1984 to 2015. Data on body mass index (BMI), MetS traits defined according to international consensus, family history of urolithiasis, anti-hypertensive treatments, calcemia, renal function, and 24-h urinary profile of lithogenic risk were collected. The association between MetS traits and UCE or UOE was tested with multivariate linear regression models accounting for a long list of potential confounders. RESULTS: We included 3003 CSFs, aged 44 ± 14 years. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and dyslipidemia was 17, 2, 42 and 38%, respectively. Median values of UCE and UOE were 211 mg/24 h (IQR 143-296) and 28 mg/24 h (IQR 22-34), respectively. At a multivariate model, including age, sex, date of examination, drug treatments, family history, renal function, blood calcium and urinary factors as covariates, hypertension was a significant positive determinant of UCE (ß ± SE 0.23 ± 0.07, p = 0.003), but overweight, dyslipidemia and diabetes were not. No MetS trait was significantly associated with UOE in multivariate models. CONCLUSIONS: In a large group of Caucasian CSFs, hypertension was the only MetS trait significantly associated with UCE, while no MetS trait was associated with oxalate excretion.


Assuntos
Cálcio/urina , Hipercalciúria/epidemiologia , Hiperoxalúria/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Cálculos Renais/urina , Oxalatos/urina , Adulto , Cálcio/análise , Comorbidade , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/urina , Itália/epidemiologia , Cálculos Renais/química , Cálculos Renais/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/urina , Oxalatos/análise , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 44(3): 384-389, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239056

RESUMO

AIM: We examined body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) patterns of pregnant women and investigated the impact of these factors on the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) during pregnancy. METHODS: The data of 163 women whose basal BMI and ACR were measured during the first trimester were used in this study. Body weight alone between 12-16 weeks and body weight together with ACR after 37 weeks of gestation were measured. RESULTS: Overall, 46% of women were overweight or obese, 60.7% had excessive weight gain and 16.6% had inadequate weight gain. Only 22.7% of women gained weight within the recommended range. There was no difference in weight gain patterns with respect to BMI. ACR during the third trimester was significantly higher than during the first trimester (7.08 [0.00-1180.90] mg/g vs 4.73 [0.00-275.00] mg/g, respectively; P = 0.001). The ACR of obese women was higher than in normal weight subjects during the third trimester (16.79 mg/g [0.01-1180.90] vs 8.07 mg/g [0.10-402.14] respectively; adjusted P = 0.015). Both ACR change and third trimester ACR were weakly but significantly correlated with basal BMI (r: 0.228 P: 0.003 and r: 0.301 P < 0.001, respectively) but not with GWG or GWG rate. Basal BMI was not associated with first-trimester ACR. CONCLUSION: Obesity is associated with an increase in urinary albumin excretion during the course of pregnancy. Distinction of this relationship during pregnancy offers an opportunity for further research on pathophysiological mechanisms. The alarmingly high rate of non-compliance with IOM guidelines in pregnant women is a concern. Prompt measures for counseling of women before and during pregnancy in order to maintain healthy weight are needed.


Assuntos
Albuminas/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Creatinina/urina , Sobrepeso/urina , Complicações na Gravidez/urina , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/urina , Gravidez
13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15636, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29142292

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence shows that urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) could be perturbed in many physiological and pathological states, including several diseases and different dietary exposures. Few studies investigated the urinary metabolic signature associated to excess body weight and obesity in adult populations, while a different VOCs profile was found in exhaled breath in obese as compared to lean children. Aim of this study was to evaluate the VOCs profile in the urine of 21 overweight/obese (OW/Ob) and 28 normal-weight (NW) children belonging to the Italian cohort of the I. Family study. Urine samples were analysed by Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) GC-MS under both acidic and alkaline conditions, in order to profile a wider range of urinary volatiles with different physicochemical properties. Multivariate statistics techniques were applied to bioanalytical data to visualize clusters of cases and detect the VOCs able to differentiate OW/Ob from NW children. Under alkaline conditions, fourteen VOCs were identified, distinguishing OW/Ob from NW children. Our results suggest that VOCs signatures differ between OW/Ob and NW children. However, the biological and pathophysiological meaning of the observed differences needs to be elucidated, in order to better understand the potential of urinary VOCs as early metabolic biomarkers of obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade/urina , Sobrepeso/urina , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(35): 27502-27514, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980160

RESUMO

Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is known to be widespread and available data suggests that BPA can act as an endocrine disruptor. Diet is generally regarded as the dominant BPA exposure source, namely through leaching to food from packaging materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of 110 Portuguese children (4-18 years old), divided in two groups: the regular diet group (n = 43) comprised healthy normal weight/underweight children with no dietary control; the healthy diet group (n = 67) comprised children diagnosed for obesity/overweight (without other known associated diseases) that were set on a healthy diet for weight control. First morning urine samples were collected and total urinary BPA was analyzed after enzymatic hydrolysis via on-line HPLC-MS/MS with isotope dilution quantification. Virtually, all the children were exposed to BPA, with 91% of the samples above the LOQ (limit of quantification) of 0.1 µg/L. The median (95th percentile) urinary BPA levels for non-normalized and creatinine-corrected values were 1.89 µg/L (16.0) and 1.92 µg/g creatinine (14.4), respectively. BPA levels in the regular diet group were higher than in the healthy diet group, but differences were not significant. Calculated daily BPA intakes, however, were significantly higher in children of the regular diet group than in children of healthy diet group. Median (95th percentile) daily intakes amounted to 41.6 (467) ng/kg body weight/day in the regular diet group, and 23.2 (197) ng/kg body weight/day in the healthy diet group. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that children in the healthy diet group had 33% lower intakes than children in the regular diet group (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.51-0.89). For both groups, however, urinary BPA levels and daily BPA intakes were within the range reported for other children's populations and were well below health guidance values such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) temporary tolerable daily intake (t-TDI) of 4 µg/kg body weight/day. In addition, lower daily BPA intakes were more likely linked with the inherent dietary approach rather than with high BMI or obesity.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Fenóis/urina , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidade/urina , Sobrepeso/urina , Portugal
15.
Nutrients ; 9(10)2017 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28961176

RESUMO

There has been substantial interest in phytoestrogens, because of their potential effect in reducing cancer and heart disease risk. Measuring concentrations of phytoestrogens in urine is an alternative method for conducting epidemiological studies. Our objective was to evaluate the urinary excretion of phytoestrogens as biomarkers for dietary phytoestrogen intake in Mexican women. Participants were 100 healthy women from 25 to 80 years of age. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 24 h recall were used to estimate habitual and recent intakes of isoflavones, lignans, flavonols, coumestrol, resveratrol, naringenin, and luteolin. Urinary concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) using the electrospray ionization interface (ESI) and diode array detector (DAD) (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate associations between dietary intake and urine concentrations. The habitual consumption (FFQ) of total phytoestrogens was 37.56 mg/day. In urine, the higher compounds were naringenin (60.1 µg/L) and enterolactone (41.7 µg/L). Recent intakes (24 h recall) of isoflavones (r = 0.460, p < 0.001), lignans (r = 0.550, p < 0.0001), flavonoids (r = 0.240, p < 0.05), and total phytoestrogens (r = 0.410, p < 0.001) were correlated to their urinary levels. Total phytoestrogen intakes estimated by the FFQ showed higher correlations to urinary levels (r = 0.730, p < 0.0001). Urinary phytoestrogens may be useful as biomarkers of phytoestrogen intake, and as a tool for evaluating the relationship of intake and disease risk in Mexican women.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Fitoestrógenos/administração & dosagem , Fitoestrógenos/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/urina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/etnologia , Cardiopatias/urina , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etnologia , Neoplasias/urina , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/urina , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/urina , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Prevalência , Risco
16.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184655, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to explore the influence of different body weight statuses on 24-hour urine compositions in adults without urolithiasis based on a nationwide study of a Chinese Han population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four-hour urine samples from 584 Chinese Han adults without urolithiasis in six cities were analyzed. The participants were divided into four body weight status types according to their body mass indices (BMIs) according to WHO guidelines. The baseline characteristics and 24-hour urine compositions of the standard weight group were compared with those of the underweight, overweight and obese groups. The influences of different body weight statuses on the 24-hour urine compositions were explored using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. RESULTS: The numbers of participants in the underweight, standard weight, overweight and obese status groups were 24, 376, 149 and 35, respectively. The overweight and obese groups suffered significantly higher risks of hypertension and diabetes mellitus than the standard weight group. In the univariate analyses, compared with the standard weight group, the overweight group had significantly higher levels of urine citrate (mean difference [MD] = 0.51 mmol, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.87, P = 0.001), potassium (MD = 6.63 mmol, 95% CI: 1.13-12.14, P = 0.01) and magnesium (MD = 0.38 mmol, 95% CI: 0.08-0.69, P = 0.014). Significant increases in urine citrate (MD = 0.85 mmol, 95% CI: 0.01-1.68, P = 0.046), magnesium (MD = 0.69 mmol, 95% CI: 0.13-1.25, P = 0.016) and phosphate (MD = 2.28 mmol, 95% CI: 0.03-4.54, P = 0.047) were found in the obese group. No significant differences were detected between the standard weight and underweight groups. In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, we only observed significantly higher levels of urine potassium (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.04, P = 0.03) in the overweight group and phosphate (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.05-1.66, P = 0.018) in the obese group when compared with the standard weight group. CONCLUSIONS: Nonstone-forming adults with overweight or obese statuses were at higher risks of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Obese nonstone-formers might have a greater risk of urinary stone formation due to increased urinary phosphate excretion. Additionally, underweight status had no influence on 24-hour urine composition.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Obesidade/urina , Sobrepeso/urina , Urolitíase/urina , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cálcio/urina , China , Ácido Cítrico/urina , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Oxalatos/urina , Sódio/urina , Ácido Úrico/urina
17.
J Proteome Res ; 16(8): 2924-2935, 2017 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28631923

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of ingesting a flavonoid-rich supplement (329 mg/d) on total urine phenolics and shifts in plasma metabolites in overweight/obese female adults using untargeted metabolomics procedures. Participants (N = 103, 18-65 y, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) were randomized to flavonoid (F) or placebo (P) groups for 12 weeks with blood and 24 h urine samples collected prestudy and after 4 and 12 weeks in a parallel design. Supplements were prepared as chewable tablets and included vitamin C, wild bilberry fruit extract, green tea leaf extract, quercetin, caffeine, and omega 3 fatty acids. At 4 weeks, urine total phenolics increased 24% in F versus P with similar changes at 12 weeks (interaction effect, P = 0.041). Groups did not differ in markers of inflammation (IL-6, MCP-1, CRP) or oxidative stress (oxLDL, FRAP). Metabolomics data indicated shifts in 63 biochemicals in F versus P with 70% from the lipid and xenobiotics superpathways. The largest fold changes in F were measured for three gut-derived phenolics including 3-methoxycatechol sulfate, 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid sulfate, and 1,2,3-benzenetriol sulfate (interaction effects, p ≤ 0.050). This randomized clinical trial of overweight/obese women showed that 12 weeks ingestion of a mixed flavonoid nutrient supplement was associated with a corresponding increase in urine total phenolics and gut-derived phenolic metabolites.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Fenóis/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/urina , Sobrepeso/urina , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0180086, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662207

RESUMO

Obesity in dogs is an increasing problem and better knowledge of the metabolism of overweight dogs is needed. Identification of molecular changes related to overweight may lead to new methods to improve obesity prevention and treatment. The aim of the study was firstly to investigate whether Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) based metabolomics could be used to differentiate postprandial from fasting urine in dogs, and secondly to investigate whether metabolite profiles differ between lean and overweight dogs in fasting and postprandial urine, respectively. Twenty-eight healthy intact male Labrador Retrievers were included, 12 of which were classified as lean (body condition score (BCS) 4-5 on a 9-point scale) and 16 as overweight (BCS 6-8). After overnight fasting, a voided morning urine sample was collected. Dogs were then fed a high-fat mixed meal and postprandial urine was collected after 3 hours. Metabolic profiles were generated using NMR and 45 metabolites identified from the spectral data were evaluated using multivariate data analysis. The results revealed that fasting and postprandial urine differed in relative metabolite concentration (partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) 1 comp: R2Y = 0.4, Q2Y = 0.32; cross-validated ANOVA: P = 0.00006). Univariate analyses of discriminant metabolites showed that taurine and citrate concentrations were elevated in postprandial urine, while allantoin concentration had decreased. Interestingly, lean and overweight dogs differed in terms of relative metabolite concentrations in postprandial urine (PLS-DA 1 comp: R2Y = 0.5, Q2Y = 0.36, cross-validated ANOVA: P = 0.005) but not in fasting urine. Overweight dogs had lower postprandial taurine and a trend of higher allantoin concentrations compared with lean dogs. These findings demonstrate that metabolomics can differentiate 3-hour postprandial urine from fasting urine in dogs, and that postprandial urine metabolites may be more useful than fasting metabolites for identification of metabolic alterations linked to overweight. The lowered urinary taurine concentration in overweight dogs could indicate alterations in lipid metabolism and merits further investigation.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Metaboloma , Sobrepeso/urina , Animais , Cães , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
19.
Environ Int ; 102: 79-86, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28188053

RESUMO

Di-(iso-nonyl)-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH) is used as substitute for high molecular weight phthalate plasticizers such as di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-(iso-nonyl) phthalate (DINP). Due to a rapid substitution process we have to assume omnipresent and increasing DINCH exposures. The aim of this study was to evaluate DINCH exposure in 112 children (4-18years old) from Portugal, divided in two groups: 1) normal-/underweight following the usual diet; and 2) obese/overweight but under strict nutritional guidance. First morning urine samples were collected during the years 2014 and 2015. Oxidized DINCH metabolites (OH-MINCH, oxo-MINCH, cx-MINCH) were analyzed after enzymatic hydrolysis via on-line HPLC-MS/MS with isotope dilution quantification. We detected DINCH metabolites in all analyzed samples. Urinary median (95th percentile) concentrations were 2.14µg/L (15.91) for OH-MINCH, followed by 1.10µg/L (7.54) for oxo-MINCH and 1.08µg/L (7.33) for cx-MINCH. We observed no significant differences between the two child-groups; only after creatinine adjustment, we found higher metabolite concentrations in the younger compared to the older children. Median (95th percentile) daily DINCH intakes were in the range of 0.37 to 0.76 (2.52 to 5.61) µg/kg body weight/day depending on calculation model and subpopulation. Body weight related daily intakes were somewhat higher in Group 1 compared to Group 2, irrespective of the calculation model. However, in terms of absolute amounts (µg/day), DINCH intakes were higher in Group 2 compared to Group 1. In regard to age, we calculated higher intakes for the younger children compared to older children, but only with the creatinine-based model. This new data for southern European, Portuguese children adds information to the scarce knowledge on DINCH, confirming omnipresent exposure and suggesting higher exposures in children than adults. Significant sources and routes of exposure have yet to be unveiled. For now, all calculated daily intakes are far below established health benchmark levels (TDI, RfD). However, rapidly increasing exposures have to be expected over the next years.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/análise , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/urina , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/urina , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/urina , Oxirredução , Plastificantes/farmacocinética , Portugal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Magreza/urina
20.
Med Sci Monit Basic Res ; 23: 25-30, 2017 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28179618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11ß-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11ß-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.


Assuntos
Cortisona/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Cortisona/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/urina , Masculino , Obesidade/urina , Sobrepeso/urina
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA