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1.
Span J Psychol ; 22: E20, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044685

RESUMO

Victimization experienced in childhood has been linked with health-risk behaviors (HRBs) in adulthood. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey was to provide data regarding the HRBs using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool Retrospective version (ICAST-R), Spanish version. This aimed to broaden existing knowledge by assessing both being victimized by adults and by peers in a Spanish general population of 348, aged 18-35. Age and timing of the reported victimization were also considered. Victimization: physical, psychological, sexual abuse by adults and/or peers showed a prevalence of 44.54%. Of these, 41.29% reported abuse by both. Children victimized by adults, regardless of type, were significantly associated to be psychologically abused by their peers (p < .001). Moreover, psychological maltreatment by adults was significantly associated with two peer victimizations: Physical and psychological (p < .001 in both). Regarding HRBs, peer victimized groups showed significantly higher levels of severity than non-victimized, with a higher proportion reporting attempted suicide (p < .05) and psychological or psychiatric treatment (p < .05). Participants victimized only by adults reported higher number of HRBs (p < .01), their victimization was associated to more severe abuse of drugs/alcohol (p ≤ .05), and suicide attempts (p < .05). Those victimized by adults and peers received treatment in higher proportion than non-victims (p < .001). Participants reporting victimization since before 5 years to age of 17, compared with non-victimized, showed more substance abuse (p < .05), attempted suicide (p < .01) and receipt of treatment (p < .05). These findings highlight the relevance of ICAST-R in studying HRBs.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Grupo Associado , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
An. psicol ; 35(2): 105-203, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181689

RESUMO

Antecedentes: la escala de Experiencias Vitales Tempranas (ELES) evalúa el recuerdo de la amenaza y subordinación percibidas durante la infancia en las relaciones familiares partiendo de la teoría del rango social. Se propone adaptar al español dicha escala y comprobar su estructura factorial mediante una validación cruzada y explorar sus propiedades psicométricas. Método: participaron 960 sujetos (863 de población general y 97 pacientes). Resultados: los datos confirman la estructura factorial de la versión inicial de Gilbert, Cheung, Grandfield, Campey, y Irons (2003), obteniendo tres factores: sumisión, amenaza, y desvalorización, explicando un 66.31% de la varianza. La versión española de la escala ELES resultó estar compuesta por el mismo número de ítems que la original y mostró índices adecuados de validez, consistencia interna, fiabilidad retest, fiabilidad compuesta e invarianza por género. Conclusiones: la escala de Experiencias Vitales Tempranas (ELES) puede ser de utilidad para evaluar las experiencias vitales tempranas, estudiar la relación entre dichas experiencias en diferentes manifestaciones psicopatológicas y establecer posibles modelos explicativos


Background: The Early Life Experiences Scale (ELES) evaluates the memory of threat and subordination perceived in childhood family relationships based on social rank theory. This scale was adapted to Spanish, its factor structure was tested by cross-validation, and its psychometric properties were explored. Method: 960 subjects participated (863 subjects from the general population and 97 patients). Results: Data confirm the factor structure of the original version by Authors (2003), obtaining a similar model with three factors: submission, threat, and devaluation, which explained 66.31% of the variance. The Spanish version of the ELES was comprised of the same number of items as in the original study and showed adequate indices of validity, internal consistency, retest and combined reliability. Conclusions: The Early Life Experiences Scale (ELES) can be a useful measure for evaluating early life experiences. Its application may be very relevant in studying the relationship between these experiences and psychopathological manifestations in constructing explanatory models


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Relações Pais-Filho , Vergonha , Culpa , Medo , Punição/psicologia
3.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(6): 811-820, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006084

RESUMO

Objectives Research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has provided a valuable framework for understanding associations between childhood maltreatment and family dysfunction and later poor health outcomes. However, increasing research suggests the number and types of childhood adversities measured warrants further examination. This study examines ACE exposure among adults who experienced homelessness in childhood, another type of childhood adversity. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive study used the 2016 South Carolina (SC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey and additional ACE modules to examine ACE exposure among SC adults and childhood homelessness. Standard descriptive statistics were calculated for each variable. Bivariate analysis compared types and number of ACEs by childhood homeless status. All analyses used survey sampling weights that accounted for the BRFSS sampling strategy. Results Data from 7490 respondents were weighted for analyses. Among the 215 respondents who reported homelessness in childhood, 68.1% reported experiencing four or more ACEs. In contrast, only 16.3% of respondents who reported no homelessness in childhood reported experiencing four or more ACEs. The percent of respondents was significantly higher for each of 11 ACEs among those who reported childhood homelessness, compared to those who did not. Conclusions for Practice Adults who reported homelessness in childhood also reported significantly greater exposure to higher numbers and types of ACEs than adults reporting no childhood homelessness. Study findings can be important in informing additional indicators important to the assessment of ACEs and to program developers or organizations that provide housing assistance to at-risk families and children.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Problemas Sociais , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Child Sex Abus ; 28(4): 383-399, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856061

RESUMO

Although the global prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is very high, the experience of healing after such abuse has not been well documented. The goal of this study was to characterize the healing experience among CSA survivors presented in the literature. Metaethnography was used to synthesize an integrative literature review. The CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were used as data sources. Eight articles that explored healing experiences from CSA, published between 2007 and 2017, were included in the analysis. After performing a quality assessment, line-of-argument synthesis was used to construct the integrating scheme of healing experiences from CSA. CSA healing experiences included dissociating oneself from the memories of CSA, finding peace by creating a comfort zone, disclosure as the start of healing, attempting to establish identity through ongoing self-reflective activities, feeling comfort by sharing experiences and connecting with CSA survivors, and accepting CSA as part of the life history and stepping forward. Healing experiences from CSA synthesized from the analysis focused on personal growth, supporting previous theory on CSA health in the broader literature. A tailored care plan could be developed for CSA survivors who are at varying stages of healing.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis , Cura Mental , Delitos Sexuais , Sobreviventes , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Humanos , Cura Mental/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia
5.
J Child Sex Abus ; 28(3): 345-359, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856065

RESUMO

There are a multitude of behaviors that child sexual abusers use to 'groom' children into becoming vulnerable to abuse. In this study of 277 adult survivors of child sexual abuse, participants advised the many ways they were groomed into being abused by up to three perpetrators. The effects of three categories of grooming (Verbal Coercion, Grooming that used Drugs/Alcohol, and Threatening/Violent Grooming) were examined for their effects on trauma symptom severity. Using Linear Regressions, each grooming category had a significant predictive effect on trauma symptom severity. Multiple Linear Regressions revealed that for most trauma symptoms, Threatening/Violent Grooming was a significant predictor of trauma symptom severity, even when other more well-known variables were controlled for (including age at onset of abuse, relationship to perpetrator, and severity of abuse), with a notable exception of verbal coercion as a significant predictor of sexual problems in adulthood (i.e. not satisfied, low drive, overactivity, confusion, bad thoughts or feelings).


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Coerção , Feminino , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 274: 345-351, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851597

RESUMO

Maltreatments in childhood may have implications for neurodevelopment that could remain throughout life. Childhood trauma seems to be associated with the onset of bipolar disorder (BD), and its occurrence might accentuate the overall disease impairments related to cognitive deficits in BD. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a history of childhood trauma to estimated intellectual functioning (IQ) of individuals with BD. We included 72 subjects with BD during euthymia. Participants underwent a clinical interview and were assessed through the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). Most prevalent trauma subtypes were emotional abuse and neglect (54.1%). A linear regression model that included perceived childhood trauma, family history of severe mental disorders, age at diagnosis and psychotic symptoms during the first episode as main factors showed that only childhood trauma had a significant effect in predicting estimated IQ. Therefore, the history of childhood trauma in individuals with BD may play a role in intellectual development, suggesting that adversities during development result in decreased general cognitive abilities. These results reinforce the need to promote early interventions to protect childhood and to promote the well-being of children, contributing to the growth of healthy adults.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(2): 125-131, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to psychiatric disorders, childhood adversities may increase the risk of suicidal behavior. In previous studies, the effects of clinical co-morbidity and overlap of childhood adversities has rarely been taken into account. AIM: The study aims to search associations of psychiatric diagnoses and childhood adversities and trauma (CAT) with suicide risk. METHODS: Altogether 415 adult patients attending primary and psychiatric outpatient care filled in the Trauma and Distress Scale, including assessment of five core CAT domains (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect). The study patients' current psychiatric disorders and suicide risk were assessed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. RESULTS: Age, poor perceived health, poor social support, current psychiatric treatment, all psychiatric disorders, except hypomania, emotional and physical abuse, and emotional neglect did associate significantly with suicide risk. Number of psychiatric disorders and CAT domains had dose-dependent effects on suicide risk. In multivariate analysis, current psychiatric treatment, current and life-time major depression, social phobia, alcohol, and drug dependency, as well as emotional abuse had direct associations with suicide risk. In females, manic disorders and drug dependence, and in males, dysthymia, social phobia, and emotional abuse associated with suicide risk. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric disorders and most CAT domains associate with suicide risk. However, when the effect of co-morbidity and overlap of CAT domains is controlled, major depression, social phobia, alcohol, and drug dependency and emotional abuse seem to increase the risk of suicide. The risk profile varies between the genders.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Maus-Tratos Infantis/tendências , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Suicídio/tendências
8.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(3): 274-284, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702319

RESUMO

Past research has reported that college students use alcohol to manage their negative affective experiences. However, this finding is somewhat mixed in mood induction studies, and it is also unclear which students are most vulnerable to drinking for these reasons. The current study examined the roles of child/adolescent trauma exposure with emphasis on early sexual abuse and emotion regulation difficulties on college students' alcohol-related tension reduction expectancies during a mood induction paradigm. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimentally induced negative or neutral mood condition with questionnaire batteries completed pre- and postinduction. Primary results were based on participants reporting exposure to at least one traumatic event (n = 134). Findings indicated that participants in the negative compared to the neutral mood condition reported heightened tension reduction expectancies; this was particularly salient as exposure to child/adolescent sexual abuse increased. A trend (p = .08) suggested that tension reduction expectancies were higher for participants in the negative mood condition, as reports of sexual abuse and emotion regulation difficulties increased, and after accounting for posttraumatic stress symptoms. Tension reduction expectancies as a risk factor for problem drinking following trauma exposure are discussed, and further, indications that risk for problem drinking following sexual abuse is associated with difficulties managing typical, rather than extreme levels of negative affect are emphasized. Clinical implications include the potential modification of brief alcohol interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Afeto/fisiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur Psychiatry ; 58: 10-18, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) exhibit long-lasting consequences on later life and are considered as a major public health problem. ACEs can be divided into household dysfunctions, which affect the child indirectly, and direct maltreatment. As a high correlation between ACEs in general is known, we assessed the risk for child maltreatment associated with the occurrence of household dysfunctions. To provide a better understanding for the mechanisms leading to the deleterious sequelae of ACEs, we furthermore assessed whether the long-term consequences of household dysfunction are mediated by child maltreatment and thereby might be targeted by effective child protection programs. METHODS: A representative sample of the German population above the age of 14 (N = 2531) was assessed in a cross-sectional observational population-based survey. RESULTS: The data reveal that mental illness of a household member was associated with significantly increased risks for all child maltreatment subtypes (ORs 4.95-5.55), just as household substance abuse (ORs 5.32-6.98), violence against the mother (ORs 4.43-10.26), incarceration of a household member (ORs 6.11-14.93) and parental separation (OR 3.37-4.87). Child maltreatment partially mediated the association of household mental illness, substance abuse and parental separation with later depression, anxiety, life satisfaction and subjective general health status and completely mediated the associations of intimate partner violence (IPV) and incarceration of a household member with anxiety, depression and subjective health status in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: ACEs linked to household dysfunction are associated with an increased risk for all subtypes of child maltreatment. The assessed widespread consequences of household dysfunction are mediated by child maltreatment. This underlines the role of prevention of child maltreatment in families with household dysfunction and implies child protection as a priority in any interventions.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Nível de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
10.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(1): 173-187, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30757987

RESUMO

This replication study examined protective effects of positive childhood memories with caregivers ("angels in the nursery") against lifespan and intergenerational transmission of trauma. More positive, elaborated angel memories were hypothesized to buffer associations between mothers' childhood maltreatment and their adulthood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, and children's trauma exposure. Participants were 185 mothers (M age = 30.67 years, SD = 6.44, range = 17-46 years, 54.6% Latina, 17.8% White, 10.3% African American, 17.3% other; 24% Spanish speaking) and children (M age = 42.51 months; SD = 15.95, range = 3-72 months; 51.4% male). Mothers completed the Angels in the Nursery Interview (Van Horn, Lieberman, & Harris, 2008), and assessments of childhood maltreatment, adulthood psychopathology, children's trauma exposure, and demographics. Angel memories significantly moderated associations between maltreatment and PTSD (but not depression) symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, and children's trauma exposure. For mothers with less positive, elaborated angel memories, higher levels of maltreatment predicted higher levels of psychopathology and children's trauma exposure. For mothers with more positive, elaborated memories, however, predictive associations were not significant, reflecting protective effects. Furthermore, protective effects against children's trauma exposure were significant only for female children, suggesting that angel memories may specifically buffer against intergenerational trauma from mothers to daughters.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Fatores de Proteção , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Mãe-Filho , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(1): 95-111, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30757989

RESUMO

Research suggests intergenerational links between childhood abuse and neglect and subsequent parenting quality, but little is known about the potential mechanisms underlying intergenerational continuities in parenting. Adult romantic functioning may be one plausible mechanism, given its documented associations with both adverse caregiving in childhood and parenting quality in adulthood. The present study used data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation to (a) investigate prospective associations between childhood experiences of abuse and neglect and multiple parenting outcomes in adulthood, and (b) evaluate the degree to which adult romantic functioning mediates those associations. Information regarding childhood abuse and neglect was gathered prospectively from birth through age 17.5 years. Multimethod assessments of romantic functioning were collected repeatedly through early adulthood (ages 20 to 32 years), and parenting quality was assessed as participants assumed a parenting role (ages 21 to 38 years). As expected, childhood abuse and neglect experiences predicted less supportive parenting (observed and interview rated) and higher likelihood of self-reported Child Protective Services involvement. The association with interview-rated supportive parenting was partially mediated by lower romantic competence, whereas the association with Child Protective Services involvement was partially mediated by more relational violence in adult romantic relationships. Implications of these novel prospective findings for research and clinical intervention are discussed.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Minnesota , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(1): 157-172, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30757990

RESUMO

Child maltreatment has been associated with various cumulative risk factors. However, little is known about the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences between parents in perpetrating child maltreatment. To estimate the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to perpetrating maltreatment we used a parent-based extended family design. Child-reported perpetrated maltreatment was available for 556 parents (283 women) from 63 families. To explore reporter effects (i.e., child perspective on maltreatment), child reports were compared to multi-informant reports. Based on polygenic model analyses, most of the variance related to the perpetration of physical abuse and emotional neglect was explained by common environmental factors (physical abuse: c2 = 59%, SE = 12%, p = .006; emotional neglect: c2 = 47%, SE = 8%, p < .001) whereas genetic factors did not significantly contribute to the model. For perpetrated emotional abuse, in contrast, genetic factors did significantly contribute to perpetrated emotional abuse (h2 = 33%, SE = 8%, p < .001), whereas common environment factors did not. Multi-informant reports led to similar estimates of genetic and common environmental effects on all measures except for emotional abuse, where a multi-informant approach yielded higher estimates of the common environmental effects. Overall, estimates of unique environment, including measurement error, were lower using multi-informant reports. In conclusion, our findings suggest that genetic pathways play a significant role in perpetrating emotional abuse, while physical abuse and emotional neglect are transmitted primarily through common environmental factors. These findings imply that interventions may need to target different mechanisms dependings on maltreatment type.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(1): 189-202, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30757991

RESUMO

Despite evidence of some intergenerational continuity of maltreatment, a notable proportion of parents maltreated in childhood do not perpetuate the cycle of maltreatment. The aim of this study was to identify factors that would distinguish mother-child dyads where intergenerational continuity was present from dyads characterized by intergenerational discontinuity. The sample included 193 children and their mothers, drawn from two populations: 74 maltreated children recruited through Child Protection Services and 119 nonmaltreated children recruited among low-income families. Factors investigated included maternal childhood maltreatment, psychological functioning, and family ecology. Compared to maltreated mothers who broke the cycle of maltreatment, those who perpetuated the cycle were more likely to have experienced childhood physical neglect and multitype maltreatment, and to experience sociodemographic risk, intimate partner violence, and lack of family support. Compared to nonmaltreated mothers who maintained a nonmaltreating child-rearing environment: (a) maltreated mothers who broke the cycle were more likely to experience residential instability and lack of family support, and (b) nonmaltreated mothers whose child was maltreated were more likely to experience sociodemographic risk and lack of family support. Maternal psychological functioning did not discriminate maltreatment groups. Lending empirical support to a diathesis-stress model of poor parenting, these findings suggest that family-ecology related stress, but not maternal psychological difficulties, may create additional burden that will precipitate the risk of maltreatment intergenerational continuity.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Pobreza , Meio Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Criança , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social
14.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(1): 23-51, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30757994

RESUMO

It has long been claimed that "maltreatment begets maltreatment," that is, a parent's history of maltreatment increases the risk that his or her child will also suffer maltreatment. However, significant methodological concerns have been raised regarding evidence supporting this assertion, with some arguing that the association weakens in samples with higher methodological rigor. In the current study, the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment hypothesis is examined in 142 studies (149 samples; 227,918 dyads) that underwent a methodological quality review, as well as data extraction on a number of potential moderator variables. Results reveal a modest association of intergenerational maltreatment (k = 80; d = 0.45, 95% confidence interval; CI [0.37, 0.54]). Support for the intergenerational transmission of specific maltreatment types was also observed (neglect: k = 13, d = 0.24, 95% CI [0.11, 0.37]; physical abuse: k = 61, d = 0.41, 95% CI [0.33, 0.49]; emotional abuse: k = 18, d = 0.57, 95% CI [0.43, 0.71]; sexual abuse: k = 18, d = 0.39, 95% CI [0.24, 0.55]). Methodological quality only emerged as a significant moderator of the intergenerational transmission of physical abuse, with a weakening of effect sizes as methodological rigor increased. Evidence from this meta-analysis confirms the cycle of maltreatment hypothesis, although effect sizes were modest. Future research should focus on deepening understanding of mechanisms of transmission, as well as identifying protective factors that can effectively break the cycle of maltreatment.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Relação entre Gerações , Adolescente , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Fatores de Proteção , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco
15.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; 20(1): 51-66, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803401

RESUMO

While the concept of credibility seems like an intuitive one, research has indicated that there is no consistent definition of this construct and that credibility may, in fact, be multidimensional. This article is the first to review how the measurement of credibility in child sexual assault cases has been conducted, with the view to improve how credibility is psychometrically measured. Our findings indicate that the majority of experiments have been conducted in the United States (67%), have been based primarily on undergraduate students as participants (67%), and primarily investigated cases involving a male defendant and female victim (69%). Ultimately, among experiments investigating victim credibility, approximately 60% of all measures were based on a single item and 53% used materials not based on the testimony of the child. Moreover, credibility has been measured using a great variety of constructs such as believability, honesty, truthfulness, suggestibility, accuracy, and reliability. A more nuanced and consistent definition of credibility will be needed to facilitate meaningful applications of the research literature.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criança , Revelação , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Psicometria , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas
16.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(6): 847-857, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618022

RESUMO

Objectives Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. One goal of Healthy People 2020 is to understand the role of preconception lifecourse exposures in relation to pregnancy outcomes, including PTB. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal exposure to multiple forms of childhood abuse and PTB and very preterm birth (vPTB), utilizing a national, population-based sample. MethodsThis study utilized retrospective self-reported maternal exposure to parent/adult caregiver perpetrated emotional, physical, and sexual abuse; non-parental/adult caregiver perpetrated sexual abuse; and history of PTB and vPTB in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The cross-sectional analytic study population consisted of first deliveries to 4181 nulliparous women (mean age at time of delivery = 21.7 years). Results With one exception, we did not observe associations between experiences of child abuse and the likelihood of PTB or vPTB. Only sexual abuse, accompanied by physical force and perpetrated by a non-parent/adult caregiver, was associated with an increased odds of vPTB (aOR = 1.94 (95% CI 1.10, 3.44)), particularly in women for whom abuse began after age 9 (aOR = 2.32 (95% CI 1.25, 4.28)).Conclusions for Practice The relationship between maternal exposure to child abuse and PTB may be limited to specific abuse and PTB subtypes, namely non-parent/caregiver perpetrated sexual abuse by force and vPTB. Future studies should also examine possible effect modifiers, such as maternal age and resilience, which may have the potential to inform interventions that can mitigate effects of maternal early life adversity.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur Addict Res ; 25(1): 20-29, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-stigma is a result of internalizing negative stereotypes by the affected person. Research on self-stigma in substance use disorders (SUD) is still scarce, especially regarding the role of childhood trauma and subsequent posttraumatic disorders. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the progressive model of self-stigma in women with SUD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the predictive value of PTSD severity and childhood trauma experiences on self-stigma. METHOD: In a cross-sectional study with 343 women with SUD and PTSD, we used the Self-Stigma in Alcohol Dependency Scale, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview (PSS-I), and to control for SUD severity and depression, the Addiction Severity Index Lite and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted for each stage of self-stigma (aware-agree-apply-harm). RESULTS: The interrelated successive stages of self-stigma were largely confirmed. In the regression models, no significant effects of the PSS-I- and the CTQ-scores were observed at any stage of self-stigma. Agreeing with negative stereotypes was solely predicted by younger age, applying these stereotypes to oneself was higher in women with younger age, higher depression and SUD severity, and suffering from the application (harm) was only predicted by depression. CONCLUSIONS: The progressive model of self-stigma could be confirmed in women with SUD and PTSD, but PTSD severity and childhood trauma did not directly affect this process. Self-stigma appears to be related to depression in a stronger way than PTSD is related to women with SUD and PTSD.


Assuntos
Ego , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Affect Disord ; 244: 33-41, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a core feature of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is one of the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Impulsivity is also present in bipolar disorder (BD). Impulsivity has been linked to adverse behavior (suicidality,…) and to traumatic childhood experiences. Our study explored impulsivity in BPD, BD, ADHD and healthy controls (CTRL) and investigated the impact of early trauma on impulsivity. METHODS: 744 patients with BD (n = 276), BPD (n = 168), ADHD (n = 173) or a combination (BPD_BD, n = 29; BPD_ADHD, n = 94, BD_BPD_ADHD n = 13) and 47 controls were included. All subjects were completed the Baratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-10) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). RESULTS: BD reported the same levels of impulsiveness as CTRL. When BPD and BD are co-morbid, impulsivity increased to reach the level of BPD. Impulsiveness was significantly associated to traumatic childhood event for BD and CTRL, not for BPD and AHDH. LIMITATIONS: Impulsivity was assessed on the basis of a self-report questionnaire and not by the mean of an objective measure such as a neuropsychological test. Moreover, we don't know what treatment our pathological subjects were receiving. But, ADHD and BPD, despite the probable treatment, were more impulsive than healthy CTRLs who did not take medications. CONCLUSIONS: Impulsivity is probably not a feature of BD but is associated with the presence of traumatic childhood experiences, especially for euthymic patients, unlike BPD and ADHD. So, it seems essential to assess the presence of early trauma to reduce the impulsivity and improve the evolution of BD.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Adulto , Comorbidade , Transtorno Ciclotímico/complicações , Feminino , Metas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Probabilidade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Affect Disord ; 244: 171-179, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate associations between childhood sexual abuse and maltreatment and internalizing disorders (anxiety, depression, PTSD) across adulthood. METHODS: Following a postal survey of 2220 women, a subsample was selected to participate in an interview. The subsample included 276 women reporting childhood sexual abuse and 221 women with no reported history of childhood sexual abuse. Interviews were repeated six and 25 years following the first interview. Internalizing disorders were assessed using ICD-8 and DSM-III criteria. RESULTS: There was a lower probability of having an internalizing disorder at older ages than younger ages for all women, regardless of maltreatment history. Latent class analysis was used to define three classes (no/low maltreatment, sexual abuse, poly-victimisation). Compared with no/low maltreatment, a history of childhood sexual abuse was associated with almost double the risk of an internalizing disorder and a history of poly-victimisation was associated with over four times the risk of an internalizing disorder. Childhood sexual abuse and poly-victimisation remained associated with an elevated risk of a disorder in older age. LIMITATIONS: Findings are limited by attrition (39% participated at Time 3), low prevalence of severe physical abuse, and changes in assessment practice of childhood maltreatment and mental disorder in the past 30 years. CONCLUSIONS: Screening and treatment for internalizing disorders in women with histories of childhood maltreatment remains important in older aged populations.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Affect Disord ; 244: 180-186, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity has been shown to exert profound effects on basic psychological processes well into adulthood. Some of these processes, such as those related to reward and emotion, play critical roles in moral decision-making. As a population with high rates of childhood trauma as well as heterogenous clinical presentation, individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) constitute an enriched group in which to examine the correlates of trauma and other clinical variables with moral cognition. METHODS: 62 euthymic BD patients and 27 controls responded to moral dilemma scenarios and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. RESULTS: Results revealed a main effect of diagnosis on moral decision-making only when both personal force and an intention were required, indicating a more utilitarian style in BD patients relative to controls. Several interesting patterns also emerged regardless of diagnostic status. Higher ratings of physical neglect were significantly associated with higher ratings of acceptability (a utilitarian tendency) across dilemma types, and a similar pattern was observed at the trend level for experiences of emotional neglect. Significant main effects on moral decision-making were also observed for sex, illness duration, and history of psychotic features in the BD sample. LIMITATIONS: The present study is limited by the self-reported nature of the CTQ and by the small number of trials of moral dilemmas. In addition, practical and clinical implications of the moral dilemmas paradigm are limited due to its abstract nature. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that certain clinical features as well as childhood maltreatment (in particular neglect) may significantly impact moral decision making in adult life. Surprisingly, childhood trauma was associated with a more utilitarian style, which is in the opposite direction from previous effects shown in PTSD. Although speculative, our results suggest that there may be a protective quality associated with utilitarian moral decision-making tendencies.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Princípios Morais , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
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