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1.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(8): 811-818, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424258

RESUMO

Does psychopathology develop as a function of the objective or subjective experience of childhood maltreatment? To address this question, we studied a unique cohort of 1,196 children with both objective, court-documented evidence of maltreatment and subjective reports of their childhood maltreatment histories made once they reached adulthood, along with extensive psychiatric assessment. We found that, even for severe cases of childhood maltreatment identified through court records, risk of psychopathology linked to objective measures was minimal in the absence of subjective reports. In contrast, risk of psychopathology linked to subjective reports of childhood maltreatment was high, whether or not the reports were consistent with objective measures. These findings have important implications for how we study the mechanisms through which child maltreatment affects mental health and how we prevent or treat maltreatment-related psychopathology. Interventions for psychopathology associated with childhood maltreatment can benefit from deeper understanding of the subjective experience.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232932, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413063

RESUMO

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been shown to predict the coupling of depression and inflammation in adulthood. Trust within intimate relationships, a core element in marital relations, has been shown to predict positive physical and mental health outcomes, but the mediating role of trust in partners in the association between CSA and inflammation in adulthood requires further study. The present study aimed to examine the impact of CSA on inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6 and IL-1ß) in adults with depression and the mediating role of trust. A cross-sectional survey data set of adults presenting with mood and sleep disturbance was used in the analysis. CSA demonstrated a significant negative correlation with IL-6 level (r = -0.28, p<0. 01) in adults with clinically significant depression, while trust showed a significant positive correlation with IL-6 level (r = 0.36, p < .01). Sobel test and bootstrapping revealed a significant mediating role for trust between CSA and IL-6 level. CSA and trust in partners were revealed to have significant associations with IL-6 level in adulthood. Counterintuitively, the directions of association were not those expected. Trust played a mediating role between CSA and adulthood levels of IL-6. Plausible explanations for these counterintuitive findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-6/análise , Interleucina-6/sangue , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232666, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392213

RESUMO

Early experiences of childhood sexual or physical abuse are often associated with functional impairments, reduced well-being and interpersonal problems in adulthood. Prior studies have addressed whether the traumatic experience itself or adult psychopathology is linked to these limitations. To approach this question, individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and healthy individuals with and without a history of child abuse were investigated. We used global positioning system (GPS) tracking to study temporal and spatial limitations in the participants' real-life activity space over the course of one week. The sample consisted of 228 female participants: 150 women with PTSD and emotional instability with a history of child abuse, 35 mentally healthy women with a history of child abuse (healthy trauma controls, HTC) and 43 mentally healthy women without any traumatic experiences in their past (healthy controls, HC). Both traumatized groups-i.e. the PTSD and the HTC group-had smaller movement radii than the HC group on the weekends, but neither spent significantly less time away from home than HC. Some differences between PTSD and HC in movement radius seem to be related to correlates of PTSD psychopathology, like depression and physical health. Yet group differences between HTC and HC in movement radius remained even when contextual and individual health variables were included in the model, indicating specific effects of traumatic experiences on activity space. Experiences of child abuse could limit activity space later in life, regardless of whether PTSD develops.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(5): 469-479, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237880

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment is widely implicated as the strongest developmental risk factor for depression onset. The current research is novel in examining the fine-grained associations of childhood emotional versus physical versus sexual maltreatment to indices of the severity, course, and presence of anxiety and trauma-related psychopathology in depression. An amalgamation across 6 previous investigations resulted in a sample of 575 adolescents and adults (76% female; age range 12-70, M = 27.88, SD = 13.58). All participants were in a current episode of a unipolar depressive disorder. Retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment were assessed using a rigorous contextual interview with independent, standardized ratings. Higher levels of emotional maltreatment and/or sexual maltreatment emerged as significantly associated with greater depression severity, number of previous episodes, and risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and were significantly more strongly associated with these characteristics than was physical maltreatment. Further, emotional maltreatment perpetrated by mothers was significantly associated with depression severity and history, whereas emotional maltreatment perpetrated by fathers was significantly associated with a greater risk of PTSD. These latter results suggest that prevention and intervention efforts may need to focus on the unique roles of mothers versus fathers on the development of depressive- versus threat-related psychopathology, respectively. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(3)2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether specific clinical factors contribute to heterogeneity in the timing of the onset of nonfatal suicidal behavior. This knowledge could have important implications for suicide prevention. METHODS: Using a nationally representative US adult sample, the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005; n = 34,629), we compared the characteristics of 4 different suicide attempter groups: those who first attempted (1) before 18 years, (2) from 18 to 34 years, (3) from 35 to 49 years, and (4) at 50 years or older. Specifically, DSM-IV psychiatric disorders that occurred before the first suicide attempt, childhood maltreatment experiences, parental history of psychiatric disorders, and sociodemographic characteristics were examined. RESULTS: Most first nonfatal suicide attempts (85.3%) occurred before age 35 years. Compared with suicide attempts occurring from 18 to 34 years, suicide attempts occurring before 18 years were more strongly associated with childhood maltreatment and less strongly linked to lifetime prior psychiatric disorders, whereas first suicide attempts occurring at 35 years and older were more strongly associated with a prior lifetime history of substance use disorders, including alcohol use disorder and nicotine dependence, and mood disorders, including mania/hypomania and dysthymic disorder between 35 and 49 years and major depressive episode at 50 years and older (all P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest age differences in risk factors for first nonfatal suicide attempt. Improving early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders and preventing childhood maltreatment may have broad benefits to reduce the burden of suicidal behavior at all ages.


Assuntos
Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0225839, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163421

RESUMO

In the current study a three-generational design was used to investigate intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment (ITCM) using multiple sources of information on child maltreatment: mothers, fathers and children. A total of 395 individuals from 63 families reported on maltreatment. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to combine data from mother, father and child about maltreatment that the child had experienced. This established components reflecting the convergent as well as the unique reports of father, mother and child on the occurrence of maltreatment. Next, we tested ITCM using the multi-informant approach and compared the results to those of two more common approaches: ITCM based on one reporter and ITCM based on different reporters from each generation. Results of our multi-informant approach showed that a component reflecting convergence between mother, father, and child reports explained most of the variance in experienced maltreatment. For abuse, intergenerational transmission was consistently found across approaches. In contrast, intergenerational transmission of neglect was only found using the perspective of a single reporter, indicating that transmission of neglect might be driven by reporter effects. In conclusion, the present results suggest that including multiple informants may be necessary to obtain more valid estimates of ITCM.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Relação entre Gerações , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
7.
Ann Epidemiol ; 43: 58-65, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127250

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined (1) if child maltreatment (CM) is associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and fewer quality-adjusted life years (QALY) over a 9-year follow-up of midlife women and (2) if adulthood psychosocial mediators could explain these associations. METHODS: Women (n = 342) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Longitudinal HRQoL and QALY outcomes measured at five study visits include 36-item Short-Form Health Survey mental component score and physical component score and the Short Form-6 Dimension health index. Aims 1 and 2 were investigated by generalized estimating equations and sequential structural nested mean models, respectively. RESULTS: Twenty percent reported 2+ CM types. Compared with women without CM, women who experienced 2+ CM types reported 5- and 4-points lower scores in mental component score and physical component score, respectively, and 28 fewer healthy days per year in QALY. Low optimism, sleep problems, and low social support each explained greater than 10% of the relationship between 2+ CM and HRQoL and QALY over time. CONCLUSIONS: CM is a life-course social determinant of HRQoL and QALY throughout midlife, particularly in women who experienced 2+ CM types. Several mediators are modifiable and could be targets of interventions to mitigate the negative impact of CM on midlife HRQoL and QALY in women.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde da Mulher
8.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(5): 394-402, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907548

RESUMO

There is little research on how childhood maltreatment influences the use of resilience mechanisms that are key to mental health outcomes in the face of adversity. We assessed the mediating roles of social support and positive coping skills in the relationships between childhood maltreatment and both psychological distress and positive mental health. We analyzed data from a national population survey, the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH 2012, n = 25,113). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to model the relationships between childhood maltreatment, social support, and positive coping skills and their direct and mediated effect on psychological distress and positive mental health. Childhood maltreatment was found to be negatively associated with social support, positive coping skills, and positive mental health but positively associated with psychological distress. Social support and positive coping skills predicted higher rates of positive mental health but lower rates of psychological distress. Social support and positive coping skills partially mediated the negative consequences of childhood maltreatment on mental health outcomes. Surprisingly, no sex differences were observed among these associations. This research clearly demonstrates that social support and positive coping skills can mediate the negative impact of childhood maltreatment on mental health.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos
9.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(1): 37-46, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Childhood maltreatment is a major risk factor for psychopathology associated with interpersonal problems in adulthood, but the etiological pathways involved are still unclear. The authors propose that childhood maltreatment confers risk for dysfunctional behavior in social interactions by altering interpersonal distance preference and the processing of social touch. METHODS: Ninety-two medication-free adults (64 of them female) with low, medium, and high levels of childhood maltreatment were tested with an interpersonal distance paradigm and subsequently underwent a social touch functional MRI task during which they rated the perceived comfort of slow touch (C-tactile [CT] optimal speed; 5 cm/s) and fast touch (non-CT-optimal speed; 20 cm/s). RESULTS: Participants with high childhood maltreatment levels preferred a larger interpersonal distance and experienced fast touch as less comforting compared with participants with no or moderate childhood maltreatment experiences. On the neural level, participants with severe childhood maltreatment exhibited exaggerated responses to fast touch in the right somatosensory and posterior insular cortex, which correlated with lower comfort ratings. Severe childhood maltreatment was associated with decreased activation in the right hippocampus in response to slow touch. This response pattern was not moderated or mediated by childhood maltreatment-associated region-specific reductions in gray matter volume. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that higher childhood maltreatment levels are associated with hypersensitivity characterized by a preference for larger interpersonal distance and discomfort of fast touch. These dysregulations were manifested in a sensory cortical hyperreactivity and limbic CT-related hypoactivation. These results may shed light on why individuals with severe childhood maltreatment exhibit an increased susceptibility to interpersonal dysfunctions and psychiatric disorders in adulthood.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Relações Interpessoais , Distância Social , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Atrofia/patologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 58(3): 20-27, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846047

RESUMO

Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) occur as a result of abuse/neglect during childhood and household dysfunction. More than one half of adults have experienced at least one ACE, and this can lead to impaired coping and risky health behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to determine the relationship between nurse practitioner (NP) knowledge of ACE and screening practice for childhood trauma in a mid-southern state. Forty-four NPs participated in the survey. Of NP participants, 15% reported routinely screening for a history of childhood abuse. Psychiatric-mental health NPs were more knowledgeable about ACE screening and more confident in screening practices. All providers reported lack of time as the most frequent barrier to screening for ACE. NPs who regularly screen patients are more knowledgeable about the nine knowledge questions regarding ACE. Insufficient time to evaluate or counsel clients was a universal barrier across the sample. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 58(3), 20-27.].


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Qual Health Res ; 30(1): 146-161, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718436

RESUMO

Child sexual abuse (CSA) represents a significant public health problem. While CSA is associated with several adverse outcomes, recent attention has been given to its effect on maternal parenting. Despite a growing literature on this topic, a comprehensive systematic review has not been conducted. Thus, this review aimed to fill this gap. Several search strategies were used, including searches in academic databases. Two reviewers completed screening, full-text review, data extraction, and quality determinations. Extracted qualitative data were synthesized for the 108 studies meeting inclusion criteria. The primary themes emerging from women's accounts of the effects of CSA on their current parenting included abuse of child, breastfeeding, child-rearing practices, coping related to parenting, mother-child relationship, perceptions of child, perceptions of motherhood, and protection of children from abuse. Given the current lack of interventions designed for these mothers, the results of this review may aid in the development of evidence-based interventions.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Delitos Sexuais
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225441, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment can have serious effects on development and physical, social and emotional wellbeing. Any long-lasting relational effects can impede the capacity to nurture children, potentially leading to 'intergenerational trauma'. Conversely, the transition to parenthood during pregnancy, birth and the early postpartum period offers a unique life-course opportunity for healing. This systematic review aims to understand the pregnancy, birth and early postpartum experiences of parents who reported maltreatment in their own childhood. METHODS: A protocol, based on the ENTREQ statement, was registered with PROSPERO. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, NHS Evidence and key Web of Science databases from date of inception to June 2018 to identify qualitative studies exploring perinatal experiences of parents who were maltreated in their own childhood. Two reviewers independently screened articles for inclusion and extracted data. Data were synthesised using grounded theory and thematic analysis approaches. FINDINGS: The search yielded 18329 articles, 568 full text articles were reviewed, and 50 studies (60 articles) met inclusion criteria for this review. Due to the large number of studies across the whole perinatal period (pregnancy to two years postpartum), this paper reports findings for experiences during pregnancy, birth and early postpartum (27 studies). Parents described positive experiences and strategies to help them achieve their hopes and dreams of providing safe, loving and nurturing care for their children. However, many parents experienced serious challenges. Seven core analytic themes encapsulated these diverse and dynamic experiences: New beginnings; Changing roles and identities; Feeling connected; Compassionate care; Empowerment; Creating safety; and Reweaving a future. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy birth and the early postpartum period is a unique life-course healing opportunity for parents with a history of maltreatment. Understanding parent's experiences and views of perinatal care and early parenting is critical for informing the development of acceptable and effective support strategies.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Parto/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Gravidez , Gestantes
13.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 159, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship between treatment outcome, as measured according to change in alcohol consumption, and a history of childhood abuse (emotional, physical, sexual) in socially stable women undergoing treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHODS: Participants were assessed using the Addiction Severity Index and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview at the beginning of treatment (n = 75), end of treatment (n = 59) and 12 month follow-up after treatment (n = 57). Self-report data on alcohol consumption were obtained at all three time-points using the Alcohol Habits Inventory-Revised 2. Self-report data on childhood maltreatment were obtained at the beginning of treatment using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-short form. Study outcomes were changes in alcohol consumption (grams of pure alcohol per week), risk-drinking and reported abstinence. RESULTS: Of the 75 women enrolled, 38 (50.7%) reported a history of childhood abuse and the rest did not. Both groups showed a significant improvement in all three outcomes at the end of treatment and at 12-month follow-up. At the end of treatment, a significant inter-group difference was found for reported abstinence (non-abused group, 39.3% vs abused, 12.9%; p < 0.05). At 12-month follow-up, significant inter-group differences were observed for all treatment outcomes, with superior outcomes being found for the non-abused group, including a higher proportion of women with reported abstinence (55.6% vs 13.3%; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that an evaluation of a possible history of childhood abuse is warranted in all women seeking treatment for AUD, irrespective of social stability. In terms of clinical practice, the results suggest that additional interventions may be warranted in this population.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Terapia Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 418, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood adversities, especially emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and peer victimization are considered to be crucial risk factors for social anxiety disorder (SAD). We investigated whether particular forms of retrospectively recalled childhood adversities are specifically associated with SAD in adulthood or whether we find similar links in other anxiety or depressive disorders. METHODS: Prevalences of adversities assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and a questionnaire of stressful social experiences (FBS) were determined in N = 1091 outpatients. Adversity severities among patients with SAD only (n = 25), specific phobia only (n = 18), and generalized anxiety disorder only (n = 19) were compared. Differences between patients with anxiety disorders only (n = 62) and depressive disorders only (n = 239) as well as between SAD with comorbid depressive disorders (n = 143) and SAD only were tested. RESULTS: None of the adversity types were found to be specifically associated with SAD and severities did not differ among anxiety disorders but patients with depressive disorders reported more severe emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse than patients with anxiety disorders. SAD patients with a comorbid depressive disorder also reported more severe adversities across all types compared to SAD only. CONCLUSION: Findings indicate that particular forms of recalled childhood adversities are not specifically associated with SAD in adulthood. Previously established links with SAD may be better explained by comorbid depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Fobia Social/epidemiologia , Fobia Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 66: 101475, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706394

RESUMO

There is an increasing focus on trauma within forensic services. This study aimed to investigate exposure to trauma among a high secure male forensic population. Based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ) data capture sheets were developed. Patients' own offending behaviour was included as a source of potential trauma. Records for all patients placed within the hospital (n = 194) were reviewed. All patients had been exposed to a traumatic event over the lifespan, with 75% having been exposed to trauma during childhood. Sixty-five percent of patients had experienced more than one type of trauma during childhood; the mean number of trauma types experienced during this period being 2.31. In adulthood 63% had been exposed to one trauma type while 29% had been exposed to two or more trauma types. No significant difference was found between those with and those without childhood trauma histories on hospital variables including admission length, seclusion and incidents. The implications of these results in the context of adopting a trauma informed care approach to treatment in forensic settings are discussed, and recommendations for future clinical and research directions are made.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ann Epidemiol ; 40: 13-20.e4, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711840

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether childhood maltreatment is associated with smoking behaviors and lifetime nicotine dependence and if associations are moderated by sex. We examined these associations among individuals who ever reported being regular smokers. METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examined relationships between retrospectively self-reported child maltreatment (parent/caregiver-perpetrated emotional, physical, sexual abuse, and neglect; and non-parent/caregiver-perpetrated sexual abuse) and self-reported smoking behaviors among individuals with a history of regular smoking. Outcomes were any current smoking in early adulthood (mean age = 28 years), current smoking in adolescent study waves only, adulthood only, and adolescence and adulthood (n = 3581); and lifetime history of nicotine dependence (n = 3594) per the Fagerstrom scale. RESULTS: Poly-maltreatment (aRR for 2+ vs. 0 exposures = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.34) was associated with lifetime nicotine dependence; associations between nicotine dependence and neglect and non-parent/caregiver sexual abuse by force were only present in women. Neglect and non-parent/caregiver sexual abuse by nonphysical threat were associated with continued smoking, and an association between non-parent/caregiver sexual abuse by physical force and continued smoking was also noted in women only. Women who experienced poly-maltreatment were less likely to report current smoking in adolescence but not adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest in a nationally representative sample of ever regular smokers, child maltreatment is associated with outcomes that suggest an inability to quit smoking and some associations may vary by sex.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Tabagismo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Nurs ; 119(10): 11, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567231

RESUMO

It's time to acknowledge this safety issue and train nurses in compassionate care.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Confiança , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Vergonha , Estigma Social
19.
Dev Psychol ; 55(10): 2203-2218, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368762

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence links exposure to early life adversities-such as childhood maltreatment-with impaired health and well-being in adulthood. Since these effects are usually unrecognized or untreated in childhood, preventive and remediating interventions in adults are needed. Our focus on adulthood prompted three major questions. First, does our increased understanding of mechanisms accounting for the long-term effects of early life adversities help delineate underlying dimensions that underscore key similarities and differences among these adversities? Second, can adults accurately report on adversities they experienced in childhood? Third, can we identify malleable risk processes in adulthood that might be targets for preventive intervention? Supported by the National Institute on Aging, the U.K. Economic and Social and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Councils, a network of researchers in human and animal development addressed these questions through meetings and literature review. A small number of dimensions may adequately distinguish among a range of co-occurring childhood adversities. Widely used adult ascertainments of childhood adversity are poorly related to prospective ascertainment. Strategies for preventive interventions should be aimed both at adults who were actually exposed to adversity as well as those who recall adversity, but the targeted risk processes may be different. Now is an opportune time to support research on adult interventions based on unfolding research on critical periods of sensitivity to adversity in fetal and child development, on improved understanding of risk mechanisms that may persist across the life span, and on new insights on enhancing neuroplasticity in adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Doença Crônica/terapia , Nível de Saúde , Adulto , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 278, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After delivery, some women experience impairment of their mother-infant bonding (MIB), which can lead to long-term disturbances of the mother-child relationship and the child's social-emotional development. Little is known about the association between early maternal bonding problems and mothers' own adverse childhood experiences, even though the hypothesis of the intergenerational transmission of caregiving indicates continuity in parenting quality across generations. Therefore, the current study aimed at examining the relationship between maternal childhood maltreatment and postpartum MIB, controlling for the role of postpartum mental health. METHODS: From February 2014 to March 2015, 725 women completed self-report measures 2 months postpartum. Maternal childhood maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, postpartum depression with the Revised Beck Depression Inventory, postpartum anxiety with the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, and postpartum MIB with the abridged version of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. Data were analysed using a hierarchical regression analysis. RESULTS: Almost 46% of the included women reported at least one type of childhood maltreatment with emotional neglect being most prevalent. 13% displayed at least mild postpartum depressive symptomatology and 20% scored above the 75th percentile for postpartum anxiety. In the final regression model, which explained 29% of variance, higher severity of maternal emotional neglect in childhood, higher levels of postpartum depression and higher education were significantly related to more postpartum MIB impairment. In contrast, higher severity of maternal physical neglect was significantly associated with less postpartum MIB impairment. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to explore the relationship between diverse types of maternal childhood maltreatment and postpartum MIB, adjusting for postpartum mental health. Maternal experiences of emotional neglect and postpartum depressive symptoms could serve as indicators to identify and support mothers with heightened risk for bonding problems, but results need to be validated in longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transtornos Puerperais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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