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1.
Pathologe ; 41(2): 168-176, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932946

RESUMO

During the Second World War, the German Wehrmacht and the SS tested various chemical warfare agents on prisoners of concentration camps. The SS needed a pathologist to do this. Therefore Reichsarzt SS Ernst-Robert Grawitz recruited the 32-year-old Hans Wolfgang Sachs. Despite his position as senior pathologist at the office of the Reichsarzt SS, Sachs was spared interrogation and prosecution after 1945, although the prosecution presented a document about chemical warfare and human experiments during the Nuremberg medical trial. In this, Sachs was named as a participant in so-called "N-Stoff" (chlorine trifluoride) experiments. Little is known about Sachs to this day. This article is intended to close this gap. Of particular interest are the motives and reasons why Sachs joined the party and the SS, as well as his career after 1945.


Assuntos
Campos de Concentração/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Patologistas/história , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos
4.
Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc ; 130: 216-234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516187

RESUMO

In the first half of the 20th century, the US was swept up in a multifaceted movement to enhance the genetic makeup of the country's population. This eugenics movement, based on flawed scientific principles promulgated by Galton in the UK and Davenport in the US included legally mandated compulsory sterilization in 27 states in the US and sharply restricted immigration from many parts of the world. Compulsory sterilization legislation was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1927. The American eugenics movement was a model for the compulsory sterilization implemented by the Nazis after they took power in Germany in 1933. The movement waned in America only following World War II when the US public became aware of the full extent of the Nazi Aryan racial superiority program. With the advent of major advances in molecular and cellular biology that are already being applied to clinical medicine in the 21st century, we have entered a new eugenics era. It is critical that we learn the lessons of our earlier eugenics movement if we are to avoid making the same flawed decisions now.


Assuntos
Eugenia (Ciência)/história , Emigração e Imigração/história , Fertilização In Vitro/história , Terapias Fetais , Edição de Genes , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Terapia Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Socialismo Nacional/história , Triagem Neonatal , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esterilização Involuntária/história , Estados Unidos
5.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(9): 152514, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255332

RESUMO

This sociodemographic study focuses on the disenfranchisement, expulsion and persecution of pathologists in the Third Reich - a group that has, until now, received little systematic attention in scholarly research. The paper attempts to determine the number of pathologists who suffered persecution, the characteristics they shared, and the effects the repression had on their lives - both in the period from 1933 to 1945 and in the post-war period. The study is based on primary sources from numerous archives as well as on a systematic re-analysis of published secondary literature on the history of Nazi medicine. A total of 89 disenfranchised pathologists were identified and have been included. The vast majority of these pathologists (90%) were persecuted due to their Jewish ancestry or their relation to Jews. A good two-thirds of these pathologists were employed at a university until their disenfranchisement. For two-thirds of these pathologists (n = 62; 70%), documentation of emigration was found. Twenty-four pathologists remained in their home country; of these, five died in concentration camps and two others committed suicide. The preferred country for direct immigration was the United States (n = 19), followed by Great Britain (n = 13). Most of these pathologists were able to establish themselves professionally in their destination country, and little inclination to return to Germany after 1945 was shown. The reasons for this were a lack of career options in their home country, the lack of a welcoming culture among colleagues and universities, and the stigmatizing experiences of individual pathologists had during academic appointments and reparations proceedings in Germany. However, especially in recent decades and in part posthumously, these pathologists are being granted honorary, intangible recognition in Germany and Austria. Even though this recognition can no longer provide tangible reparations, it is nevertheless a sign of a gradual change in consciousness.


Assuntos
Socialismo Nacional/história , Patologistas/história , Emigração e Imigração/história , História do Século XX , Humanos
6.
Neurology ; 93(3): 109-113, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308161

RESUMO

In 2008, the internationally renowned neurologist and university professor Helmut Johannes Bauer died at the age of 93 years. In the numerous obituaries and tributes to him, the years between 1933 and 1945 are either omitted or simplified; the Nazi past of Helmut Bauer has hardly been explored. Based on original documents dating from the Third Reich and the early Federal Republic of Germany as well as relevant secondary writings, Bauer's life before 1945 was traced to gain knowledge of his exact activities and tasks during the Second World War. Bauer was actively involved in Nazi crimes. He was a member of the so-called Künsberg special command of the SS and also worked in a prominent position at the Institute for Microbiology as well as for the Foreign Department of the Reich Physicians' Chamber. After World War II, Bauer underwent denazification and, like many others, was able to pursue his further medical career undisturbed, building on the contacts he had already made during the Nazi period.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Neurologia/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
7.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(10)2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Norueguês, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ragnhild Vogt Hauge (1890-1987) was Norway's first woman psychiatrist, but has today been almost forgotten. In this article we present her biography, medical background and work as a doctor. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We have searched through the Retriever media archive, the digital archives of the National Library and the Aftenposten daily, as well as in the following files in the National Archives of Norway: the legal purge of World War II collaborators and the files of the State Police, the Norwegian Medical Association and the Directorate of Health. RESULTS: After her mother's early death in 1908, Ragnhild Vogt cared for her younger siblings and took her mother's place. These family responsibilities caused her education to be delayed, and she did not graduate from her medical studies in Oslo until the age of 35, in 1925. In 1931, she became the first woman in Norway to be authorised as a psychiatrist. She later worked also as a forensic psychiatrist. In 1934 she married and settled in Arendal, where she continued practising until the end of her career. In the years 1941-45 she was a member of Nasjonal Samling, the Norwegian Nazi party, and was convicted of treason after the war. INTERPRETATION: There can be many reasons why the name of Ragnhild Vogt Hauge has been almost forgotten. She worked on the periphery and combined her practice as a psychiatrist with that of a GP. Most likely, her membership in Nasjonal Samling during the war has also played a role. The sources testify to a kind-hearted Christian doctor.


Assuntos
Socialismo Nacional/história , Médicas/história , Psiquiatria/história , Cristianismo , História do Século XX , Humanos , Noruega
9.
Ann Anat ; 226: 84-95, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946885

RESUMO

Since Vienna University's 1997/98 inquiry into the background of Eduard Pernkopf's anatomical atlas, German and Austrian anatomical institutes have been forced to confront their past, particularly the widespread procurement of bodies of victims of National Socialism. This paper focuses on the Anatomical Institute in Innsbruck, which received bodies from an unusually broad array of sources: from prisoners executed at Stadelheim Prison in Munich, prisoners of war from three different camps, military personnel sentenced to death by martial courts, patients from a psychiatric hospital, and several bodies of Jewish Holocaust victims. As in other comparable cases, these bodies were used for scientific publications and medical teaching until long after the war. The Anatomical Institute's collection is currently undergoing a detailed analysis in order to identify any human remains dating from the Nazi period. At the Institute of Histology and Embryology, recent research has led to the discovery of approximately 200 histological slides pertaining to at least five individuals who had been executed under the Nazi regime. In a number of cases, the specimens had been provided by Prof. Max Clara, head of the Leipzig Institute of Anatomy. This study is based on an analysis of the Innsbruck Anatomical Institute's unusually detailed records and numerous documents from various archives, including files pertaining to an inquiry into the institute held after the war by the French occupation authorities.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/história , Anatomia/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Áustria , Cadáver , Dissecação , História do Século XX , Holocausto/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Judeus , Prisioneiros/história , Prisioneiros de Guerra/história , Crimes de Guerra
10.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(5): 1076-1082, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871915

RESUMO

The German physician Maximilian Borst (1869-1946) was undoubtedly one of the best-known and most renowned pathologists worldwide of his time. His work on tissue transplantation and cancer research set international standards. Furthermore his career in Germany was also almost unprecedented: He was appointed to a chair of pathology at a young age during the German Reich, continued his career seamlessly in the Weimar Republic and was even able to expand his career in the Third Reich. Finally, after the end of the Nazi regime, he was among the group of university teachers who were considered to be politically unencumbered. The background to this favourable classification - and to Borst's unbroken career - was the fact that he had not joined the NSDAP in the Third Reich. Accordingly, he was considered apolitical. But is this reading tenable in the case of Maximilian Borst and does it stand up to critical historical scrutiny? What was the nature of Borst's relationship to the Nazi regime and what was his political position? It is precisely these questions that are the focus of this article. The study is primarily based on archival sources. In addition, a systematic analysis was performed of the relevant international research literature on Max Borst's life and work and on the history of cancer research in the Third Reich in particular. The paper comes to the conclusion that Borst demonstrably served the Nazi regime after 1933. However, Borst's closeness and loyalty to the National Socialists was not revealed through formal memberships of organisations such as the NSDAP or the SS, but rather through a number of influential positions in the field of health policy which were offered to him during the Third Reich. There is no doubt that the transfer of such functions presupposed "political reliability" and "loyalty to the line" on the part of the officeholder. Borst's often assumed inner distance to politics in general and to National Socialism in particular is just as incorrect as his alleged harassment by the Nazi bureaucratic system.


Assuntos
Socialismo Nacional/história , Patologistas/história , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX
12.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(5): 995-1002, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852044

RESUMO

The pathologist Walther Berblinger (1882-1966) became famous for his scientific studies on internal secretion, namely on the pathology of the pituitary and the pineal gland. The results of his research on the hormonal control of the reproductive system contributed significantly to the consolidation of the young discipline of endocrinology. His later pioneering work on the use of chemotherapeutics in tuberculosis was similarly important. Despite his "Aryan" ancestry, Berblinger was targeted by the National Socialists and forced to emigrate to Switzerland due to the pressure of political events - a fact that has only been partially investigated by researchers to date. Accordingly, this essay focuses on Berblinger's professional exclusion and on the implications and consequences associated with it. It also examines why Berblinger decided not to return to Germany after 1945. Primary documents from the University Archives Jena and the Main State Archives Weimar served as the central source for this study; they were supplemented and compared with the research literature available to date on Walther Berblinger and on the history of pathology and medicine under National Socialism. The study documents that Berblinger - unlike his Jewish colleagues - was initially able to continue his career in the Third Reich almost without restriction, but was dismissed from service when he refused to separate from his Jewish wife in 1937. Subsequently, the National Socialists' victimization of Berlinger even reached him in Swiss exile. Notwithstanding the hostile treatment and harassment from Germany, Berblinger succeeded in continuing his scientific career in Switzerland. After 1945, he decided against remigration - not least because negative experiences with German authorities made led him doubt the rule of law in post-war Germany. It was not until the last phase of his life that Berblinger was "rediscovered" by his homeland, as is shown by a series of late honors.


Assuntos
Endocrinologia/história , Patologia/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Socialismo Nacional/história
13.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(4): 832-841, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626488

RESUMO

Herwig Hamperl is undoubtedly one of the most influential and prominent representatives of German pathology in the 20th century. Interestingly, he left behind an autobiography (1972) which provides information not only about pathology in the Third Reich and in post-war Germany, but above all about his own life and work. His memoirs primarily served the purpose of recording his life's work for posterity and of retaining it in collective memory. This article focuses specifically on Hamperl's description of the Third Reich. The overriding aim of the paper is to elaborate on his political role and his relationship to National Socialism, which has hardly been investigated to date. Hamperl's autobiographical statements on this very question are therefore compared with the historical facts and - where necessary - contrasted and corrected. The same applies to the image that Hamperl draws of those pathologists who were part of his professional and personal network. The study is partly based on previously unevaluated archive sources and on a reanalysis of the relevant research literature. The paper concludes that Hamperl practised pronounced "self-fashioning": His memoirs give the impression of being formally and linguistically smoothened out and are clearly misleading in terms of content. They are characterised by omissions, ornamentation, and embellishments. Thus Hamperl makes false statements on the question of his NSDAP membership and depicts himself as a politically uninvolved university teacher. Furthermore, even in retrospect, he makes hardly any critical remarks on Nazi ideology and Nazi crimes.


Assuntos
Socialismo Nacional/história , Patologia/história , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos
14.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 40: 18-22, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685710

RESUMO

The Deputy Führer of the Third Reich Rudolf Hess was captured after a controversial flight to Scotland in 1941. Hess was sentenced to life imprisonment during the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials. He was detained in Berlin's Spandau Prison under the official security designation 'Spandau #7.' Early doubts arose about the true identity of prisoner 'Spandau #7.' This evolved to a frequently espoused conspiracy theory that prisoner 'Spandau #7' was an imposter and not Rudolf Hess. After Hess's reputed 1987 suicide, the family grave became a Neo-Nazi pilgrimage site. In 2011, the grave was abandoned and the family remains cremated. Here we report the forensic DNA analysis of the only known extant DNA sample from prisoner 'Spandau #7' and a match to the Hess male line, thereby refuting the Doppelgänger Theory.


Assuntos
Impressões Digitais de DNA , Pessoas Famosas , Repetições de Microssatélites , Prisioneiros/história , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Socialismo Nacional/história , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , II Guerra Mundial
15.
World Neurosurg ; 122: 63-70, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368013

RESUMO

The Nuremberg Trials were a sequence of tribunal sessions held by the Allied Forces between November 1945 and October 1946 with the intent of prosecuting prominent representatives of the Nazi Party for crimes committed before and during the war. Because medical experiments in human prisoners were among the most heinous offenses, a specific series of court cases, known as the Doctor's Trials (the USA vs. Karl Brandt et al), was carried out. A considerable part of the official documents of the Nuremberg Trials has been recently made publicly available through the Nuremberg Trials Project, an initiative of the Harvard Law School Library. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the Doctors' Trials original documents (NMT 1: Medical Case) as well as other available academic and historical sources focusing on references to the nervous system, neurosurgical, and neurologic diseases. Besides providing a brief glance of a unique source of original historical documents, this historical vignette also attempts to fulfill, at least in some limited sense, the moral duty toward the Holocaust victims laid on our generation by remembering their fate.


Assuntos
Holocausto/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/história , Médicos/história , Vítimas de Crime , Ética Médica , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Sistema Nervoso
16.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(2): 395-403, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553604

RESUMO

The name of the Hamburg pathologist Carl August Krauspe (1895-1983) is closely linked to the history of the "European Society of Pathology" (ESP) and the "German Pathological Society" (DGP): He was one of the founding fathers of the ESP, became its vice president, and was appointed an honorary member in 1983. From 1953-1962 he also served as secretary of the DGP and editor of the association's proceedings. In 1962/63 he finally held the chairmanship of the DGP. Most of the publications about Carl Krauspe accordingly pay tribute to these professional functions and offices. Hardly mentioned - let alone critically discussed - is the fact that Krauspe joined the "Nazi Party" (NSDAP), the Storm Detachment (SA) and other Nazi organizations after Hitler's "seizure of power". The content and tenor of Krauspe's reports on politically exposed colleagues have also hardly been examined. With this in mind, the present study pursues the goal of exploring Krauspe's political role and his possible involvement in National Socialism. It is based on previously unexamined archival sources and a reanalysis of the relevant research literature. The paper points out that Krauspe willingly served the Nazi regime during the Third Reich. Thanks to his "loyalty to the party" he was able to significantly advance his own career after 1933. In addition, individual examples show that Krauspe's "expert reports" on colleagues before 1945, but also in post-war Germany, were obviously ideologically influenced. After 1945 he failed to make a late personal contribution to the making of amends for Nazi injustice.


Assuntos
Socialismo Nacional/história , Patologia/história , Sociedades Médicas/história , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX
17.
J Anesth Hist ; 4(4): 233-234, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558767

RESUMO

During World War II, the French Resistance used political cartoons while fighting for France's freedom from Nazi domination. Reprinting Jean de Preissac's 1945 political cartoon of Allied leaders operating as Hitler's anesthetist and surgeons, a commemorative postcard was issued on the 20th anniversary of the radio broadcast credited with founding the French Resistance, General Charles de Gaulle's "Appeal of 18 June 1940."


Assuntos
Desenhos Animados como Assunto/história , Pessoas Famosas , Socialismo Nacional/história , Política , II Guerra Mundial , Anestesistas/história , França , História do Século XX , Cirurgiões/história
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