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1.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 20(2)jul.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003854

RESUMO

Sin lugar a dudas, el desarrollo experimentado por la humanidad en el siglo xx impone un desafío a aquellos actores sociales dedicados al avance científico y su aplicación, en particular en esferas tan sensibles como el de la biomedicina. La especialidad médico-quirúrgica en angiología y cirugía vascular enfrenta lo peculiar de tratar a personas que resultan muy vulnerables, generalmente por sufrir limitación o pérdida de su autonomía por ser añosos, presencia de dolor, lesiones de difícil cicatrización o la pérdida en ocasiones de uno o de ambos miembros inferiores, entre otras características. Una mirada desde la bioética destaca que el debido respeto del trabajador de la salud hacia las personas aquejadas de dolencias vasculares periféricas se debe reflejar en todo el espectro que abarca la asistencia médica, la docencia, la investigación y la socialización de los resultados que resulten relevantes o novedosos en este campo. La publicación de resultados de estudios de investigación para su aplicación en la asistencia y la docencia cierra el ciclo que comienza con lo cotidiano de la observación y las interrogantes que posibilita la experiencia. El reto es eminentemente ético si tomamos en cuenta que se precisa de una reflexión profunda para la selección del aspecto a investigar, del diseño y despliegue de un proceder metodológico que permita desde lo ético y lo técnico la mayor calidad de los resultados que se esperan y finalmente lograr la redacción cuidadosa de un informe de los resultados y gestionar su publicación que lo haga visible para la posterior aplicación. Toma de decisiones que siempre pasa por el tamiz de lo escaso de...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Socialização , Códigos de Ética , Educação , Eventos Científicos e de Divulgação
2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 803-816, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047569

RESUMO

A formação de Redes Sociais Virtuais (RSVs) em comunidades como o Facebook tornou-se um importante instrumento de busca por socialização e informação. Este artigo apresenta dados sobre fontes de informação utilizadas por responsáveis de crianças com Transtorno do Espectro Autista (TEA) e como essas interferem na percepção de suporte interpessoal e nos processos de governança em saúde. No estudo quantitativo, participaram 90 membros das três maiores RSVs sobre TEA. Para a coleta de dados foi utilizado questionário semiestruturado, cujas respostas foram quantificadas para melhor visualização. Os resultados demonstraram que a participação nessas redes é a principal fonte de informação para metade dos participantes, especialmente para a parcela da população com menor renda; 70/90 voluntários informaram se sentir amparados pelos parceiros de RSV e 63/90 se sentem desamparados pela sociedade em geral. Este fenômeno pode ser explicado pela formação de laços sociais marcados pela reciprocidade de situações vividas.


The formation of Virtual Social Networks (RSVs) in communities as Facebook has become an important tool for searching for socialization and information. This article presents data on the sources of information used by those responsible for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and how they interfere in the perception of interpersonal support and health governance processes. In the quantitative study, 90 members from the 3 largest RSVs on ASD participated. For the data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire was used. Responses were quantified to facilitate visualization of the data. The results showed that participation in these networks is the main source of information for half of the participants, especially for the portion of the population with lower income; 70/90 volunteers reported feeling supported by RSV partners and 63/90 reported feeling helpless by society in general. A phenomenon that can be explained by the formation of social bonds marked by the reciprocity of lived situations.


La formación de Redes Sociales Virtuales (RSVs) en comunidades como Facebook se ha convertido en un importante instrumento de búsqueda de socialización e información. Este artículo presenta datos sobre fuentes de información utilizadas por responsables de niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA), y cómo interfieren en la percepción de soporte interpersonal y en los procesos de gobernanza en salud. Se trató de estudio cuantitativo, participaron 90 miembros de las 3 mayores RSVs sobre TEA. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó un cuestionario semiestructurado. Las respuestas se cuantificaron para facilitar la visualización de los datos. Los resultados demostraron que la participación en esas redes es la principal fuente de información para la mitad de los participantes, especialmente para la parcela de la población con menores ingresos; 70/90 voluntarios informaron sentirse amparados por los socios de RSV y 63/90 informaron sentirse desamparados por la sociedad en general. Fenómeno que puede ser explicado por la formación de lazos sociales marcados por la reciprocidad de situaciones vividas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Apoio Social , Governança Clínica , Rede Social , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Relações Interpessoais , Socialização , Comportamento , Criança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Pessoal de Saúde , Comunicação , Internet , Acesso à Informação , Mídias Sociais , Governança
3.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 911-921, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047676

RESUMO

Uma vez que a internet assumiu o papel de fonte preferencial e espontânea de acesso à informação, o objetivo deste estudo é sintetizar o que as mães brasileiras buscam e encontram na internet sobre aleitamento materno, por meio de revisão crítica da literatura científica dos últimos 10 anos. Os estudos selecionados permitiram a categorização de três tópicos de discussão: qualidade das informações disponíveis; desenvolvimento de facilitadores para acesso a informações sobre aleitamento materno; e grupos virtuais de apoio à amamentação como espaço de educação em saúde. A internet é uma área com grande potencial para o desenvolvimento de ações de educação em saúde e promoção do aleitamento materno. Apesar de pertinente e atual, a literatura científica carece de pesquisas que explorem o tema do aleitamento materno sob o ponto de vista da interação on-line das mães, sendo este um campo muito rico para estudos futuros.


Since the internet has assumed the role of a preferential and spontaneous source of access to information, this work intends to synthesize what Brazilian mothers search and find on the internet about breastfeeding through a Critical Review of Literature in the last 10 years. The selected studies have allowed for the categorization of three discussion topics: quality of information available, development of facilitators for access to information on breastfeeding and virtual groups supporting breastfeeding as a space for health education. The internet is an area with great potential for the development of actions of health education and promotion of breastfeeding. Although pertinent and current, the scientific literature lacks research that explores the topic of breastfeeding from the perspective of the online interaction of mothers, which is a very rich field for future studies.


El objetivo de este estudio es sintetizar lo que las madres brasileñas buscan y encuentran en internet sobre lactancia materna, por medio de una revisión crítica de la literatura científica de los últimos 10 años. Los estudios seleccionados permitieron la categorización de tres temas de discusión: calidad de la información disponible; desarrollo de facilitadores para acceso a informaciones sobre lactancia materna y grupos virtuales de apoyo a la lactancia como espacio de educación en salud. La internet es un área con gran potencial para el desarrollo de acciones de educación en salud y promoción de la lactancia materna. A pesar de pertinente y actual, la literatura científica carece de investigaciones que exploren el tema de la lactancia materna desde el punto de vista de la interacción online de las madres, siendo este un campo muy rico para estudios futuros.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aleitamento Materno , Saúde Materno-Infantil , Internet , Tecnologia Biomédica , Promoção da Saúde , Socialização , Mulheres , Revisão , Poder Familiar , Nutrição do Lactente , Mídias Sociais , Mães
4.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 686-703, dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1046000

RESUMO

Estudar metas parentais de socialização emocional permite conhecer particularidades de contextos socioculturais e seus impactos no desenvolvimento infantil. Para analisar essas metas em mães e pais e sua relação com a valorização da autonomia ou da relação, realizou-se um estudo exploratório em que foram entrevistadas 60 duplas mãe-pai de filhos com até três anos, residentes na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. As respostas das entrevistas foram analisadas por uma técnica de análise de conteúdo e, posteriormente, foram calculadas frequências de evocações para as categorias identificadas e empregados procedimentos estatísticos descritivos e testes de associação entre grupos. Os resultados indicaram que as características emocionais desejadas por mães e pais para os filhos quandoadultos sinalizavam valorização da autonomia, independência e autoconfiança emocional, com as condições para o seu desenvolvimento estando principalmente centradas no contexto. A atuação parental prevalente foi a de educar/orientar para o desenvolvimento das metas emocionais que estabeleceram. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre mães e pais, nem entre mães-pais de meninos e meninas quanto a quaisquer dos aspectos investigados. Sugere-se novos estudos abarcando distintas configurações familiares, com participantes de variados níveis de escolaridade e em outros contextos socioculturais.(AU)


Studying parental socialization goals allows us to understand the characteristics of sociocultural contexts and its impacts on child development. In order to analyze such goals in mothers and fathers and its relationship with their values regarding autonomy and relatedness, an exploratory study was conducted in which we interviewed 60 mother-father couples of children up to three years of age, living in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Interview responses were analyzed by a content analysis technique and, subsequently, emission frequencies were calculated for the identified categories and descriptive statistical procedures and association tests between groups were employed. Results showed that the emotional characteristics that the parents desired for their children as adults valued autonomy, independence and emotional self-confidence, with the conditions for child development mostly centered in contextual factors. The most frequently reported parental behavior was involvement in education/guidance towards their child developmental goals. No differences were found between mothers and fathers, neither between parents of girls or boys regarding any of the variables analyzed. Further studies are suggested covering different family configurations, with participants of varying levels of education and in other socio-cultural contexts.(AU)


Estudiar metas parentales de socialización emocional permite conocer particularidades de contextos socioculturales y sus impactos en el desarrollo infantil. Para analizar esas metas en madres y padres y su relación con la valorización de la autonomía o de la relación, se realizó un estudio exploratorio y se entrevistó 60 dobles madre-padre de hijos con hasta tres años, residentes en la ciudad de Río de Janeiro. Las respuestas de la entrevista se analizaron mediante técnica de análisis de contenido y, posteriormente, se calcularon las frecuencias de emisión para las categorías identificadas y se emplearon procedimientos estadísticos descriptivos y pruebas de asociación entre grupos. Los resultados indicaron que las características emocionales deseadas por madres y padres para los hijos cuando adultos señalaban valorización de autonomía, independencia y autoconfianza emocional, con las condiciones para su desarrollo estando principalmente centradas en el contexto. La actuación parental prevalente fue la de educar/orientar para el desarrollo de las metas emocionales que establecieron. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre madres y padres, ni entre madres-padres de niños y niñas en cuanto a cualquiera de los aspectos investigados. Se sugieren estudios adicionales que abarquen diferentes configuraciones familiares, participantes de diferentes niveles de educación y en otros contextos socioculturales.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Adulto , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Poder Familiar , Socialização , Relações Pai-Filho , Relações Mãe-Filho
6.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1912-1923, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520234

RESUMO

Most empirical research examining youth's gender development measures felt pressure to conform to gender norms using a composite value of felt pressure from multiple sources; however, because of the different socialization processes at work from parents, peers, and the self, analyzing these sources separately may elucidate different effects on gender development. Thus, the purpose of this study was to (a) differentiate the effects of perceived gender socialization pressure from parents, peers, and the self on early adolescents' own- and other-gender typicality, and (b) to examine whether a bi-directional relation between gender typicality and felt pressure is evident when distinguished across sources. With a sample of 212 early adolescents (54% girls; Mage = 11.11 years), felt pressure was found to be distinguishable by socialization source: adolescents' perceptions of parents, peers, and their own pressures were distinct, and each contributed differently to gender development. Pressure from self and peers were both found to relate concurrently to typicality (i.e., positively to own-gender typicality, negatively to other-gender typicality); only pressure from the self was found to have a longitudinal effect on adolescents' developing gender identity (i.e., an increase in own-gender typicality). Interestingly, other-gender typicality did not elicit higher felt pressure; in fact, it was negatively related to later felt pressure from the self, suggesting that adolescents may be developing self-acceptance of their levels of gender typicality. The findings suggest that the development of gender identity may involve a complex interplay with various sources of socialization pressures (e.g., parent, peers, self), and may further shift in relation to the adolescent's own levels of gender typicality.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Criança , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Socialização
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480548

RESUMO

A growing body of recent research has identified associations between various parenting practices and styles and internalizing problems among adolescents. However, the reported findings are inconsistent and the studies in question have been conducted from different theoretical backgrounds. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the literature on the association of parental socialization styles with depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. To this end, we conducted a systematic search of the PsycInfo, Scopus, Pubmed, and Web of Science databases, covering literature published from 2010 to 2019. The search was restricted to peer-reviewed studies in English or Spanish. The results show that parental warmth, behavioural control, and autonomy granting are inversely related to internalizing symptoms in adolescents. Conversely, psychological control and harsh control by parents are positively associated with adolescent anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. Although the associated effect sizes are only small or moderate, the results suggest that these variables should be taken into account when designing programmes aimed at promoting parenting styles conducive to the wellbeing of adolescents.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Depressão/etiologia , Poder Familiar , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Controle Comportamental/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Psicologia do Adolescente , Socialização
8.
Rech Soins Infirm ; 137(2): 77-90, 2019 06.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453675

RESUMO

Activity programs are described in institutional policies as an added benefit in the lives of residents in that such activities are assumed to maintain health through the process of socialization. The purpose of this study is to describe the determining factors in the socialization process of elderly residents in retirement homes. A qualitative study, in nursing study using anthropological methodology was carried out from April 2016 to May 2018 in ten retirement homes in the Limousin and on Reunion Island. territory. Fifty-eight semi-structured interviews have been analyzed using NVivo 11Plus® software. The socialization process of the elderly in the context of institutional regulation is complex. Attendance at social activities is often used to measure the degree of socialization and integration in the institution, but, on its own, it is not a significant indicator. Other elements involved in the complex socialization process of the elderly in retirement homes include : family, relations with other residents, and interaction with caregivers plays a major role. An elderly person can remain isolated in his or her room, never participate in activities, and yet feel perfectly integrated and socialized within the institution. Future research will focus on the relationship between residents and caregivers as a factor in the socialization process, including the knowledge and skills of the caregivers.


Assuntos
Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Casas de Saúde , Socialização , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373292

RESUMO

Parents exert a strong influence on several adjustment outcomes. However, little is known about their influence on adolescents' connectedness with the environment. This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, empathy and connectedness with the environment. The two-dimensional socialization model was used with four resulting styles: Indulgent, authoritative, neglectful and authoritarian. The sample comprised 797 adolescents (52.7% girls) from six public secondary schools who were aged between 12 and 16 years (M = 13.94, SD = 1.28). The results showed significant relationships between parental socialization styles, empathy and connectedness with nature. It was also observed that adolescents from indulgent and authoritative families showed higher levels of empathy and connectedness with the environment than adolescents raised by authoritarian and neglectful parents, with males from such families consistently presenting the lowest levels of empathy and connectedness, which was not the case among women. Additionally, women, regardless of the parental style in which they had been educated, showed greater cognitive and emotional empathy with the natural environment, while adolescents raised in indulgent and authoritative families displayed higher levels of empathy and connectedness than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. These results suggest that indulgent and authoritative styles are stronger enablers of empathy and connectedness with nature.


Assuntos
Empatia , Meio Ambiente , Natureza , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Identificação Social , Socialização , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Espanha
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382589

RESUMO

Research has repeatedly highlighted the important influence of parental socialization styles on children's psychosocial adjustment. However, previous studies about their effects on school adjustment have traditionally addressed a limited set of indicators, such as academic achievement or self-concept, which should be broadened in order to increase our level of knowledge about this topic. Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyze the relationships between parenting styles and other relevant school adjustment criteria (self-regulated learning and academic stress) in adolescence. The study participants were 437 Spanish adolescents (44.7% men) from 12 to 18 years old (M = 14.55, SD = 1.80) who were enrolled in high school. A multivariate factorial design (parenting × sex × educational level) was used for each set of criteria. The results are consistent with previous research, showing that the indulgent style was related to better school adjustment during adolescence, evaluated through self-regulated learning and academic stress, thus increasing the available evidence about the influence of parenting styles in this setting. Additionally, this relationship remains invariant with regard to sex and the educational level of the participants in the study. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of parenting practices related to high acceptance/involvement for the adequate school adjustment of Spanish adolescents.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autocontrole , Socialização , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem , Ajustamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
J Genet Psychol ; 180(4-5): 231-250, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304875

RESUMO

Despite the importance of political engagement, the topic has been the subject of little empirical research in developmental psychology, particularly with preadolescent samples. As a commonly available and developmentally appropriate source of media messages, picture books may inform young children about politics and influence their political engagement and aspirations. This study presents a content analysis of all books included on The New York Times best sellers list for children's picture books from 2012 to 2017. Books were reviewed for depictions of political issues, political processes, political leaders, symbols associated with politics or political leadership, and government employees. Nearly half of the books in the sample included at least one instance of politically relevant content. Relatively few books included depictions of political issues or processes. More books contained depictions of political leaders. Democratic leaders represented were predominantly historical figures, and were largely men and White. Relative to democratic leaders, monarchical leaders were more likely to be girls or women and to be children and were less likely to engage in political processes or decisions. The findings suggest that although many picture books contain some politically relevant content, picture books represent a missed opportunity for many aspects of political socialization.


Assuntos
Livros , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Política , Socialização , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Psicologia da Criança , Fatores Sexuais
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 254, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beyond the formal curriculum of skill attainment, nursing students are able to undergo the professional socialisation process in clinical contexts and establish their identity as healthcare providers. However, the cultural context that affects the socialisation process in clinical placements is less discussed. We aimed to explore nursing students' learning and professional socialisation during clinical placements by considering the socio-cultural contexts in South Korea. METHODS: A grounded theory approach was used for this research. Four rounds of in-depth and intensive interviews were carried out, with the recruitment of 16 nursing students, four nurses and two university lecturers in South Korea (29 interviews in total). A constructivist grounded theory framework was adopted to analyse the interview data. NVivo 11 was used to manage the interview data for analysis. RESULTS: The researchers identified the process of learning and professional socialisation under three core themes: 1) Struggling at the bottom of the hierarchy, 2) Acceptance and conformity, and 3) The need for 'nunchi' (in Korean, it means to study the atmosphere and discover the embedded intention of others' behaviour). The results offered insights into the challenges encountered by nursing students on clinical placements and how students attempt to adapt and conform to the difficulties encountered in clinical education to maximise their learning and for their professional socialisation. The significance of the hidden curriculum was discussed. CONCLUSIONS: While experiential learning is a great opportunity for students to build on their coping skills and professional socialisation, a lack of support can result in failure to manage the hidden curriculum and theoretical and practical skills. Nursing educators therefore need to orientate students to the professional culture prior to beginning clinical placements.


Assuntos
Socialização , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242549

RESUMO

Scientific interest in students' emotional and psychosocial experiences has been increasing in the last years due to their influence on students' learning processes and academic performance. The present manuscript tries to go further in the study of the relationship between perceived parenting socialization and academic performance by analyzing not only their direct effects, but also by testing their indirect influence through other variables such as students' psychological and school maladjustment, especially focusing on gender differences (both of students and parents). The sample comprised 823 students (416 males and 407 females) from the Basque Country (Spain), with ages ranging between 12 and 16 years (M = 13.7, SD = 1.2). Students completed a sociodemographic data form, the PARQ-Control questionnaire, and the BASC-S3 test. Teachers answered an ad hoc question on each student's academic performance. The data showed that, both for males and females, the same structure of parent-teenager relationship predicted teenagers' academic performance, via psychological and school maladjustment. However, the intensity of the relationship between parental acceptance and teenagers' results in all the other factors differed depending on teenagers' gender. Fathers' influence was greater in males, and mothers' influence was higher in females. This study is considered a starting point for a theoretical model predicting academic performance and psychological and school maladjustment among teenagers.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Emoções , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores Sexuais , Socialização , Espanha , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234439

RESUMO

The aim of this study is two-fold: (a) to determine the general degree of family affect/communication and strictness by examining the combination of the two classical dimensions of mother parenting style: affect/communication and strictness, and (b) to analyze the impact of both parents' affect and strictness on the family style, thereby exploring the specific contribution made by each parent's style and dimension. Participants were 1190 Spanish students, 47.1% boys and 52.3% girls (M = 14.68; SD = 1.76). The Affect Scale (EA-H) and the Rules and Demandingness Scale (ENE-H) (both by Fuentes, Motrico, and Bersabé, 1999) were used. Structural equation models (SEMs) were extracted using the EQS program. The results reveal that it is not the father's and the mother's parenting style combined, but rather the combination of maternal and paternal affect/communication, and maternal and paternal strictness which generates one perception of family affect and another of family strictness. The results also indicated that the weight of both dimensions varies in accordance with the parent's gender, with maternal dimensions playing a more important role in family socialization style.


Assuntos
Afeto , Comunicação , Pai/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Socialização , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(6): 306-316, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231100

RESUMO

Objective The goal of the study was to assess the relationships of the frequency (more than one time per week) of various activities to frailty among independent elderly people in Japan.Methods Survey data were collected from 73,341 community-dwelling elders who were not certified as Needing Long-Term Care. Basic checklist survey items developed by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare were used along with exhaustive items on the weekly physical, cultural, community, and volunteer activities of the respondents. The effects of the frequencies of each activity with and without frailty were estimated. The relationship between frailty and pre-frailty was analyzed in a multinomial logistic regression model regarding involvement in activities and controlling for the effects of gender, age, and with non-frailty as a reference category.Results Data on 49,238 individuals in the study area not certified as Needing Long-Term Care (24,632 males and 24,606 females), corresponding to 67% of all elderly (aged 65 or more years) Japanese people were analyzed. About 65.9% of the respondents reported that they engaged in physical activities, 78.8% reported cultural activities, and 14.9% reported community social activities. The percentages classified as frail and pre-frail were 12.8% and 22.7%, respectively. All of the activities significantly related to frailty. The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of frailty among the respondents that engaged in all the types of activity was: 2.19 (1.71, 2.80) among those that reported no physical activities, 1.48 (0.91, 2.43) among those with no cultural activities, and 2.09 (1.80, 2.44) among those with no community social activities. The adjusted odds ratio on frailty for the three groups reporting one type of activity ranged from 5.40 to 6.42, which was statistically significant, and the adjusted odds ratio on the group reporting no activities was 16.41 (14.02, 19.21). These results indicate that the extent of frailty increased as the number of activities decreased.Conclusions This cross-sectional study found that frailty among elders in Japan was separately associated with participation in cultural activities, social community activities, and physical activities. Frailty was more severe among those with less participation. This result suggests that, for elders who find it difficult to participate in physical activities, engaging in cultural or community social activities might help to prevent or delay frailty.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Cultura , Exercício , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Vida Independente/psicologia , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Socialização , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(10): 4363-4364, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209742

RESUMO

Piece it Together (PIT) is a comprehensive wellness program designed for transitional age youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and mild neurodevelopmental disabilities that focuses on exercise, nutrition, socialization, and stress-reduction. The PIT Summer Program is a 6-week program, consisting of 90-min classes, twice a week. Each class incorporates 45-min of exercise and health and wellness lessons in goal setting, nutrition, bones and muscle anatomy, and stress management. The PIT program has successfully brought together a unique group to build friendships and make healthier lifestyle choices. One female participant has felt positively impacted and many of her in-class achievements have translated to greater success in work and school environments. She describes the impacts of the PIT program in this letter.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/reabilitação , Promoção da Saúde , Satisfação do Paciente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Socialização , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(1): 9-21, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183538

RESUMO

The main objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the available evidence on the influence of parental styles and dimensions on the development of adolescents' externalizing behaviors. As a novelty, this review offers an analysis of possible differences in paternal and maternal parenting practices and the role of gender in adolescents will be analyzed. The methodology used consisted of a systematic search of articles in databases (Medline, Cochrane, Academic Search Premier, PsycINFO, ERIC y PsycARTICLES) and their lists of bibliographic references published between 2010 and 2016. Initially, we located 31,169 studies, of which 31,019 were excluded because they were either duplicates or did not meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The remaining articles were again reviewed in full text and were subjected to the assessment of bias risk, of which 17 had an adequate level of methodological quality, and so were included in the systematic review. The results suggest that the parenting style most closely associated with externalizing problems is the authoritarian style. In contrast, the authoritative parental style and the dimensions of affection, communication, and autonomy promotion guarantee positive results. A larger number of studies are deemed necessary to establish firm conclusions about aspects such as differences between parents' parenting style or adolescents' gender


Las últimas investigaciones indican que los estilos parentales influyen en el proceso de socialización de los hijos. El principal objetivo de esta revisión sistemática es sintetizar la evidencia disponible sobre la influencia de los estilos y las dimensiones parentales en el desarrollo de conductas externalizantes en adolescentes. Como novedad, esta revisión ofrece un análisis sobre las posibles diferencias de las prácticas de crianza paterna y materna y el rol del género en los adolescentes. La metodología utilizada consistió en una búsqueda sistemática de artículos en bases de datos (Medline, Cochrane, Academic Search Premier, PsycINFO, ERIC y PsycARTICLES) y de sus listas de referencias publicadas entre 2010 y 2016 acorde con las últimas revisiones sobre este tema. Inicialmente fueron localizados 31,169 estudios, de los que se excluyeron 31,019 por encontrarse duplicados o no cumplir los criterios de inclusión y exclusión establecidos previamente. Los 150 artículos restantes se revisaron de nuevo a texto completo, excluyéndose 79 estudios por no responder a los objetivos del estudio. Finalmente, 71 estudios se sometieron a evaluación de riesgo de sesgo, de los cuales 17 presentaron un adecuado nivel de calidad metodológica, por lo que fueron incluidos en la revisión sistemática. Los resultados sugieren que el estilo parental que más se relaciona con problemas de conducta externalizante es el estilo autoritario, reforzado por la utilización de prácticas coercitivas, el castigo físico o la imposición. En contraposición, el estilo parental fidedigno y las dimensiones de afecto, comunicación y fomento de la autonomía garantizan resultados positivos. Otros aspectos como el control parental y las prácticas indulgentes o negligentes ofrecen resultados contradictorios que es necesario matizar. Se considera necesario un mayor número de investigaciones para establecer conclusiones firmes sobre aspectos como las diferencias entre las prácticas de crianza de madres/padres o el género de los adolescentes


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Características da Família , Distribuição por Sexo , Socialização , Comportamento Social
19.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(1): 23-32, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183539

RESUMO

The current work aimed to analyse the prospective effects of parenting practices on adolescent problematic behaviour taking into account the mediation effects of deviant affiliations in normative Spanish adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of 663 adolescents aged 12 to 15 (M = 12.49, SD = 0.68) and gender-balanced (54.3% male) were recruited from 13 state secondary schools in Galicia (NW Spain). Two structural equation models were tested separately on violent behaviour, nonviolent antisocial behaviour, and substance use: the parenting model analysed parental knowledge and parental support through deviant peers, and the sources model analysed adolescent disclosure, parental control, and parental solicitation through deviant peer affiliations. The results of the parenting model indicated that the effects of parental knowledge on all the types of problematic behaviour were significantly mediated by deviant peer affiliations. In addition, the direct effect of parental knowledge was significant on substance use for males. Regarding the sources model, the results indicated that the effects of adolescent disclosure were significantly mediated by deviant peer affiliations on all the types of problematic behaviour only for females. No significant effects of parental support, parental control, and parental solicitation were found. Methodological and practical implications of these findings are discussed


El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo analizar los posibles efectos de las prácticas parentales sobre el comportamiento problemático en adolescentes españoles normativos, teniendo en cuenta los efectos de mediación de la afiliación con iguales desviados. Para ello, se utilizó una muestra de 663 adolescentes de 12 a 15 años (M = 12.49, DT = 0.68) equilibrada por género (54.3% varones) de 13 centros públicos de secundaria de Galicia (NO de España). Se analizaron dos modelos de ecuaciones estructurales por separado para conducta violenta, comportamiento antisocial no violento y consumo de sustancias: el modelo de crianza que analiza el conocimiento parental y el apoyo parental a través de los iguales desviados y el modelo de fuentes que analiza la autorrevelación adolescente, control parental y solicitud parental a través de la afiliación con iguales desviados. Los resultados del modelo de crianza indicaron que los efectos del conocimiento parental sobre todos los tipos de comportamiento problemático estuvieron significativamente mediados por la afiliación con iguales desviados. Además, el efecto directo del conocimiento parental fue significativo sobre el consumo de sustancias para los varones. Con respecto al modelo de fuentes, los resultados indicaron que solo para las mujeres los efectos de la autorrevelación adolescente estuvieron significativamente mediados por la afiliación con iguales desviados sobre todos los tipos de comportamiento problemático. No se encontraron efectos significativos del apoyo, el control y la solicitud parentales. Se discuten las implicaciones metodológicas y prácticas de estos hallazgos


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Características da Família , Distribuição por Sexo , Socialização , Comportamento Social , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Am J Psychoanal ; 79(2): 139-155, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068641

RESUMO

This paper aims to explore severe societal-political divisions and interferences with democratic processes and human rights issues in many locations around the world, including in the United States, and examines the role of leader-follower relationships related to such developments. The term "large group" describes hundreds, thousands or millions of people- most of whom will never see or even know about each other as individuals, but who share many of the same sentiments. This paper first describes how a child becomes a member of a large-group and how adults sometimes develop a second type of large-group identity. Looking at such phenomena provides the background data needed to examine the spread of the metaphorical question, "Who are we now?" worldwide, as well as to examine the evolution of present-day authoritarian regimes, extreme right-wing politics and rhetoric, wall-building, and societal-political divisions.


Assuntos
Democracia , Dissidências e Disputas , Relações Interpessoais , Liderança , Identificação Social , Valores Sociais , Adulto , Autoritarismo , Criança , Teoria Freudiana , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Negociação , Apego ao Objeto , Teoria Psicanalítica , Autoimagem , Mudança Social , Socialização
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