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2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e49514, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1118069

RESUMO

Objetivo: desvelar a percepção das mulheres sobre o acesso aos serviços de saúde como ferramenta do processo de ressocialização. Método: trata-se de um estudo fenomenológico-sociológico, qualitativo, realizado entre novembro de 2018 e novembro de 2019, com 10 mulheres de um estabelecimento prisional feminino de Maceió, Alagoas. Resultados: as participantes possuíam de 22 a 54 anos, ensino fundamental incompleto, pardas, solteiras, já haviam vivenciado a maternidade. Emergiram duas categorias temáticas: percepções do acesso aos serviços de saúde: a invisibilidade das mulheres e acesso aos serviços de saúde como uma ferramenta de ressocialização: elos dilacerados e Trabalho e Educação como alternativa de Fuga do esquecimento, ociosidade e solidão. Conclusão: evidenciou-se a percepção de invisibilidade das mulheres privadas de liberdade e desvinculação do acesso aos serviços de saúde como ferramenta do processo de ressocialização.


Objective: to unveil women's perceptions of access to health services as a tool in the re-socialization process. Method: this qualitative, phenomenological-sociological study was conducted between November 2018 and November 2019 with 10 women at a women's prison in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil. Results: the participants were 22 to 54 years old, of mixed race, single, had not completed lower secondary school, and had already experienced motherhood. Two thematic categories emerged: "Perceptions of access to health services: women's invisibility" and "Access to health services as a resocialization tool: ties in shreds and Work and Education as an alternative escape route from oblivion, idleness and loneliness. Conclusion: the women deprived of their freedom were found to perceive themselves to be invisible and disconnected from access to health services as a tool in the resocialization process.


Objetivo: revelar las percepciones de las mujeres sobre el acceso a los servicios de salud como herramienta en el proceso de resocialización. Método: este estudio cualitativo, fenomenológico-sociológico se realizó entre noviembre de 2018 y noviembre de 2019 con 10 mujeres en una cárcel de mujeres en Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil. Resultados: las participantes tenían entre 22 y 54 años, mestizas, solteras, no habían completado el primer ciclo de secundaria y ya habían experimentado la maternidad. Surgieron dos categorías temáticas: "Percepciones del acceso a los servicios de salud: invisibilidad de las mujeres" y "Acceso a los servicios de salud como herramienta de resocialización: lazos en jirones y Trabajo y Educación como vía alternativa de escape al olvido, la ociosidad y la soledad. Conclusión: las mujeres privadas de libertad se percibieron a sí mismas invisibles y desconectadas del acceso a los servicios de salud como herramienta en el proceso de resocialización.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Prisões , Socialização , Saúde da Mulher , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Brasil , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Iniquidade de Gênero , Liberdade , Solidão
3.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(12): 539-541, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258759

RESUMO

The recent pandemic has led to lockdowns in numerous facilities caring for older people, and the lack of socialization can lead to an increased risk of depression. Interpersonal therapy, while not heavily researched, could be more effective than any antidepressant.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Coronavirus , Depressão/terapia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia Interpessoal , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Depressão/etiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Socialização
4.
Fam Process ; 59(4): 1374-1388, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217004

RESUMO

The frequent police killings during the COVID-19 pandemic forced a reckoning among Americans from all backgrounds and propelled the Black Lives Matter movement into a global force. This manuscript addresses major issues to aid practitioners in the effective treatment of African Americans via the lens of Critical Race Theory and the Bioecological Model. We place the impacts of racism on Black families in historical context and outline the sources of Black family resilience. We critique structural racism embedded in all aspects of psychology and allied fields. We provide an overview of racial socialization and related issues affecting the parenting decisions in Black families, as well as a detailed overview of impacts of structural racism on couple dynamics. Recommendations are made for engaging racial issues in therapy, providing emotional support and validation to couples and families experiencing discrimination and racial trauma, and using Black cultural strengths as therapeutic resources.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Terapia de Casal , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Terapia Familiar , Poder Familiar , Racismo , Desumanização , Trauma Histórico , Homicídio , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Polícia , Ativismo Político , Socialização , Estados Unidos , Violência
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086535

RESUMO

Understanding the landscape socialization underpinning the human-nature relationship is essential because it can contribute to assisting us to reconnect with nature. Reconnecting to nature is increasingly recognized as positively contributing to health and well-being. This study aimed to understand people's connections with nature through landscape socialization under different land use policies. The study assumed that social values, as perceived by residents, facilitates their landscape socialization. Using a questionnaire measuring sense of community and the Social Values for Ecosystem Services application as analytical tools, the study assessed how residents with varying educational attainment, sense of community, and grounded occupation differ in identifying with conservation- and recreation-oriented policy interventions. The results demonstrated the role of landscape socialization in how people connect with nature, and the landscape socialization as a result of long-term policy interventions may exert substantial effects on residents' social values across various spatial scales. The results deepen the general understanding of system leverage points for creating inner connections to nature which can aid sustainability transformation.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Socialização , Humanos , Políticas , Terapia de Relaxamento
6.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 492-502, oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195666

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to analyze the mediating role of family environment in the relationship between difficult temperament and externalizing/internalizing problems in a sample of 474 Spanish children aged between 6 and 8 years. A secondary objective of this work was to analyze the effect of gender in the mediation pattern found. To measure externalizing/internalizing problems, marital adjustment, parenting practices and children's temperament, the parents were given a Socialization Battery (BAS-1), the Marital Adjustment Test (MAT), the Spanish version of the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory), and the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ). We tested a statistical mediation model that revealed the mediating role of marital adjustment, and the parenting practices of involvement and limit setting, in the relationship between difficult temperament and externalizing problems. We found that marital adjustment and parental involvement mediated the relationship between internalizing problems and difficult temperament. On the other hand, the results pointed to a different mediation pattern when we compared boys and girls. Specifically, we found that the mediating role of marital adjustment and parental involvement in the relationship between difficult temperament and externalizing problems was stronger in boys than in girls


El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el papel mediador del ambiente familiar en la relación entre temperamento difícil y problemas externalizantes/internalizantes en una muestra de 474 niños españoles de entre 6 y 8 años. Un segundo objetivo fue analizar el efecto del género en el patrón de mediación encontrado. Para la medida de los problemas externalizantes/internalizantes, el ajuste marital, las prácticas parentales y el temperamento del niño los padres cumplimentaron la Batería de Socialización (BAS-1), el Test de Ajuste Marital (MAT) y la versión española del Cuestionario de Temperamento en la niñez intermedia (TMCQ). El análisis de mediación probado confirmó el efecto de mediación del ajuste marital y las prácticas parentales de implicación y disciplina en la relación entre temperamento difícil y problemas externalizantes, y el efecto de mediación del ajuste marital y la implicación parental en la relación entre temperamento y difícil y problemas internalizantes. Por otro lado, los resultados apuntaron un patrón de mediación diferente cuando comparamos a niños y niñas. En concreto, encontramos que el efecto de mediación del ajuste marital y la implicación parental fue más fuerte en niños que en niñas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Temperamento , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Variância , Fatores Etários , Inquéritos e Questionários , Socialização , Espanha
7.
Altern Lab Anim ; 48(3): 116-126, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006496

RESUMO

The fate of experimental animals represents an ethical dilemma and a public concern. In the EU, Directive 2010/63/EU allows the rehoming of former experimental animals instead of euthanasia. However, to our knowledge, there are no previous reports of rehoming Beagles in Finland. This study aimed to describe the process behind the first rehoming of laboratory Beagles at the University of Helsinki and evaluate its success. In total, 16 former laboratory Beagles were rehomed in collaboration with animal protection organisations and the University of Helsinki. The dogs had participated in animal cognition studies and had undergone minor procedures during the development of a veterinary drug. While the dogs were still in the laboratory, a socialisation training programme lasting several months was undertaken. Through surveying of the adoptive owners, and interviewing the various stakeholders involved (researchers, animal protection organisations and animal caretakers), the overall process was evaluated, including: the socialisation training programme; the comparative success of rehoming younger compared to older animals; the criteria that were used for the selection of the adoptive owners; and the eventual success of rehoming the dogs with the new owners. The majority of the dogs adjusted well to their new home environment. Euthanasia at the end of their experimental use would have been unnecessary and possibly against the objectives of European directives.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Socialização , Animais , Cães , Finlândia , Seguimentos , Propriedade
8.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(5): 649-652, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933836

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the needs, emotions, and coping behaviors of U.S. youth during COVID-19. METHODS: Two open-ended questions were posed to 1,174 MyVoice youth, aged 14-24 years, on March 20, 2020, regarding their needs and coping strategies during COVID-19. Qualitative responses were coded using thematic analysis and data were summarized with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The average age of the 950 respondents (RR = 80.9%) was 18.9 ± 2.8 years with 52.1% female and 63.8% white. While 32.6% of participants felt resources were readily available, 35.2% felt resources were difficult to access or unavailable. Participants also described both emotional responses (27.4%) and coping strategies (69.8%). Most emotional responses were negative, including symptoms of anxiety or depression. Commonly reported coping strategies included staying connected and maintaining positivity. CONCLUSIONS: A significant portion of U.S. youth are experiencing unmet needs and negative emotions due to COVID-19 suggesting additional youth outreach is necessary to ensure basic needs, including socialization, are met.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Apoio Social , Socialização , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(11): 2175-2189, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955702

RESUMO

Racial socialization is an important predictor of wellbeing among Black youth. Scholars have theorized that Black girls could benefit from gendered racial socialization or messages about being Black girls. However, this has not been examined empirically. The current study investigates the role of general and gendered racial socialization and racial identity attitudes on depressive symptoms among 287 Black girls between the ages of 13-17 (Mage = 15.4) in the U.S. Path analysis results demonstrated that general and gendered racial socialization about pride were directly associated with positive feelings about being Black which were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Oppressive messages about Black women were related to negative feelings about being Black and more depressive symptoms. The implications of general and gendered racial socialization on the psychological wellbeing of Black girls are discussed.


Assuntos
Depressão , Socialização , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Identificação Social
11.
Aggress Behav ; 46(6): 535-546, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840889

RESUMO

The extant literature suggests that relational aggression appears in early childhood, and gradually increases throughout adolescence. However, very little research has examined the growth of relational aggression from adolescence to emerging adulthood. In addition, research generally examines socializing factors of relational aggression, such as parenting, peers, siblings, or media in isolation. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine these socializing factors conjunctively as predictors of the growth of relational aggression over time. Participants consisted of 500 adolescents who completed several questionnaires over a 7-year period (between ages 14-20 on average). Results revealed that the vast majority of individuals (88%) showed low levels of relational aggression that decreased over time. Conversely, a small proportion of individuals (12%) had high, increasing levels of relational aggression between adolescence and emerging adulthood. High levels of maternal psychological control, sibling hostility, and relational aggression in the media at the initial time point all predicted being in the high and increasing group.


Assuntos
Agressão , Socialização , Adolescente , Hostilidade , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Adulto Jovem
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13774, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792641

RESUMO

Behavioural problems are leading welfare issues in domestic dogs. In particular, anxiety-related behavioural problems, such as fearfulness and noise sensitivity are highly prevalent conditions that cause distress to fearful dogs. To better understand the environmental factors associated with non-social fear, including noise sensitivity, fear of novel situations, and fear of surfaces and heights, a large online survey including data on 13,700 Finnish pet dogs was performed by the dog owners. After fulfilling inclusion criteria, this data consisted of 9,613 dogs with fear of fireworks, 9,513 dogs with fear of thunder, 6,945 dogs with fear of novel situations, and 2,932 dogs with fear of surfaces and heights. Logistic regression analyses revealed that dogs with frequent non-social fear had experienced less socialisation during puppyhood, were more often neutered, had inexperienced owners, lived without conspecifics, participated less frequently in activities or training, and lived in more urban environments. In addition, we identified several breed differences, and a tendency of more common non-social fear in small dog breeds, which suggests a genetic background. Non-social fearfulness has a negative effect on well-being of the dogs. Our findings suggest that the socialisation and the living environment and the value of other dogs' company and owner interaction via activities and training may improve the well-being of the dogs.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Doenças do Cão/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Cães , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Socialização , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (49): 93-106, jul. 2020.
Artigo em Catalão | IBECS | ID: ibc-192096

RESUMO

L'educació, tant en els primers nivells de socialització com en les seves etapes posteriors d'educació formal, està posant en risc el desenvolupament de l'autonomia individual tan necessària perquè l'alumne arribi a la maduresa pròpia de l'etapa adulta. Les polítiques educatives, els nous models educatius I la societat mateixa estan desvinculant l' autonomia progressiva de la responsabilitat, els sentiments de la raó, l'emoció de la voluntat I la motivació del deure en la seva praxi educativa. Les conseqüències són que els alumnes queden ancorats en actituds infantils d'omnipotència amb incapacitat de fer un ajustament adequat amb la realitat I reaccionant en la majoria de casos amb agressivitat. La bioètica I l'educació tenen una relació necessària amb la construcció de subjectes morals I autònoms És urgent traçar una línia per sota de la qual no es donin les condiciones necessaries pel desenvolupament ple de la nostra joventut. La bioètica, que té un caràcter multidisciplinar I interdisciplinar, ha d' atendre als problemes actuals I complexos de l' educació I contribuir a pensar models educatius que formin ciutadans compromesos, responsables I solidaris. Un model educatiu s'ha de construir dins d'un debat bioètic i, en el marc de l'ètica del cuidar, sense desvincular-se de les ètiques de caràcter normatiu


La educación, tanto en los primeros niveles de socialización como en sus etapas posteriores de educación formal, está poniendo en riesgo el desarrollo de la autonomía individual tan necesaria para que el alumno llegue a la madurez propia de la etapa adulta. Las políticas educativas, los nuevos modelos educativos y la sociedad misma están desvinculando la autonomía progresiva de la responsabilidad, los sentimientos de la razón, la emoción de la voluntad y la motivación del deber en su praxis educativa. Las consecuencias son que los alumnos quedan anclados en actitudes infantiles de omnipotencia con incapacidad de hacer un ajuste adecuado con la realidad y reaccionando en la mayoría de casos con agresividad. La bioética y la educación tienen una relación necesaria con la construcción de sujetos morales y autónomos. Es urgente trazar una línea por debajo de la cual no se den las condiciones necesarias para el desarrollo pleno de nuestra juventud. La bioética, que tiene un carácter multidisciplinar e interdisciplinar, debe atender a los problemas actuales y complejos de la educación y contribuir a pensar modelos educativos que formen ciudadanos comprometidos, responsables y solidarios. Un modelo educativo debe construirse dentro de un debate bioético y, en el marco de la ética del cuidar, sin desvincularse de las éticas de carácter normativo


Education, both at the early levels of socialization and in the later stages of formal education, is putting at risk the development of the individual autonomy so necessary for the student to reach the maturity of adulthood. Educational policies, the new educational models and society itself are dissociating progressive autonomy from responsibility, feelings of reason, emotion from will and motivation of duty in their educational practice. The consequences are that students are anchored in childish attitudes of omnipotence with an inability to adjust accordingly to reality and reacting, in most cases, aggressively. Bioethics and education have a necessary relationship with the construction of moral and autonomous subjects. Bioethics, which has a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary character, must address the current and complex problems of education and contribute to thinking about educational models that form committed, responsible and supportive citizens. An educational model must be constructed within a bioethical debate and, within the framework of the ethics of care, without dissociating itself from normative ethics


Assuntos
Humanos , Empatia/ética , Modelos Educacionais , Bioética/educação , Comportamento Infantil/ética , Socialização , Autonomia Pessoal , Educação/ética , Agressão/ética
15.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eGS5328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of clinical education models for undergraduate nursing programs. METHODS: A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis. Settings were universities with undergraduate nursing courses. Participants consisted of the decision tree that guided the structure of the model, filled in with effectiveness results from a hypothetical cohort of undergraduate nursing students. Interventions were Clinical Preceptor or Clinical Facilitator or Clinical Education Unit. Main outcome measure was effectiveness, defined as improvement of clinical education. The projected economic outcomes included incremental costs, incremental effectiveness, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis was employed to assess uncertainty in the model and robustness of our results. RESULTS: The model based on Clinical Education Unit could be defined as the best, followed by Clinical Facilitator and Clinical Preceptor. The incremental cost of telephone-support intervention was US$ 59,604.40 higher than the second-best performing intervention (Clinical Facilitator), and US$ 32,661.86 higher than the last best performing intervention (Clinical Preceptor). In addition, Clinical Education Unit model showed 7% and 19% more effectiveness than Clinical Facilitator and Clinical Preceptor, respectively. CONCLUSION: Clinical Education Unit represents the best choice to promote better development of skills, knowledge and socialization in undergraduate nursing programs considering its effectiveness and costs.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/economia , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Análise Custo-Benefício , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Humanos , Modelos Educacionais , Socialização
16.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(5): 439-442, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551756

RESUMO

The present commentary offers a timely exploration of the racial trauma experienced by Asian, Black, and Latinx communities as it relates to COVID-19. Instances of individual, cultural, and structural racism and implications for mental health are discussed. Evidence-based strategies are identified for mental health professionals in order to support healing and mitigate the risk of further racial traumas. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Trauma Psicológico/etnologia , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Racismo/etnologia , Adulto , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Socialização , Estados Unidos/etnologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466198

RESUMO

Emergent research seriously questions the use of parental strictness as the best parenting strategy in all cultural contexts. Moreover, previous research on environmental socialization offers inconsistent findings about which specific parenting practices would be the most appropriate for environmental socialization. The present paper aims to examine parents' contribution (i.e., authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful) to adolescents' self-esteem and internalization of environmental values. Participants were 308 Spanish adolescents with 171 females (55.5%), between 12 and 17 years old. The four parenting styles were defined using measures of parental warmth and strictness. Self-esteem was captured with global and multidimensional measures. Internalization of environmental values was evaluated by measuring the priority given to biospheric values. Results revealed a consistent pattern between parenting styles and adolescent self-esteem and internalization of environmental values. Overall, adolescents from homes characterized by parental warmth (i.e., indulgent and authoritative) have higher self-esteem and greater internalization of environmental values than their counterparts. These findings clearly contrast with those obtained in other cultural contexts where parental strictness is essential in achieving well-adjusted children with optimal psychosocial development.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Socialização , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Espanha
18.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(13-14): 2508-2520, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242999

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore nursing students' subjective experience of emotions during first-year clinical placements, strategies used to manage their emotions and socialisation to emotion management. BACKGROUND: Emotion regulation is a key source of stress for early career and student nurses. Clinical placement experiences can elicit strong emotions in nursing students; however, they may be unprepared for the challenge of regulating their emotions in real-world practice. How nursing students learn to manage their emotions in the clinical setting, whether they receive support for this, and how they are socialised to manage their emotions during placements are not well known. DESIGN: An exploratory qualitative study. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews (n = 19) were conducted with first-year nursing students, exploring their experiences of emotion management during clinical placement. Interview transcripts were analysed using conventional qualitative content analysis. Reporting adheres to the COREQ Checklist. RESULTS: Interactions with patients and staff often elicited negative feelings. Structured guidance for emotion management by supervising staff was scarce. Students used informal self-reflection and interpretation to guide emotion management. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of strategic socialisation and formal support for effective emotion management, students used emotional labour strategies that can negatively impact on well-being. A focus on adequately preparing nursing students for emotion work is a necessary component of classroom and clinical learning environments. Structured debriefing during clinical placements may provide a relevant context to discuss emotions arising during clinical work and to learn emotion management strategies. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Emotional competence, a fundamental ability for registered nurses and students, supports personal health maintenance and strengthens professional practice. Students are exposed to clinical environments and interpersonal encounters that evoke strong emotions. They need situated learning strategies and formal support to develop knowledge and strengthen capability for emotion management, as this is essential for promoting professional development and patient care.


Assuntos
Preceptoria/organização & administração , Socialização , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adulto , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(13-14): 2495-2507, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243001

RESUMO

AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To explore newly employed nurses' socialisation in the process of introduction into an oncological clinic from the perspectives of unit managers and newly employed nurses. BACKGROUND: There are managerial challenges in retaining nurses at workplaces. The way in which nurses are socialised into their work is important for their job satisfaction and retainment. METHOD: Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with seven nurses and two unit managers, and written introductory material. Thematic analyses were made, inspired by Goffman's concepts of social interaction, back stage, front stage and roles. SRQR checklist was used. RESULTS: Unit managers created the framework for socialising newly employed nurses through written introductory guidelines and assignments of supervisors as mainstream role models. Newly employed nurses were socialised gradually through mirroring their supervisors in their role as nurse. Front stage, patients often functioned as objects for newly employed nurses' training. Back stage, patients often functioned as communication objects for all professionals. Newly employed nurses, who also demand roles such as transformer, boss, coordinator, prompter and friend, were socialised into the role of assistant to the doctor. Medical rounds functioned as a socialisator in this process. CONCLUSION: The allocated supervisors were role models in socialising newly employed nurses into an oncological clinic and its culture. Nurses were socialised into an understanding of care as a biomedical orientation, in which medicine had a higher value than care in the existing knowledge hierarchy at the oncological clinic. This might have implications for who applies for and stays in the job. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Increased awareness of the importance of socialisation of nurses into the clinic during the introduction process. Re-thinking nurses' independent functions and patient perspectives in introduction of newly employed nurses to maintain and develop nursing as an independent profession.


Assuntos
Enfermagem Oncológica/organização & administração , Socialização , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Liderança , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
Infant Behav Dev ; 59: 101440, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240875

RESUMO

This study explored how parents' promotion of play may impact gender differences in motor development of six-nine month old infants. Twenty-nine infants between six-nine months of age and their primary caregivers took part in assessments of anthropometry, motor development, video observations of play and a qualitative interview. Results revealed females had significantly higher scores for fine motor skills and significantly higher incidence of touching toys in an individual play scenario compared to males. Males had a higher intensity level of play during both play scenarios. Qualitative explorations found that parents perceived other adults such as surrounding family and friends to promote gender differences but not themselves; however, parents' verbal interactions with infants did appear to differ by gender. Parents of males more frequently made statements to promote gross motor skills while parents of females more frequently made statements to promote fine motor skills. While biological influences are suggested to play a role on gender differences of motor development early in life, environmental explanations related to socialization, gender-differentiated expectations and experiences amplify these differences to a greater degree than may have been previously considered during this time period.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Socialização
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