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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1635: 461721, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246680

RESUMO

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) is amongst the most powerful separation technologies currently existing. Since its advent in early 1990, it has become an established method which is readily available. However, one of its most challenging aspects, especially in hyphenation with mass spectrometry is the high amount of chemical information it provides for each measurement. The GC × GC community agrees that there, the highest demand for action is found. In response, the number of software packages allowing for in-depth data processing of GC × GC data has risen over the last couple of years. These packages provide sophisticated tools and algorithms allowing for more streamlined data evaluation. However, these tools/algorithms and their respective specific functionalities differ drastically within the available software packages and might result in various levels of findings if not appropriately implemented by the end users. This study focuses on two main objectives. First, to propose a data analysis framework and second to propose an open-source dataset for benchmarking software options and their specificities. Thus, allowing for an unanimous and comprehensive evaluation of GC × GC software. Thereby, the benchmark data includes a set of standard compound measurements and a set of chocolate aroma profiles. On this foundation, eight readily available GC × GC software packages were anonymously investigated for fundamental and advanced functionalities such as retention and detection device derived parameters, revealing differences in the determination of e.g. retention times and mass spectra.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa/normas , Software/normas , Algoritmos , Análise de Dados , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto/normas , Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(1)2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374208

RESUMO

To safely protect workplaces and the workforce during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, a scalable integrated sensing solution is required in order to offer real-time situational awareness and early warnings for decision-makers. However, an information-based solution for industry reopening is ineffective when the necessary operational information is locked up in disparate real-time data silos. There is a lot of ongoing effort to combat the COVID-19 pandemic using different combinations of low-cost, location-based contact tracing, and sensing technologies. These ad hoc Internet of Things (IoT) solutions for COVID-19 were developed using different data models and protocols without an interoperable way to interconnect these heterogeneous systems and exchange data on people and place interactions. This research aims to design and develop an interoperable Internet of COVID-19 Things (IoCT) architecture that is able to exchange, aggregate, and reuse disparate IoT sensor data sources in order for informed decisions to be made after understanding the real-time risks in workplaces based on person-to-place interactions. The IoCT architecture is based on the Sensor Web paradigm that connects various Things, Sensors, and Datastreams with an indoor geospatial data model. This paper presents a study of what, to the best of our knowledge, is the first real-world integrated implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) and IndoorGML standards to calculate the risk of COVID-19 online using a workplace reopening case study. The proposed IoCT offers a new open standard-based information model, architecture, methodologies, and software tools that enable the interoperability of disparate COVID-19 monitoring systems with finer spatial-temporal granularity. A workplace cleaning use case was developed in order to demonstrate the capabilities of this proposed IoCT architecture. The implemented IoCT architecture included proximity-based contact tracing, people density sensors, a COVID-19 risky behavior monitoring system, and the contextual building geospatial data.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/normas , Internet das Coisas/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho/normas , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Software/normas
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(4): 54, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170375

RESUMO

There are many tangled normative and technical questions involved in evaluating the quality of software used in epidemiological simulations. In this paper we answer some of these questions and offer practical guidance to practitioners, funders, scientific journals, and consumers of epidemiological research. The heart of our paper is a case study of the Imperial College London (ICL) covid-19 simulator, set in the context of recent work in epistemology of simulation and philosophy of epidemiology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Software/normas , Humanos
4.
Nature ; 587(7833): 246-251, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177663

RESUMO

New genome assemblies have been arriving at a rapidly increasing pace, thanks to decreases in sequencing costs and improvements in third-generation sequencing technologies1-3. For example, the number of vertebrate genome assemblies currently in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database4 increased by more than 50% to 1,485 assemblies in the year from July 2018 to July 2019. In addition to this influx of assemblies from different species, new human de novo assemblies5 are being produced, which enable the analysis of not only small polymorphisms, but also complex, large-scale structural differences between human individuals and haplotypes. This coming era and its unprecedented amount of data offer the opportunity to uncover many insights into genome evolution but also present challenges in how to adapt current analysis methods to meet the increased scale. Cactus6, a reference-free multiple genome alignment program, has been shown to be highly accurate, but the existing implementation scales poorly with increasing numbers of genomes, and struggles in regions of highly duplicated sequences. Here we describe progressive extensions to Cactus to create Progressive Cactus, which enables the reference-free alignment of tens to thousands of large vertebrate genomes while maintaining high alignment quality. We describe results from an alignment of more than 600 amniote genomes, which is to our knowledge the largest multiple vertebrate genome alignment created so far.


Assuntos
Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Alinhamento de Sequência/métodos , Software , Vertebrados/genética , Âmnio , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Genômica/normas , Haplótipos , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade , Alinhamento de Sequência/normas , Software/normas
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239892, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002082

RESUMO

A detailed situation awareness of the local environment is essential for safe flight in General Aviation. When operating under Visual Flight Rules, eyesight is crucial for maintaining situation awareness and objects may be overlooked. Technical solutions such as Flarm have been sought, but they only work on a basis of co-operation: obstacles without the proper equipment are invisible. Recent developments in the field of radar technology, partly empowered by the demand for sensors for autonomous cars, have improved the size and power consumption of available hardware. Today, the hardware exists to build a portable primary radar system for situation awareness. In this paper the results are presented of efforts to build the first portable primary radar for general, which has to be lightweight, cheap and have a low power consumption. The focus in this paper is on the software design of such a radar system. The physical principles of radar sensing are described, as well as the scientific steps needed to provide situation awareness. The hardware and software for the radar are both built and tested, and the results of these tests are presented. A flight experiment is performed with a small aircraft flying past a stationary radar on a small hill. It is found that the radar is capable of detecting the aircraft up to a distance of at least 3 kilometers. 3D localization is performed and the location determined by the radar was on average 46 meters away from the aircraft position as measured by satellite navigation, relative to a total distance of about 1000 meters from the radar. A low-pass filter can be applied on the raw results in order to improve the location estimation further. Future research will focus on bringing the portable radar in motion while operating.


Assuntos
Aviação/instrumentação , Radar/instrumentação , Software/normas
7.
Nature ; 588(7836): 83-88, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049755

RESUMO

Training algorithms to computationally plan multistep organic syntheses has been a challenge for more than 50 years1-7. However, the field has progressed greatly since the development of early programs such as LHASA1,7, for which reaction choices at each step were made by human operators. Multiple software platforms6,8-14 are now capable of completely autonomous planning. But these programs 'think' only one step at a time and have so far been limited to relatively simple targets, the syntheses of which could arguably be designed by human chemists within minutes, without the help of a computer. Furthermore, no algorithm has yet been able to design plausible routes to complex natural products, for which much more far-sighted, multistep planning is necessary15,16 and closely related literature precedents cannot be relied on. Here we demonstrate that such computational synthesis planning is possible, provided that the program's knowledge of organic chemistry and data-based artificial intelligence routines are augmented with causal relationships17,18, allowing it to 'strategize' over multiple synthetic steps. Using a Turing-like test administered to synthesis experts, we show that the routes designed by such a program are largely indistinguishable from those designed by humans. We also successfully validated three computer-designed syntheses of natural products in the laboratory. Taken together, these results indicate that expert-level automated synthetic planning is feasible, pending continued improvements to the reaction knowledge base and further code optimization.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Produtos Biológicos/síntese química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Química Orgânica/métodos , Software , Inteligência Artificial/normas , Automação/métodos , Automação/normas , Benzilisoquinolinas/síntese química , Benzilisoquinolinas/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/normas , Química Orgânica/normas , Indanos/síntese química , Indanos/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/síntese química , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Bases de Conhecimento , Lactonas/síntese química , Lactonas/química , Macrolídeos/síntese química , Macrolídeos/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sesquiterpenos/síntese química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Software/normas , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/síntese química , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/química
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e17158, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conversational agents, also known as chatbots, are computer programs designed to simulate human text or verbal conversations. They are increasingly used in a range of fields, including health care. By enabling better accessibility, personalization, and efficiency, conversational agents have the potential to improve patient care. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to review the current applications, gaps, and challenges in the literature on conversational agents in health care and provide recommendations for their future research, design, and application. METHODS: We performed a scoping review. A broad literature search was performed in MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online; Ovid), EMBASE (Excerpta Medica database; Ovid), PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Central with the search terms "conversational agents," "conversational AI," "chatbots," and associated synonyms. We also searched the gray literature using sources such as the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) WorldCat database and ResearchGate in April 2019. Reference lists of relevant articles were checked for further articles. Screening and data extraction were performed in parallel by 2 reviewers. The included evidence was analyzed narratively by employing the principles of thematic analysis. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 47 study reports (45 articles and 2 ongoing clinical trials) that matched the inclusion criteria. The identified conversational agents were largely delivered via smartphone apps (n=23) and used free text only as the main input (n=19) and output (n=30) modality. Case studies describing chatbot development (n=18) were the most prevalent, and only 11 randomized controlled trials were identified. The 3 most commonly reported conversational agent applications in the literature were treatment and monitoring, health care service support, and patient education. CONCLUSIONS: The literature on conversational agents in health care is largely descriptive and aimed at treatment and monitoring and health service support. It mostly reports on text-based, artificial intelligence-driven, and smartphone app-delivered conversational agents. There is an urgent need for a robust evaluation of diverse health care conversational agents' formats, focusing on their acceptability, safety, and effectiveness.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Software/normas , Humanos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796619

RESUMO

(1) Background: Virtual reality is currently useful in different clinical specialties as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. In this study, we analyzed the relative and absolute reliability of the motor evaluation with the Kinect camera, a markerless motion system. (2) Methods: Observational study in healthy people, whose inclusion criteria were: healthy people, age 18 to 40 years old without pathologies or injuries in osteoarticular structures or ligamentous muscle and pharmacological treatment with influence on motor skills. Fifty-two subjects were evaluated. (3) Results: The results of the relative reliability were favorable in variables such as the amplitude of passage of the right leg (ICC (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient) = 0.95 ± 0.03), the step width of the left leg (ICC = 0.92 ± 0.04) or balance of the left leg (ICC = 0.90 ± 0.05). Moderate values were found for other variables. The absolute reliability, measured by the coefficient of variation, was favorable in most of the variables. (4) Conclusions: The results reflect a favorable intraclass correlation in the evaluation of the variation and asymmetry of movements of the upper limbs, the balance of both legs, the side step width and the evaluation of the sitting and standing positions. The reliability of the evaluation of the variation of movements and the asymmetry of the lower limbs must be further improved.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Movimento , Postura/fisiologia , Software/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Posição Ortostática , Extremidade Superior , Adulto Jovem
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1262: 149-181, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613583

RESUMO

Rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases are a group of devastating autoimmune disorders that all share a common debilitating symptom fatigue. Fatigue is not widely understood and is often underrepresented in treatment regimes. Fatigue is the least successfully managed symptom of these conditions; however, it can often be the one of the greatest impairments.Augmented reality (AR) enhances a person's reality showing a hybrid environment where real and virtual objects coexist. Currently educational AR applications are saturating the application market, as they have shown great potential for increasing comprehension and understanding of complex concepts. AR expands user engagement by enhancing the learner's enjoyment and enriching their learning environment.This research explores the development and subsequent effect of an AR application on education around fatigue and basic neuroanatomy within the general population. The application was created using medical scan dataset, a variety of 3D modelling software and a game engine to create a functional and interactive augmented application. The application explores the effects of fatigue on a person's daily life while also laying a foundation of basic neuroanatomy. A pilot test conducted on 14 participants (8 males, 5 females and 1 other), with ages ranged 16-64 (4 form range 16 to 24, 5 from range 25 to 34, 1 from range 35 to 44, 3 from range 45 to 54, 1 from 55 to 64), shows the application is highly usable, increases understanding of basic neuroanatomical concepts and has the potential to improve understanding of fatigue. Nonetheless, further development and testing of the application are imperative so that we can gain a better understanding of the usability of the application with wider audiences. Future developments will aim to further aid knowledge acquisition and enhance understanding of fatigue, a complex and widely misunderstood concept.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Fadiga , Neuroanatomia , Software , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Compreensão , Fadiga/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroanatomia/educação , Software/normas , Jogos de Vídeo/normas , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 37(1): 69-75, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730403

RESUMO

Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, affecting mainly children and the elderly. They are associated with a high economic burden, increased number of medical visits and hospitalizations. The surveillance of the circulation of respiratory viruses can reduce the health care associated costs, and to optimize the health response. A platform based on R and its package Shiny was designed, to create an interactive and friendly web interface for gathering, analysis and publication of the data. The data from the Chilean metropolitan respiratory viruses surveillance network, available since 2006, was uploaded into the platform. Using this platform, the researcher spends less than 1 minute to upload the data, and the analysis and publication is immediate, available to be seen by any user with a device connected to Internet, who can choose the variables to be displayed. With a very low cost, in a short time, and using the R programming language, it was possible to create a simple, and interactive platform, considerably decreasing the upload and analysis time, and increasing the impact and availability of this surveillance.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Modelos Teóricos , Infecções Respiratórias , Software , Viroses , Idoso , Criança , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Infecções Respiratórias/economia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Software/economia , Software/normas , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus
12.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 287, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Software tools for analyzing DNA methylation do not provide graphical results which can be easily identified, but huge text files containing the alignment of the samples and their methylation status at a resolution of base pairs. There have been proposed different tools and methods for finding Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs) among different samples, but the execution time required by these tools is large, and the visualization of their results is far from being interactive. Additionally, these methods show more accurate results when identifying simulated DM regions that are long and have small within-group variation, but they have low concordance when used with real datasets, probably due to the different approaches they use for DMR identification. Thus, a tool which automatically detects DMRs among different samples and interactively visualizes DMRs at different scales (from a bunch to ten of millions of DNA locations) can be the key for shortening the DNA methylation analysis process in many studies. RESULTS: In this paper, we propose a software tool based on the wavelet transform. This mathematical tool allows the fast automatic DMR detection by simple comparison of different signals at different resolution levels. Also, it allows an interactive visualization of the DMRs found at different resolution levels. The tool is publicly available at https://grev-uv.github.io/ , and it is part of a complete suite of tools which allow to carry out the complete process of DNA alignment and methylation analysis, creation of methylation maps of the whole genome, and the detection and visualization of DMRs between different samples. CONCLUSIONS: The validation of the developed software tool shows similar concordance with other well-known and extended tools when used with real and synthetic data. The batch mode of the tool is capable of automatically detecting the existing DMRs for half (twelve) of the human chromosomes between two sets of six samples (whose.csv files after the alignment and mapping procedures have an aggregated size of 108 Gigabytes) in around three hours and a half. When compared to other well-known tools, HPG-DHunter only requires around 15% of the execution time required by other tools for detecting the DMRs.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Software/normas , Humanos
14.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 12(1)ene.-jun. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126559

RESUMO

En Cuba la mayoría de los especialistas de seguridad informática tienen un escaso conocimiento sobre las herramientas indispensables del hacking ético. Para realizar la presente investigación se hicieron búsquedas bibliográficas nacionales e internacionales. De la gran cantidad de herramientas disponibles en distribuciones especializadas para la seguridad informática (Parrot Security, Black Arch y Kali Linux), se seleccionaron aquellas que se ajustaban más a las características de las redes cubanas. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo describir algunas de las herramientas seleccionadas para el escaneo y explotación de vulnerabilidades, y conceptos fundamentales sobre el tema. Consideramos que este estudio puede ser provechoso para los especialistas cubanos en seguridad informática pues les servirá no solo para conocer sobre el hacking ético, sino también cuáles son las herramientas que se pueden emplear, teniendo en cuenta las características de nuestras redes nacionales(AU)


In Cuba, most computer security specialists have little knowledge about the essential tools of ethical hacking. To carry out the present investigation, national and international bibliographic searches were made. From the large number of tools available in specialized distributions for computer security (Parrot Security, Black Arch and Kali Linux), those that best fit the characteristics of Cuban networks were selected. Our research aimed to describe some of the selected tools for scanning and exploiting vulnerabilities, and fundamental concepts on the subject. We believe that this study will be very useful for Cuban specialists in computer security because it will serve them not only to learn about ethical hacking; but also, what are the tools that can be used taking into account the characteristics of our national networks(AU)


Assuntos
Software/normas , Segurança Computacional/normas , Cuba
15.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 12(1)ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126556

RESUMO

Una de las etapas de un proceso de despliegue de un sistema informático, es la capacitación de los usuarios finales. En algunas ocasiones se subestima la profundidad del impacto de los cambios técnicos en la organización y en los empleados al implantar un sistema informático y no se contrata el servicio de entrenamiento. El presente artículo describe una estrategia de entrenamiento y acompañamiento a usuarios en el proceso de implantación del Sistema de Información Hospitalaria XAVIA HIS. Los principales resultados se relacionan con la definición de acciones, métodos y técnicas que permiten planificar y ejecutar los servicios de entrenamiento y acompañamiento con una mayor eficiencia de las actividades ejecutadas, así como los programas bases de entrenamiento para especialistas informáticos, así como técnicos y profesionales de la salud(AU)


End user training is one of the computer system deployment process stages. The technical changes depth impact on the organization and on employees when implementing a computer system sometimes is underestimated and the training service is not hired. This article describes a training and accompaniment strategy for users in the Hospital Information System XAVIA HIS implementation process. Main results are related to the actions, methods and techniques definition that allow planning and executing the training and accompaniment services with greater efficiency of the activities carried out. Also, the paper present the basic training programs for computer specialists, health technicians and professionals(AU)


Assuntos
Tecnologia/métodos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Software/normas , Aplicações da Informática Médica
16.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 12(1)ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126555

RESUMO

La implementación de aplicaciones y servicios informáticos en el sector de la salud es uno de los desafíos de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones. La informática médica como disciplina integradora recibe un importante impacto del enfoque de la ciencia, la tecnología y la sociedad que domina el campo biomédico, las ciencias biotecnológicas y farmacéuticas. La Universidad de Ciencias Informáticas (UCI) desde su fundación ha participado en el desarrollo de aplicaciones y servicios informáticos para el sector sanitario cubano. Esta universidad ha desarrollado e implementado la Plataforma de imágenes médicas, el Sistema de Información Hospitalaria y el Sistema de manejo de datos de Ensayos Clínicos. Estas aplicaciones introducen en la sociedad cubana un valor constituido en beneficios sociales, económicos y culturales-organizacionales. Además, contribuyen a la gestión de las instituciones de salud y la eficiencia económica. Este artículo describe el impacto social, económico y ambiental de las aplicaciones y servicios informáticos desarrollados por la Universidad(AU)


Applications and computer services implementation in the health sector is one of the information and communications technologies challenges. Medical informatics as an integrating discipline receives an important impact from the science, technology and society approach that dominates the biomedical field, biotechnological and pharmaceutical sciences. The Informatics Sciences University (UCI) since the beginnings has participated in the development of applications and computer services for the Cuban health sector. UCI has developed and implemented the Medical Imaging Platform, the Hospital Information System, and the Clinical Trials Data Management System. These applications introduced in the Cuban society a valuable social, economic and cultural-organizational benefit. Additionally those applications contributed to the health institutions management and the economic efficiency. This paper describes the social, economic and environmental impact of the applications and computer services developed by the university(AU)


Assuntos
Informática Médica , Aplicações da Informática Médica , Software/normas
17.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 12(1)ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126554

RESUMO

Técnicas como la Tomografía por Emisión de Positrones y la Tomografía Computarizada permiten determinar la naturaleza maligna o benigna de un tumor y estudiar las estructuras anatómicas del cuerpo con imágenes de alta resolución, respectivamente. Investigadores a nivel internacional han utilizado diferentes técnicas para la fusión de la Tomografía por Emisión de Positrones y la Tomografía Computarizada porque permite observar las funciones metabólicas en correlación con las estructuras anatómicas. La presente investigación se propone realizar un análisis y selección de algoritmos que propicien la fusión de neuroimágenes, basado en la precisión de los mismos. De esta forma contribuir al desarrollo de software para la fusión sin necesidad de adquirir los costosos equipos de adquisición de imágenes de alto rendimiento, los cuales son costosos. Para el estudio se aplicaron los métodos Análisis documental, Histórico lógico e Inductivo deductivo. Se analizaron e identificaron las mejores variantes de algoritmos y técnicas para la fusión según la literatura reportada. A partir del análisis de estas técnicas se identifica como mejor variante el esquema de fusión basado en Wavelet para la fusión de las imágenes. Para el corregistro se propone la interpolación Bicúbica. Como transformada discreta de Wavelet se evidencia el uso de la de Haar. Además, la investigación propició desarrollar el esquema de fusión basado en las técnicas anteriores. A partir del análisis realizado se constataron las aplicaciones y utilidad de las técnicas de fusión como sustitución a los altos costos de adquisición de escáneres multifunción PET/CT para Cuba(AU)


Techniques such as Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography allow to determine the malignant or benign nature of a tumor and to study the anatomical structures of the body with high resolution images, respectively. International researchers have used different techniques for the fusion of Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography because it allows observing metabolic functions in correlation with anatomical structures. The present investigation proposes to carry out an analysis and selection of algorithms that favor the fusion of neuroimaging, based on their precision. In this way, contribute to the development of fusion software without the need to purchase expensive high-performance imaging equipment, which is expensive. For the study the documentary analysis, logical historical and deductive inductive methods were applied. The best algorithm variants and techniques for fusion were analyzed and identified according to the reported literature. From the analysis of these techniques, the Wavelet-based fusion scheme for image fusion is identified as the best variant. Bicubic interpolation is proposed for co-registration. As a discrete Wavelet transform, the use of Haar's is evidenced. In addition, the research led to the development of the fusion scheme based on the previous techniques. From the analysis carried out, the applications and usefulness of fusion techniques were verified as a substitute for the high costs of acquiring PET / CT multifunction scanners for Cuba(AU)


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Software/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Análise de Ondaletas , Cuba
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233552, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480399

RESUMO

The creation of species-specific valid tools for pain assessment is essential to recognize pain and determine the requirement and efficacy of analgesic treatments. This study aimed to assess behaviour and investigate the validity and reliability of an acute pain scale in pigs undergoing orchiectomy. Forty-five pigs aged 38±3 days were castrated under local anaesthesia. Behaviour was video-recorded 30 minutes before and intermittently up to 24 hours after castration. Edited footage (before surgery, after surgery before and after rescue analgesia, and 24 hours postoperatively) was analysed twice (one month apart) by one observer who was present during video-recording (in-person researcher) and three blinded observers. Statistical analysis was performed using R software and differences were considered significant when p<0.05. Intra and inter-observer agreement, based on intra-class correlation coefficient, was good or very good between most observers (>0.60), except between observers 1 and 3 (moderate agreement 0.57). The scale was unidimensional according to principal component analysis. The scale showed acceptable item-total Spearman correlation, excellent predictive and concurrent criterion validity (Spearman correlation ≥ 0.85 between the proposed scale versus visual analogue, numerical rating, and simple descriptive scales), internal consistency (Cronbach's α coefficient >0.80 for all items), responsiveness (the pain scores of all items of the scale increased after castration and decreased after intervention analgesia according to Friedman test), and specificity (> 95%). Sensitivity was good or excellent for most of the items. The optimal cut-off point for rescue analgesia was ≥ 6 of 18. Discriminatory ability was excellent for all observers according to the area under the curve (>0.95). The proposed scale is a reliable and valid instrument and may be used clinically and experimentally to assess postoperative acute pain in pigs. The well-defined cut-off point supports the evaluator´s decision to provide or not analgesia.


Assuntos
Medição da Dor/veterinária , Suínos/fisiologia , Analgesia/veterinária , Animais , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Medição da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/normas , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Análise de Componente Principal , Software/normas
20.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20277, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-198135

RESUMO

In Switzerland, the COVID-19 epidemic is progressively slowing down owing to “social distancing” measures introduced by the Federal Council on 16 March 2020. However, the gradual ease of these measures may initiate a second epidemic wave, the length and intensity of which are difficult to anticipate. In this context, hospitals must prepare for a potential increase in intensive care unit (ICU) admissions of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Here, we introduce icumonitoring.ch, a platform providing hospital-level projections for ICU occupancy. We combined current data on the number of beds and ventilators with canton-level projections of COVID-19 cases from two S-E-I-R models. We disaggregated epidemic projection in each hospital in Switzerland for the number of COVID-19 cases, hospitalisations, hospitalisations in ICU, and ventilators in use. The platform is updated every 3-4 days and can incorporate projections from other modelling teams to inform decision makers with a range of epidemic scenarios for future hospital occupancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Previsões/métodos , Planejamento em Saúde/métodos , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/provisão & distribução , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Software , Ventiladores Mecânicos/provisão & distribução , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisões Assistida por Computador , Número de Leitos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Software/normas , Suíça/epidemiologia , Ventiladores Mecânicos/estatística & dados numéricos
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