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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130618, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330028

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the micronization (MT), steam explosion (SE), and gamma irradiation (GI) treatment on the chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of dietary fiber from soybean hulls. GI (1200 kGy) treatment exerted the optimum effects on improving soluble dietary fiber content, in vitro gross energy digestibility (IVGED), and reducing sugar yield (RS) in the three modification methods, increased by 342.88%, 55.24%, and 117.02%, respectively. Compared with GI treatment, MT-GI combined treatment could further enhance the degradation effect of irradiation and improve the physicochemical properties (p<0.05) in soybean fibers. From the results of correlation analysis, RS was a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with IVGED, and RS = -112.24 + 4.90 × IVGED (r2 = 0.82, p<0.01). In summary, MT-GI combined treatment could be considered the ideal modification method to improve the quality of soybean fiber.


Assuntos
Soja , Vapor , Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20201801, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586323

RESUMO

Optimization of water use for irrigation will only be possible with the adjustment of management, which is directly related to the correct estimate of the actual evapotranspiration of the crop. The present study aimed to evaluate different mathematical approaches used in estimating the actual evapotranspiration of a new soybean cultivar (BRS 7581RR) subjected to different water deficit conditions. For this, the ETa estimated by the FAO56 Dual, Jensen and Hermann, AquaCrop and Ritchie models was evaluated. The experimental design was randomized with five treatments and four replicates. Irrigation management in the treatments was conducted so as to maintain different levels of water available in the soil (AW). The T1 treatment was performed applying 80 to 100% AW; in T2 treatment, the allowed variation was 60 to 80% AW; in T3 treatment, it was 40 to 60% AW; in T4, from 20 to 40% AW; and in T5, from 0 to 20% AW. The results showed that the FAO56 Dual model showed better performance in soybean ETa estimation for winter conditions in most treatments, with NSE ranging from 0.42 to 0.83. In the summer, the Jensen and Hermann model showed the best results, with NSE ranging from 0.70 to 0.94.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Água , Estações do Ano , Solo , Soja
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(38): 11485-11493, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547203

RESUMO

Food matrices consist of many components with different physical and chemical properties that may influence instrumental robustness. The soybean contains fatty coextractives which may have a deleterious effect on the gas chromatography (GC) system. In this study, the efficiencies of PSA, C18OH, C18, silica, aluminum oxide, and Florisil, as dSPE clean-up sorbents, were evaluated by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) diode-array detector and evaporative light-scattering detector analysis. The dithiocarbamates in soybean samples are determined as CS2 using acidic hydrolysis and isooctane partitioning, followed by GC-PFPD and GC-ITD-MS analyses. The linearity of the analytical curves, the instrument limit of detection matrix effects, the trueness and precision, and the method limit of quantification (LOQ) were assessed in the validation study. Milled soybean was spiked with thiram solution at three concentration levels (corresponding to 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg CS2 kg-1) for recovery determination. Silica appeared to be an effective and cheap sorbent to remove coextracted matrix components without causing any CS2 losses. Recoveries were in the range of 68-91%, with relative standard deviations ≤ 8.7%. The method LOQ was 0.05 mg CS2 kg-1, and both GC-ITD-MS and GC-PFPD systems appeared to be appropriate and complementary to determine dithiocarbamate residues in soybean extracts.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Soja
4.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500550

RESUMO

Global warming is impacting the growth and development of economically important but sensitive crops, such as soybean (Glycine max L.). Using pleiotropic signaling molecules, melatonin can relieve the negative effects of high temperature by enhancing plant growth and development as well as modulating the defense system against abiotic stresses. However, less is known about how melatonin regulates the phytohormones and polyamines during heat stress. Our results showed that high temperature significantly increased ROS and decreased photosynthesis efficiency in soybean plants. Conversely, pretreatment with melatonin increased plant growth and photosynthetic pigments (chl a and chl b) and reduced oxidative stress via scavenging hydrogen peroxide and superoxide and reducing the MDA and electrolyte leakage contents. The inherent stress defense responses were further strengthened by the enhanced activities of antioxidants and upregulation of the expression of ascorbate-glutathione cycle genes. Melatonin mitigates heat stress by increasing several biochemicals (phenolics, flavonoids, and proline), as well as the endogenous melatonin and polyamines (spermine, spermidine, and putrescine). Furthermore, the positive effects of melatonin treatment also correlated with a reduced abscisic acid content, down-regulation of the gmNCED3, and up-regulation of catabolic genes (CYP707A1 and CYP707A2) during heat stress. Contrarily, an increase in salicylic acid and up-regulated expression of the defense-related gene PAL2 were revealed. In addition, melatonin induced the expression of heat shock protein 90 (gmHsp90) and heat shock transcription factor (gmHsfA2), suggesting promotion of ROS detoxification via the hydrogen peroxide-mediated signaling pathway. In conclusion, exogenous melatonin improves the thermotolerance of soybean plants and enhances plant growth and development by activating antioxidant defense mechanisms, interacting with plant hormones, and reprogramming the biochemical metabolism.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Termotolerância/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 229: 108153, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508716

RESUMO

Several economically important crops are susceptible to root-knot nematode (RKNs). Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica are the two most reported species from the RKN complex, causing damage to several crops worldwide. The successful outcome of the Meloidogyne-plant interaction is associated with molecular factors secreted by the nematode to suppress the plant's immune response and promote nematode parasitism. In contrast, several plant factors are associated with defense against nematode infection. In this study, we identified and characterized the specific interaction of Minc00344 and Mj-NULG1a effectors with soybean GmHub10 (Glyma.19G008200) protein in vitro and in vivo. An Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA mutant of AtHub10 (AT3G27960, an orthologous gene of GmHub10) showed higher susceptibility to M. incognita. Thus, since soybean and A. thaliana Hub10 proteins are involved in pollen tube growth and indirect activation of the defense response, our data suggest that effector-Hub10 interactions could be associated with an increase in plant susceptibility. These findings indicate the potential of these effector proteins to develop new biotechnological tools based on RNA interference and the overexpression of engineered Hub10 proteins for the efficient management of RKN in crops.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade , Animais , Arabidopsis , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Soja/classificação , Tylenchoidea/classificação , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Tylenchoidea/genética
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112738, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481352

RESUMO

Arsenic is a significant food safety and environmental concern due to its mutagenic and carcinogenic effect on living organism. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill) is a global staple crop grown intensively in arsenic-contaminated regions of the world (e.g., Southern Province of China). Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether Se-NPs and/or ZnO-NPs could be used as an eco-friendly and efficient amendment to reduce arsenic uptake and toxicity in soybean. Ten-days-old seedling, grown in vermiculite, were transferred to hydroponic media and further grown till V2 growth stage appeared. AsV (25 µM Na2HAsO4) stressed plants were treated with ZnONP (25 µM ZnO) and SeNP (25 µM Se) separately and in combination, which were grown for another 10 d. The result demonstrated that arsenic-treated soybean plants displayed a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency, increased proline and glycine betaine accumulation in tissues, and altered antioxidant activity compared to an untreated control. The application of zinc oxide and selenium nanoparticles, both independently and in tandem, reduced arsenic stress in root and shoot tissues and rescued plant health. This was reflected through increased levels of reduced glutathione content, ascorbic acid, and various photosynthesis- and antioxidant-relevant enzymes. In addition, nanoparticle-treated soybean plants displayed higher expression of defense- and detoxification-related genes compared to controls. Cellular toxicants (i.e., oxidized glutathione, reactive oxygen species, and malondialdehyde) were reduced upon nanoparticle treatment. These data collectively suggest that selenium and zinc oxide nanoparticles may be a solution to ameliorate arsenic toxicity in agricultural soils and crop plants.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Antioxidantes , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Fotossíntese , Raízes de Plantas , Plântula , Soja , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 419, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A key issue for implementation of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing for plant trait improvement and gene function analysis is to efficiently deliver the components, including guide RNAs (gRNAs) and Cas9, into plants. Plant virus-based gRNA delivery strategy has proven to be an important tool for genome editing. However, its application in soybean which is an important crop has not been reported yet. ALSV (apple latent spherical virus) is highly infectious virus and could be explored for delivering elements for genome editing. RESULTS: To develop a ALSV-based gRNA delivery system, the Cas9-based Csy4-processed ALSV Carry (CCAC) system was developed. In this system, we engineered the soybean-infecting ALSV to carry and deliver gRNA(s). The endoribonuclease Csy4 effectively releases gRNAs that function efficiently in Cas9-mediated genome editing. Genome editing of endogenous phytoene desaturase (PDS) loci and exogenous 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) sequence in Nicotiana. benthamiana (N. benthamiana) through CCAC was confirmed using Sanger sequencing. Furthermore, CCAC-induced mutagenesis in two soybean endogenous GW2 paralogs was detected. CONCLUSIONS: With the aid of the CCAC system, the target-specific gRNA(s) can be easily manipulated and efficiently delivered into soybean plant cells by viral infection. This is the first virus-based gRNA delivery system for soybean for genome editing and can be used for gene function study and trait improvement.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/virologia , Viroses/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Mutagênese , RNA Guia , RNA de Plantas , RNA Viral
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 408, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mung bean (Vigna radiata) is a warm-season legume crop and belongs to the papilionoid subfamily of the Fabaceae family. China is the leading producer of mung bean in the world. Mung bean has significant economic and health benefits and is a promising species with broad adaptation ability and high tolerance to environmental stresses. OSCA (hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channel) gene family members play an important role in the modulation of hypertonic stress, such as drought and salinity. However, genome-wide analysis of the OSCA gene family has not been conducted in mung bean. RESULTS: We identified a total of 13 OSCA genes in the mung bean genome and named them according to their homology with AtOSCAs. All the OSCAs were phylogenetically split into four clades. Phylogenetic relationship and synteny analyses showed that the VrOSCAs in mung bean and soybean shared a relatively conserved evolutionary history. In addition, three duplicated VrOSCA gene pairs were identified, and the duplicated VrOSCAs gene pairs mainly underwent purifying selection pressure during evolution. Protein domain, motif and transmembrane analyses indicated that most of the VrOSCAs shared similar structures with their homologs. The expression pattern showed that except for VrOSCA2.1, the other 12 VrOSCAs were upregulated under treatment with ABA, PEG and NaCl, among which VrOSCA1.4 showed the largest increased expression levels. The duplicated genes VrOSCA2.1/VrOSCA2.2 showed divergent expression, which might have resulted in functionalization during subsequent evolution. The expression profiles under ABA, PEG and NaCl stress revealed a functional divergence of VrOSCA genes, which agreed with the analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of VrOSCA genes. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the study provided a systematic analysis of the VrOSCA gene family in mung bean. Our results establish an important foundation for functional and evolutionary analysis of VrOSCAs and identify genes for further investigation of their ability to confer abiotic stress tolerance in mung bean.


Assuntos
Osmorregulação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vigna/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Família Multigênica , Oryza/genética , Pressão Osmótica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Soja/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sintenia , Vigna/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigna/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5445, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521854

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max) serves as a major source of protein and edible oils worldwide. The genetic and genomic bases of the adaptation of soybean to tropical regions remain largely unclear. Here, we identify the novel locus Time of Flowering 16 (Tof16), which confers delay flowering and improve yield at low latitudes and determines that it harbors the soybean homolog of LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY). Tof16 and the previously identified J locus genetically additively but independently control yield under short-day conditions. More than 80% accessions in low latitude harbor the mutations of tof16 and j, which suggests that loss of functions of Tof16 and J are the major genetic basis of soybean adaptation into tropics. We suggest that maturity and yield traits can be quantitatively improved by modulating the genetic complexity of various alleles of the LHY homologs, J and E1. Our findings uncover the adaptation trajectory of soybean from its temperate origin to the tropics.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Produtos Agrícolas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genoma de Planta , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Clima Tropical
10.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(4): 133-137, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470943

RESUMO

A rapid, easy and versatile, simultaneous analytical method by LC-MS/MS based on extraction of QuEChERS method (EN 15662:2008) was developed for the determination of residual pesticides in Edamame (immature soybeans). In this method, it allowed to prepare a test solution only dilution without purification using solid column. As a result, 202 analytes met the management criteria of the guideline for validity assessment (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan). Thus, the present method could be useful for a rapid simultaneous determination of residual pesticides in green soybean.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Cromatografia Líquida , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Soja , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439883

RESUMO

Isotopically dimethyl labeling was applied in a quantitative post-translational modification (PTM) proteomic study of phosphoproteomic changes in the drought responses of two contrasting soybean cultivars. A total of 9457 phosphopeptides were identified subsequently, corresponding to 4571 phosphoprotein groups and 3889 leading phosphoproteins, which contained nine kinase families consisting of 279 kinases. These phosphoproteins contained a total of 8087 phosphosites, 6106 of which were newly identified and constituted 54% of the current soybean phosphosite repository. These phosphosites were converted into the highly conserved kinase docking sites by bioinformatics analysis, which predicted six kinase families that matched with those newly found nine kinase families. The overly post-translationally modified proteins (OPP) occupies 2.1% of these leading phosphoproteins. Most of these OPPs are photoreceptors, mRNA-, histone-, and phospholipid-binding proteins, as well as protein kinase/phosphatases. The subgroup population distribution of phosphoproteins over the number of phosphosites of phosphoproteins follows the exponential decay law, Y = 4.13e-0.098X - 0.04. Out of 218 significantly regulated unique phosphopeptide groups, 188 phosphoproteins were regulated by the drought-tolerant cultivar under the water loss condition. These significantly regulated phosphoproteins (SRP) are mainly enriched in the biological functions of water transport and deprivation, methionine metabolic processes, photosynthesis/light reaction, and response to cadmium ion, osmotic stress, and ABA response. Seventeen and 15 SRPs are protein kinases/phosphatases and transcription factors, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis again revealed that three members of the calcium dependent protein kinase family (CAMK family), GmSRK2I, GmCIPK25, and GmAKINß1 kinases, constitute a phosphor-relay-mediated signal transduction network, regulating ion channel activities and many nuclear events in this drought-tolerant cultivar, which presumably contributes to the development of the soybean drought tolerance under water deprivation process.


Assuntos
Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Secas , Pressão Osmótica , Fosforilação
12.
J Food Prot ; 84(9): 1555-1559, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380146

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In this study, Bacillus cereus was isolated from soft soybean curds, and a dynamic model was developed to describe the kinetic behavior of these isolates during transfer and storage. B. cereus isolates recovered from soft soybean curds were inoculated into soft soybean curd, and the levels were determined during storage at 10 to 30°C. The B. cereus counts were fitted to the Baranyi model to calculate maximum growth rate (µmax) and lag-phase duration (LPD). These kinetic parameters were then analyzed with a polynomial equation to evaluate the effects of temperature on the kinetic parameters. The developed model was validated with observed values, and the differences between predicted and observed values were determined by calculating the root mean square error (RMSE). A dynamic model was then developed with a combination of primary and secondary models to describe B. cereus growth under changing temperature conditions. B. cereus was detected in two soft soybean curd samples (5.1%) at 0.7 log CFU/g. The µmax was -0.04 to 0.47 log CFU/g/h, and the ln(LPD) was 3.94 to 0.04 h, depending on the storage temperature. The model performance was appropriate with a 0.216 RMSE and accurately described the kinetic behavior of B. cereus in soft soybean curd samples. These results suggest that B. cereus can contaminate soft soybean curds and that the models developed with the B. cereus isolates are useful for describing the kinetic behavior of B. cereus in soft soybean curd.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus , Soja , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Temperatura
13.
Phytomedicine ; 90: 153656, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herb-induced liver injury is a leading cause of drug-induced liver injury in China and its incidence is also increasing worldwide. Gardeniae Fructus (ZZ) has aroused wide concern for hepatotoxicity in recent decades. But when ZZ is administered in combination with Semen Sojae Praeparatum (DDC) to compose a herbal pair Zhizichi Decoction (ZZCD), lower hepatotoxicity is observed. The mechanism involved in the attenuated effect remains to be investigated. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Our previous studies showed that DDC benefited host metabolism by regulating the gut microbiota and it reduced the exposure of major toxic components of ZZ. The present study was aimed to investigate how DDC attenuated hepatotoxicity of ZZ from the perspective of gut microbiota. METHODS: Rats received ZZ and ZZCD treatment of different dosages and antibiotic treatment was applied to explore the involvement of gut microbiota. Biochemical assays and histopathological analysis were conducted to evaluate liver injury. Gut microbiota in caecal contents was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in caecal contents were measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). To verify the protective effect of butyrate, it was administered with genipin, the major hepatotoxic metabolite of ZZ, to rats and HepG2 cells. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) level and colon tissue section were used to evaluate gut permeability. Expression level of Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) was detected by immunohistochemistry in vitro and by western blot in vivo. RESULTS: Our study showed that ZZCD displayed lower hepatotoxicity than ZZ at the same dosage. ZZ induced gut dysbiosis, significantly reducing Lactobacillus and Enterococcus levels and increasing the Parasutterella level. In combination with DDC, these alterations were reversed and beneficial genus including Akkermansia and Prevotella were significantly increased. Besides, butyrate production was diminished by ZZ but was restored when in combination with DDC. Butyrate showed detoxification on genipin-induced liver injury by promoting colon integrity and promoting Nrf2 activation. Besides, it protected genipin-induced hepatocyte damage by promoting Nrf2 activation. CONCLUSION: DDC attenuates ZZ-induced liver injury by regulating the microbiota, promoting butyrate production and activating antioxidant response.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Gardenia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Soja/química , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Frutas/toxicidade , Gardenia/toxicidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445273

RESUMO

Peptides present in foods are involved in nutritional functions by supplying amino acids; sensory functions related to taste or solubility, emulsification, etc.; and bioregulatory functions in various physiological activities. In particular, peptides have a wide range of physiological functions, including as anticancer agents and in lowering blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels, enhancing immunity, and promoting calcium absorption. Soy protein can be partially hydrolyzed enzymatically to physiologically active soy (or soybean) peptides (SPs), which not only exert physiological functions but also help amino acid absorption in the body and reduce bitterness by hydrolyzing hydrophobic amino acids from the C- or N-terminus of soy proteins. They also possess significant gel-forming, emulsifying, and foaming abilities. SPs are expected to be able to prevent and treat atherosclerosis by inhibiting the reabsorption of bile acids in the digestive system, thereby reducing blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and fat levels. In addition, soy contains blood pressure-lowering peptides that inhibit angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity and antithrombotic peptides that inhibit platelet aggregation, as well as anticancer, antioxidative, antimicrobial, immunoregulatory, opiate-like, hypocholesterolemic, and antihypertensive activities. In animal models, neuroprotective and cognitive capacity as well as cardiovascular activity have been reported. SPs also inhibit chronic kidney disease and tumor cell growth by regulating the expression of genes associated with apoptosis, inflammation, cell cycle arrest, invasion, and metastasis. Recently, various functions of soybeans, including their physiologically active functions, have been applied to health-oriented foods, functional foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. This review introduces some current results on the role of bioactive peptides found in soybeans related to health functions.


Assuntos
Peptídeos , Proteínas de Soja , Soja/química , Animais , Humanos , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Soja/química , Proteínas de Soja/uso terapêutico
15.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361631

RESUMO

The cyclic lipopeptide produced from Bacillus pumilus strain HY1 was isolated from Korean soybean sauce cheonggukjang. The chemical structures of the surfactin isomers were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The five potential surfactin isoforms were detected with protonated masses of m/z 994.7, 1008.7, 1022.7, 1036.7, and 1050.7 and different structures in combination with Na+, K+, and Ca2+ ions. ESI-MS/MS analysis revealed that the isolated surfactin possessed the precise amino acid sequence LLVDLL and hydroxyl fatty acids with 12 to 16 carbons. The surfactin content during cheonggukjang fermentation increased from 0.3 to 51.2 mg/kg over 60 h of fermentation. The mixture of five surfactin isoforms of cheonggukjang inhibited the growth of two cancer cell lines. The growth of both MCF-7 and Caco-2 cells was strongly inhibited with 100 µg/µL of surfactin. This study is the first-time report of five surfactin isomers of Bacillus pumilus strain HY1 during Korean soybean sauce cheonggukjang fermentation, which has cytotoxic properties.


Assuntos
Bacillus pumilus/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Lipopeptídeos , Soja/microbiologia , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Lipopeptídeos/química , Lipopeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Células MCF-7
16.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444977

RESUMO

Past research using hepatic rat microsomes showed that soy protein suppressed delta-6 desaturase activity (D6D) compared to casein (a dairy protein). The effects of soy and dairy on desaturase pathway activity in humans remain poorly investigated. The objective of this analysis was to investigate the association between soy and dairy consumption with plasma fatty acids and estimate the desaturase pathway activity in a multiethnic Canadian population of young adults. We analyzed data from men (n = 319) and women (n = 764) previously collected for the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Food frequency questionnaires and plasma fatty acids were assessed. Relationships between soy and dairy beverages and food consumption with estimated desaturase activities were assessed by regression models and by grouping participants according to beverage and food intake data. Weak inverse associations (p ≤ 0.05) were found between soy consumption and the overall desaturation pathway activity, specifically D6D activity. When participants were grouped based on soy and dairy consumption habits, omega-6 LC-PUFAs, as well as various estimates of the desaturase pathway activity, were significantly lower in individuals consuming soy (with or without dairy) compared to individuals consuming only fluid milk and dairy products. In conclusion, soy consumption, not dairy consumption, appears to suppress desaturase pathway activity.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos de Soja , Animais , Canadá , Caseínas/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leite , Ontário , Leite de Soja/farmacologia , Proteínas de Soja/farmacologia , Soja , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125800, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438288

RESUMO

A novel Silicon carbide (SiC) foam ceramic based ZSM-5/SiC nanowires microwave-responsive catalyst was developed to upgrade the pyrolysis volatiles in a microwave-assisted series system (both the pyrolysis and catalytic systems were heated by microwave). The growth of SiC nanowires was helpful for the ZSM-5 growth on the SiC foam ceramic. Because the specific surface area of SiC foam ceramic was improved. The dielectric properties of the composite catalyst were improved due to the growth of SiC nanowires. Bio-oil composition analysis showed that area percentage of hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons could reach 80.89% and 40.48% at catalytic temperature of 450 ℃and 500 ℃, respectively. The microwave-responsive composite catalyst had good aromatization performance in microwave-assisted series system due to high dielectric properties and specific surface area. The composite catalyst performed well after five-cycle regeneration, and the hydrocarbon content could still reach 76.40%, which is 80.89% for the original catalyst.


Assuntos
Micro-Ondas , Pirólise , Biocombustíveis , Catálise , Temperatura Alta , Hidrocarbonetos , Óleos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Soja
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445448

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) play crucial roles in various biological processes, including plant developmental processes and response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no information is currently available about this gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present investigation, we identified the BZR gene family in wheat to understand the evolution and their role in diverse developmental processes and under different stress conditions. In this study, we performed the genome-wide analysis of the BZR gene family in the bread wheat and identified 20 TaBZR genes through a homology search and further characterized them to understand their structure, function, and distribution across various tissues. Phylogenetic analyses lead to the classification of TaBZR genes into five different groups or subfamilies, providing evidence of evolutionary relationship with Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Glycine max, and Oryza sativa. A gene exon/intron structure analysis showed a distinct evolutionary path and predicted the possible gene duplication events. Further, the physical and biochemical properties, conserved motifs, chromosomal, subcellular localization, and cis-acting regulatory elements were also examined using various computational approaches. In addition, an analysis of public RNA-seq data also shows that TaBZR genes may be involved in diverse developmental processes and stress tolerance mechanisms. Moreover, qRT-PCR results also showed similar expression with slight variation. Collectively, these results suggest that TaBZR genes might play an important role in plant developmental processes and various stress conditions. Therefore, this work provides valuable information for further elucidate the precise role of BZR family members in wheat.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Soja/genética , Triazóis , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia , Zea mays/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445699

RESUMO

Abiotic stress factors, such as drought and salinity, are known to negatively affect plant growth and development. To cope with these adverse conditions, plants have utilized certain defense mechanisms involved in various aspects, including morphological, biochemical and molecular alterations. Particularly, a great deal of evidence for the biological importance of the plant-specific NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2 (NAC) transcription factors (TFs) in plant adaptation to abiotic stress conditions has been reported. A previous in planta study conducted by our research group demonstrated that soybean (Glycine max) GmNAC085 mediated drought resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In this study, further characterization of GmNAC085 function in association with salt stress was performed. The findings revealed that under this condition, transgenic soybean plants overexpressing GmNAC085 displayed better germination rates than wild-type plants. In addition, biochemical and transcriptional analyses showed that the transgenic plants acquired a better defense system against salinity-induced oxidative stress, with higher activities of antioxidant enzymes responsible for scavenging hydrogen peroxide or superoxide radicals. Higher transcript levels of several key stress-responsive genes involved in the proline biosynthetic pathway, sodium ion transporter and accumulation of dehydrins were also observed, indicating better osmoprotection and more efficient ion regulation capacity in the transgenic lines. Taken together, these findings and our previous report indicate that GmNAC085 may play a role as a positive regulator in plant adaptation to drought and salinity conditions.


Assuntos
Estresse Salino/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Secas , Germinação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Salinidade , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445752

RESUMO

To investigate the mechanism of flooding tolerance of soybean, flooding-tolerant mutants derived from gamma-ray irradiated soybean were crossed with parent cultivar Enrei for removal of other factors besides the genes related to flooding tolerance in primary generated mutant soybean. Although the growth of the wild type was significantly suppressed by flooding compared with the non-flooding condition, that of the mutant lines was better than that of the wild type even if it was treated with flooding. A two-day-old mutant line was subjected to flooding for 2 days and proteins were analyzed using a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique. Oppositely changed proteins in abundance between the wild type and mutant line under flooding stress were associated in endoplasmic reticulum according to gene-ontology categorization. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that calnexin accumulation increased in both the wild type and mutant line; however, calreticulin accumulated in only the mutant line under flooding stress. Furthermore, although glycoproteins in the wild type decreased by flooding compared with the non-flooding condition, those in the mutant line increased even if it was under flooding stress. Alcohol dehydrogenase accumulated in the wild type and mutant line; however, this enzyme activity significantly increased and mildly increased in the wild type and mutant line, respectively, under flooding stress compared with the non-flooding condition. Cell death increased and decreased in the wild type and mutant line, respectively, by flooding stress. These results suggest that the regulation of cell death through the fermentation system and glycoprotein folding might be an important factor for the acquisition of flooding tolerance in mutant soybean.


Assuntos
Inundações , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/fisiologia , Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteômica , Soja/genética
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