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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548

RESUMO

Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.


Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Soja , Alimentos Marinhos , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246460, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350310

RESUMO

Abstract Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.


Resumo O estudo de pesquisa de campo foi realizado na temporada (2017). A soja e as ervas daninhas foram amostradas semanalmente de forma aleatória. Tripes adultos foram identificados e contados. A detecção do vírus isolado e a incidência natural foram determinadas usando transmissão mecânica, gama de hospedeiros, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. A incidência natural de tripes em indivíduos foi detectada dependendo da % de SVNV em tripes e hospedeiros infestantes. Dez espécies de tripes foram associadas a plantas de soja no campo. A espécie mais abundante foi T. tabaci, com média de 256,5 número médio de indivíduos, seguida por F. occidentalis (142,5) e N. variabilis (86,6 / número médio de indivíduos). Catorze espécies de tripes ocorreram em 5 culturas de leguminosas e 41 espécies de plantas daninhas dentro de campos de soja. O maior número médio de 40,6 indivíduos foi registrado em Ammi majus. Enquanto o mais baixo, 3,3 número médio de indivíduos, foi no Urtica urens. Apenas 21 espécies de plantas diagnosticadas foram suscetíveis à infecção com SVNV. G. max e Vigna radiate foram os maiores percentuais de infecção, 80%, seguidos por V. unguilata e N. benthamiana, 75%. O isolado egípcio neste estudo mostrou um alto grau de similaridade e está intimamente relacionado ao TSWV do Egito (DQ479968) e ao TCSV dos EUA (KY820965), com identidade de sequência de nucleotídeos de 78%. Quatro espécies de tripes transmitiram SVNV (F. fusca 4,0%, F. schultzei 4,3%, F. tritici 3,3% e N. variabilis 68,0% de transmissão). Tanto C. phaseoli quanto M. sjostedti podem adquirir o vírus, mas não podem transmiti-lo. As seguintes espécies, T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis e T. palmi não podem adquirir ou transmitir SVNV. A incidência de SVNV no campo, iniciada no final de julho, aumentou gradativamente de 12,7 para 71,3% no final da temporada. Em conclusão, poucos indivíduos de tripes invadiram a cultura da soja e são suficientes para transmitir alta taxa de SVNV dentro da cultura. Além disso, várias espécies de vetores também abundam em ervas daninhas, que são as principais fontes dos vírus da soja transmitidos às lavouras. Essas informações podem ser importantes para controlar e reduzir a incidência de infecção por SVNV.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tospovirus , Doenças das Plantas , Soja , Incidência , Urticaceae , Egito/epidemiologia , Plantas Daninhas , Necrose
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255235, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355897

RESUMO

Abstract In soybean breeding program, continuous selection pressure on traits response to yield created a genetic bottleneck for improvements of soybean through hybridization breeding technique. Therefore an initiative was taken to developed high yielding soybean variety applying mutation breeding techniques at Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Bangladesh. Locally available popular cultivar BARI Soybean-5 was used as a parent material and subjected to five different doses of Gamma ray using Co60. In respect to seed yield and yield attributing characters, twelve true breed mutants were selected from M4 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for plant height, branch number and pod number were considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement that ensure expected yield. The mutant SBM-18 obtained from 250Gy provided stable yield performance at diversified environments. It provided maximum seed yield of 3056 kg ha-1 with highest number of pods plant-1 (56). The National Seed Board of Bangladesh (NSB) eventually approved SBM-18 and registered it as a new soybean variety named 'Binasoybean-5' for large-scale planting because of its superior stability in various agro-ecological zones and consistent yield performance.


Resumo No programa de melhoramento da soja, a pressão pela seleção contínua para a resposta das características de rendimento criou um gargalo genético para melhorias da soja por meio da técnica de melhoramento por hibridação. Portanto, foi desenvolvida uma variedade de soja de alto rendimento, aplicando técnicas de reprodução por mutação, na Divisão de Melhoramento de Plantas, no Instituto de Agricultura Nuclear de Bangladesh (BINA), em Bangladesh. A cultivar popular BARI Soybean-5, disponível localmente, foi usada como material original e submetida a cinco doses diferentes de raios gama usando Co60. Em relação ao rendimento de sementes e às características de atribuição de rendimento, 12 mutantes genuínos foram selecionados a partir da geração M4. Altos valores de herdabilidade e avanço genético com alto coeficiente de variância genotípico (GCV) para altura da planta, número de ramos e número de vagens foram considerados atributos favoráveis ​​ao melhoramento da soja, garantindo, assim, a produtividade esperada. O mutante SBM-18, obtido a partir de 250Gy, proporcionou desempenho de rendimento estável em ambientes diversificados e produtividade máxima de sementes de 3.056 kg ha-1 com o maior número de vagens planta-1 (56). O Conselho Nacional de Sementes de Bangladesh (NSB) finalmente aprovou o SBM-18 e o registrou como uma nova variedade de soja, chamada 'Binasoybean-5', para plantio em larga escala por causa de sua estabilidade superior em várias zonas agroecológicas e desempenho de rendimento consistente.


Assuntos
Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/genética , Fenótipo , Bangladesh , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genótipo , Mutação
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256933, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364505

RESUMO

Anticarsia gemmatalis Hünber, 1818 is one of the main defoliating species in the soybean crop. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, 1915, is a bacterium used in the biological control of this pest species. Resistant populations and their sublethal effects caused by the use of the bacteria have already been reported; however, there are no studies on phenotypic plasticity in adulthood exposed to Bt-based bioinsecticide sub-doses. This study aimed to evaluate the morphometry of A. gemmatalis adults under laboratory conditions submitted to the Bt-based bioinsecticide Dipel® over the three generations. The body segments mensuread were width, length, and area of the anterior and posterior wings, the weight of the integument, chest, abdomen, wings, and the whole adult of males and females. Among the treatments, LC5 in the first generation and LC10 in the second generation were those with lower thresholds in relation to the weight of the chest and abdomen, considering the proportions of the body smaller than the females. The female's weight adulthood was reduced by 10% about males, and, only in the first generation. Males have larger body size and more pronounced phenotypic plasticity than females. Here, we demonstrate the first study assessing the phenotypic plasticity of A. gemmatalis adults.


Anticarsia gemmatalis Hünber, 1818 é uma das principais espécies desfolhadoras da cultura da soja. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, 1915, é uma bactéria utilizada no controle biológico dessa espécie de praga. Populações resistentes e seus efeitos subletais causados pelo uso da bactéria já foram relatados, no entanto, não há estudos sobre a plasticidade fenotípica na idade adulta exposta a subdoses de bioinseticida à base de Bt. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a morfometria de adultos de A. gemmatalis em condições de laboratório submetidos ao bioinseticida Dipel® ao longo de três gerações. Os segmentos corporais mensuráveis eram largura, comprimento e área das asas anterior e posterior, o peso do tegumento, tórax, abdômen, asas e todo o adulto de machos e fêmeas. Dentre os tratamentos, CL5 na primeira geração e CL10 na segunda geração foram aqueles com limiares mais baixos em relação ao peso do tórax e abdômen, considerando as proporções do corpo menores que as do sexo feminino. O peso da fêmea na idade adulta foi reduzido em 10% em relação aos machos e, apenas na primeira geração. Os machos têm tamanho corporal maior e plasticidade fenotípica mais pronunciada do que as fêmeas. Este estudo demonstra o primeiro estudo avaliando a plasticidade fenotípica de adultos de A. gemmatalis.


Assuntos
Animais , Fenótipo , Soja , Bacillus thuringiensis , Controle Biológico de Vetores
5.
Food Chem ; 400: 133950, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055137

RESUMO

Effect of soluble soybean polysaccharides (SSPS) and acidic condition on the bread staling of crumb and crust were evaluated in bread characteristics, water migration, starch retrogradation, and flavor. Bread characteristic analysis showed SSPS and acidic conditions significantly improved bread quality during storage, maintaining crumb softness. The staling rate of the synergistic group under SSPS and acidic condition decreased by 49.46% compared to the control group. This retardation was associated with water migration and starch retrogradation. SSPS and acidic conditions restricted the water migration from crumb to crust. A synergy between SSPS and acidification restrained the relative crystallinity and retrogradation enthalpy in bread crumbs and crust during storage. The scores plot and heat map analysis indicated SSPS and acidic condition was facilitated the flavors retention in the crumb and crust after stored 7-days. This study suggested SSPS and acidic conditions might be beneficial for extending bread shelf-life.


Assuntos
Pão , Soja , Amido , Triticum , Água
6.
Food Chem ; 400: 134009, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057253

RESUMO

Edible vegan films were obtained on the basis of furcellaran and protein hydrolysates from soybean bran. The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of using innovative single- and double-layer films with antioxidant properties as packaging materials for vegetarian products. A further objective of the study was to evaluate the degree of biodegradation and potential toxicity with regard to the developed films. The tofu was analysed for changes in physicochemical parameters (weight loss, dry weight texture and colour), microbiological quality (total microbial count, yeast and moulds, psychotropic bacteria), and lipid oxidation (peroxidase and acid values, TBARS, fatty acid profile). It was found that films undergo almost complete biodegradation within 10 days and do not demonstrate any toxicity for cress seeds during their growth. Films are not effective in inhibiting the growth of microorganisms in tofu samples. Furthermore, they are not efficient in inhibiting the oxidation of tofu lipids. Compared to the control, the tofu samples covered with the innovative biopolymer films showed significantly lower moisture content and higher weight loss as well as hardness during the whole storage period.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Embalagem de Alimentos , Antioxidantes/química , Biopolímeros , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , Lipídeos , Peroxidases , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Soja , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico , Veganos , Redução de Peso
7.
Food Chem ; 399: 133964, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029675

RESUMO

We employed dithiothreitol (DTT) to reassemble soy lipophilic protein (LP) and increased its solubility for encapsulating resveratrol (Res); we subsequently added hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) to further stabilize Res. Physicochemical characterization, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and spectral analysis revealed that DTT triggered the breakage and reassembly of the disulfide bond. Consequently, the solubility of LP increased from 38.64 % to 71.49 %, and the number of free sulfhydryl groups increased to 7.84 mol·g-1. Furthermore, the encapsulation efficiency and structure of reassembled LP nanoparticles loaded with Res were found to be closely related to the DTT concentration used for induction. When HPMC was added, the LP-Res complex demonstrated spontaneous self-assembly, and the pH and temperature stability of the Res in the nanoparticles improved. An in vitro digestion simulation revealed that the reassembled LP was an efficient carrier for Res delivery. Particularly, HPMC improved the bioavailability and sustained release of Res.


Assuntos
Ditiotreitol , Derivados da Hipromelose , Nanopartículas , Resveratrol , Proteínas de Soja , Excipientes , Derivados da Hipromelose/química , Nanopartículas/química , Solubilidade , Proteínas de Soja/química , Soja
8.
Food Chem ; 399: 133956, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027807

RESUMO

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy were combined to enhance discrimination of soybean paste samples according to geographical origin. Since element and organic component compositions of soybean pastes depend on soybean cultivation areas and fermentation conditions, utilization of two complementary spectroscopic signatures would be synergetic for the discrimination. When the areas of C (AC) and Ca (ACa) peaks in the LIBS spectra were used as the inputs for linear discriminant analysis, the accuracy was 95.4%. The accuracy became 92.1%, when the principal component (PC) scores obtained by principal component analysis of the NIR spectra were employed. To enhance NIR discrimination, two-trace two-dimensional (2T2D) correlation analysis was adopted to recognize minute spectral differences. With using the 1st/2nd PC scores of 2T2D slice spectra, accuracy increased to 95.0%. When the ratios of ACa/AC and the 2nd PC scores of the samples were combined together, the accuracy improved to 99.6%.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Soja , Análise Discriminante , Geografia , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos
9.
Planta ; 256(4): 83, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112244

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The overexpression of the GmGlb1-1 gene reduces plant susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita. Non-symbiotic globin class #1 (Glb1) genes are expressed in different plant organs, have a high affinity for oxygen, and are related to nitric oxide (NO) turnover. Previous studies showed that soybean Glb1 genes are upregulated in soybean plants under flooding conditions. Herein, the GmGlb1-1 gene was identified in soybean as being upregulated in the nematode-resistant genotype PI595099 compared to the nematode-susceptible cultivar BRS133 during plant parasitism by Meloidogyne incognita. The Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum transgenic lines overexpressing the GmGlb1-1 gene showed reduced susceptibility to M. incognita. Consistently, gall morphology data indicated that pJ2 nematodes that infected the transgenic lines showed developmental alterations and delayed parasitism progress. Although no significant changes in biomass and seed yield were detected, the transgenic lines showed an elongated, etiolation-like growth under well-irrigation, and also developed more axillary roots under flooding conditions. In addition, transgenic lines showed upregulation of some important genes involved in plant defense response to oxidative stress. In agreement, higher hydrogen peroxide accumulation and reduced activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification enzymes were also observed in these transgenic lines. Thus, based on our data and previous studies, it was hypothesized that constitutive overexpression of the GmGlb1-1 gene can interfere in the dynamics of ROS production and NO scavenging, enhancing the acquired systemic acclimation to biotic and abiotic stresses, and improving the cellular homeostasis. Therefore, these collective data suggest that ectopic or nematode-induced overexpression, or enhanced expression of the GmGlb1-1 gene using CRISPR/dCas9 offers great potential for application in commercial soybean cultivars aiming to reduce plant susceptibility to M. incognita.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Globinas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Tylenchoidea/genética
10.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 187: 105188, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127063

RESUMO

Pest management is challenged with resistant herbivores and problems regarding human health and environmental issues. Indeed, the greatest challenge to modern agriculture is to protect crops from pests and still maintain environmental quality. This study aimed to analyze by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo approaches to the feasibility of using the inhibitory protein extracted from mammals - Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (BPTI) as a potential inhibitor of digestive trypsins from the pest Anticarsia gemmatalis and comparing the results with the host-plant inhibitor - Soybean Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (SKTI). BPTI and SKTI interacts with A. gemmatalis trypsin-like enzyme competitively, through hydrogen and hydrophobic bonds. A. gemmatalis larvae exposed to BPTI did not show two common adaptative mechanisms i.e., proteolytic degradation and overproduction of proteases, presenting highly reduced trypsin-like activity. On the other hand, SKTI-fed larvae did not show reduced trypsin-like activity, presenting overproduction of proteases and SKTI digestion. In addition, the larval survival was reduced by BPTI similarly to SKTI, and additionally caused a decrease in pupal weight. The non-plant protease inhibitor BPTI presents intriguing element to compose biopesticide formulations to help decrease the use of conventional refractory pesticides into integrated pest management programs.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Mariposas , Praguicidas , Animais , Aprotinina/farmacologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Bovinos , Humanos , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Larva , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Soja/metabolismo , Tripsina , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia
11.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13768, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127312

RESUMO

The ruminal degradation parameters of sunflower cake (SFC), a by-product left after the mechanical extraction of oil from sunflower seeds, were estimated in an in situ experiment using a cow. And also the effect of feeding SFC on nutrient digestibilities, digestible energy, nitrogen balance, and ruminal and blood properties were investigated in a feeding trial using four Shiba goats compared isonitrogenously with soybean meal (SBM). The in situ results demonstrated that the SFC had high soluble protein (>70%) with 97% total degradable protein. The feeding trial revealed that the SFC had 85% crude protein digestibility and 65% total digestible nutrients on a dry matter basis in which the low carbohydrate digestibilities offset the advantage of high digestible fat (9.9%). The nitrogen efficiency (retained N/intake N) was lower for SFC than SBM, probably because of an inferior biological value of amino acids in SFC. Among the ruminal and blood properties, only the total ruminal acid concentration and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) differed significantly between the diets: The SFC diet showed lower values than the SBM diet. These findings indicate that SFC can safely replace SBM.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Soja , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carboidratos , Bovinos , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Helianthus/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Rúmen/metabolismo , Soja/química
12.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 32(9): 1146-1153, 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36168203

RESUMO

Many probiotic species have been used as a fermentation starter for manufacturing functional food materials. We have isolated Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LDTM 8102 from the feces of infants as a novel strain for fermentation. While Glycine max has been known to display various bioactivities including anti-oxidant, anti-skin aging, and anti-cancer effects, the immune-modulatory effect of Glycine max has not been reported. In the current study, we have discovered that the extract of Glycine max fermented with B. animalis subsp. lactis LDTM 8102 (GFB 8102), could exert immuno-modulatory properties. GFB 8102 treatment increased the production of immune-stimulatory cytokines in RAW264.7 macrophages without any noticeable cytotoxicity. Analysis of the molecular mechanism revealed that GFB 8102 could upregulate MAPK2K and MAPK signaling pathways including ERK, p38, and JNK. GFB 8102 also increased the proliferation rate of splenocytes isolated from mice. In an animal study, administration of GFB 8102 partially recovered cyclophosphamide-mediated reduction in thymus and spleen weight. Moreover, splenocytes from the GFB 8102-treated group exhibited increased TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß production. Based on these findings, GFB 8102 could be a promising functional food material for enhancing immune function.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium animalis , Probióticos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ciclofosfamida , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078255

RESUMO

Soybean plants are highly susceptible to Fusarium species, which significantly reduce soybean production and quality. Several Fusarium species have been reported to synthesize mycotoxins, such as trichothecene, which have been related to major human diseases. In November 2021, soybean pods in Nantong municipality, China, showed black necrotic lesions during the harvest stage. The disease incidence reached 69%. The pathogen was identified as Fusarium sulawense via morphological analysis and sequencing of ITS, EF1-α and RPB2 genes. A PCR assay with primers targeting the trichothecene biosynthesis genes suggested that the three isolates could synthesize trichothecenes. The effectiveness of fungicide carbendazim and natural metabolites dipicolinic acid and kojic acid was screened for the management of F. sulawense on postharvest soybean pods. The highest efficacy was obtained when combining 3.8 mg/mL carbendazim and 0.84 mg/mL dipicolinic acid (curative efficacy: 49.1% lesion length inhibition; preventive efficacy: 82.7% lesion length inhibition), or 1.9 mg/mL carbendazim and 0.71 mg/mL kojic acid (preventive efficacy: 84.9% lesion length inhibition). Collectively, this report will lead to a better understanding of the safety hazards found in soybean products in China and reveals the application of dipicolinic and kojic acids to reduce the use of carbendazim.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Benzimidazóis , Carbamatos , Fusarium/genética , Humanos , Ácidos Picolínicos , Pironas , Soja , Triticum
14.
Theor Appl Genet ; 135(10): 3571-3582, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087141

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Pleiotropic and epistatic quantitative disease resistance loci (QDRL) were identified for soybean partial resistance to different isolates of Pythium irregulare and Pythium sylvaticum. Pythium root rot is an important seedling disease of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], a crop grown worldwide for protein and oil content. Pythium irregulare and P. sylvaticum are two of the most prevalent and aggressive Pythium species in soybean producing regions in the North Central U.S. Few studies have been conducted to identify soybean resistance for management against these two pathogens. In this study, a mapping population (derived from E13390 x E13901) with 228 F4:5 recombinant inbred lines were screened against P. irregulare isolate MISO 11-6 and P. sylvaticum isolate C-MISO2-2-30 for QDRL mapping. Correlation analysis indicated significant positive correlations between soybean responses to the two pathogens, and a pleiotropic QDRL (qPirr16.1) was identified. Further investigation found that the qPirr16.1 imparts dominant resistance against P. irregulare, but recessive resistance against P. sylvaticum. In addition, two QDRL, qPsyl15.1, and qPsyl18.1 were identified for partial resistance to P. sylvaticum. Further analysis revealed epistatic interactions between qPirr16.1 and qPsyl15.1 for RRW and DRX, whereas qPsyl18.1 contributed resistance to RSE. Marker-assisted resistance spectrum analysis using F6:7 progeny lines verified the resistance of qPirr16.1 against four additional P. irregulare isolates. Intriguingly, although the epistatic interaction of qPirr16.1 and qPsyl15.1 can be confirmed using two additional isolates of P. sylvaticum, the interaction appears to be suppressed for the other two P. sylvaticum isolates. An 'epistatic gene-for-gene' model was proposed to explain the isolate-specific epistatic interactions. The integration of the QDRL into elite soybean lines containing all the desirable alleles has been initiated.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Pythium , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plântula , Soja/genética
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141952

RESUMO

Inflammation is a normal response in defense to agents that may cause damage to the human body. When inflammation becomes chronic, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced; which could lead to diseases such as cancer. The aim was to assess liposomes' antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity loaded with amaranth unsaponifiable matter and soybean lunasin (UM + LunLip) in an in vitro model using fibroblasts and macrophages. To evaluate ROS production, fibroblasts CHON-002 ABAP were added to promote ROS production; and the cells were treated with UM + LunLip. For inflammation markers production, lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 and peritoneal macrophages were treated with empty liposomes (EmLip), liposomes loaded with unsaponifiable matter (UMLip), liposomes loaded with lunasin (LunLip), and UM + LunLip. ROS production was significantly decreased by 77% (p < 0.05) when fibroblasts were treated with UM + LunLip at 2 mg lunasin/mL compared with the control treated with ABAP. Treatment with UMLip was the most effective in reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (71-90%) and interleukin-6 (43-55%, p < 0.001). Both liposomes containing unsaponifiable matter (UMLip and UM + LunLip) were more effective than EmLip or LunLip. In conclusion, amaranth unsaponifiable matter-loaded liposomes are effective in decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine production.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Soja , Amidinas , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-6 , Lipossomos , Macrófagos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
16.
Poult Sci ; 101(10): 102096, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055028

RESUMO

A series of experiments was designed and conducted to determine the apparent and standardized ileal phosphorus digestibility (i.e., AIDP and SIDP, respectively) of some grains and protein meals in Japanese quail at different age classes during the growing period from the hatch to 35 d of age. Experimental diets included a PFD, to measure basal endogenous P losses (EPL), corn, wheat, soybean meal (SBM), and corn gluten meal (CGM), so as to be each ingredient the sole source of P, were developed and fed to five experimental groups with 5 replicates of 30 chicks each. Titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker was added to the diets at the rate of 5 g/kg of diet. The EPL in birds fed on PFD was estimated at 201 mg/kg dry matter intake (DMI) and quail chicks fed on PFD exhibited the lowest performance compared to chicks received dietary P regardless of P sources (P = 0.001). The estimated coefficients of AIPD (P = 0.001) | SIDP (P = 0.004) for CGM, corn, SBM, and wheat were 49.2 | 51.9%, 38.8 | 44.9%, 41.4 | 45.9%, and 33.2 | 40.1%, respectively. The mean differences between AIPD and SIPD coefficients with each ingredients including CGM (P = 0.245), corn (P = 0.169), and SBM (P = 0.169) were not statistically significant, while the comparison of those estimations for wheat (P = 0.022) showed significant differences. The present work showed that the use of direct method could successfully estimate the coefficients of P digestibility in growing quail for both the cereals and protein meals that were studied. The high relative contribution of endogenous P in young quail fed on wheat during the first 2 wk posthatch makes it inevitable to correct AIDP for EPL and evoke the implementation of SIDP coefficients in the feed formulation matrix.


Assuntos
Fósforo na Dieta , Soja , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Coturnix/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Glutens/metabolismo , Refeições , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Propilaminas , Codorniz/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15998, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36163486

RESUMO

African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a fatal infectious disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boars. ASFV is highly stable and easily transmitted by consumption of contaminated swine feed and pork products. Heat treatment of feed ingredients is a means to minimize the risk of contamination through swine feed consumption. The objectives of this study were to determine the thermal inactivation of ASFV in non-animal and animal origin feed ingredients. The rate of thermal inactivation is represented by decimal reduction time (DT) or time required to reduce ASFV per 1 log at temperature T. The mean D60, D70, D80 and D85 of meat and bone meal (MBM), soybean meal (SBM), and maize grain (MZ) are in the ranges 5.11-6.78, 2.19-3.01, 0.99-2.02, and 0.16-0.99 min, respectively. DT is used to compare the heat resistance of ASFV in the feed ingredient matrices. The mean DT of ASFV in MBM, SBM and MZ was not statistically significant, and the heat resistance of ASFV in MBM, SBM, and MZ was not different at 60, 70, 80, or 85 °C. The multiple DT was used to develop a DT model to predict DT at various inactivation temperatures. The DT models for MBM, SBM, and MZ are log DT = - [Formula: see text] + 2.69, log DT = - [Formula: see text] + 2.55, and log DT = - [Formula: see text] + 4.01. To expand and ease the field applications, a spreadsheet predicting the DT and the inactivation time (with 95% confidence interval) from these DT models is available to download.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Fabaceae , Carne de Porco , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Ração Animal , Animais , Temperatura Alta , Soja , Suínos , Temperatura
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16090, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167965

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to see how substituting cassava pulp fermented yeast waste (CSYW) for soybean meal (SBM) in a concentrate affected feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in Thai native beef cattle. In this study, four male Thai native beef cattle with an average age of 15.0 ± 25.0 months and body weights of 140 ± 5.0 kg were used. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin squared design, with dietary treatments of CSYW replacing SBM at 0, 33, 67, and 100% in the concentrate mixture. It was discovered that the presence of CSYW had no negative impact on feed intake, nutritional intake, or apparent digestibility (p > 0.05). CSYW had no significant effects on ruminal pH or temperature (p > 0.05). When the amount of CSYW in the diet increased, the rumen ammonia-nitrogen concentration increased (p < 0.05). Blood urea nitrogen was not affected by CSYW (p > 0.05). The total bacterial population increased when the diet's CSYW amount was increased (p < 0.05). Feeding CSYW to beef cattle had no influence on total volatile fatty acid, acetic acid (C2), or butyric acid (C4) proportions (p > 0.05). The concentration of propionic acid (C3) and the C2:C3 ratio increased when the amount of CSYW in the diet was increased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CSYW can completely replace SBM in a concentrate diet for beef cattle with no adverse effects on feed utilization or rumen fermentation while the total bacterial population and C3 concentration increase.


Assuntos
Manihot , Amônia/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Fermentação , Masculino , Manihot/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142271

RESUMO

Flooding impairs wheat growth and considerably affects yield productivity worldwide. On the other hand, irradiation with millimeter waves enhanced the growth of chickpea and soybean under flooding stress. In the current work, millimeter-wave irradiation notably enhanced wheat growth, even under flooding stress. To explore the protective mechanisms of millimeter-wave irradiation on wheat under flooding, quantitative proteomics was performed. According to functional categorization, proteins whose abundances were changed significantly with and without irradiation under flooding stress were correlated to glycolysis, reactive-oxygen species scavenging, cell organization, and hormonal metabolism. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and ß tubulin accumulated in root and leaf under flooding; however, even in such condition, their accumulations were recovered to the control level in irradiated wheat. The abundance of ascorbate peroxidase increased in leaf under flooding and recovered to the control level in irradiated wheat. Because the abundance of auxin-related proteins changed with millimeter-wave irradiation, auxin was applied to wheat under flooding, resulting in the application of auxin improving its growth, even in such condition. These results suggest that millimeter-wave irradiation on wheat seeds improves the recovery of plant growth from flooding via the regulation of glycolysis, reactive-oxygen species scavenging, and cell organization. Additionally, millimeter-wave irradiation could promote tolerance against flooding through the regulation of auxin contents in wheat.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Triticum , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Inundações , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Soja/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142354

RESUMO

In this study, we performed a genotyping-by-sequencing analysis and a genome-wide association study of a soybean mutant diversity pool previously constructed by gamma irradiation. A GWAS was conducted to detect significant associations between 37,249 SNPs, 11 agronomic traits, and 6 phytochemical traits. In the merged data set, 66 SNPs on 13 chromosomes were highly associated (FDR p < 0.05) with the following 4 agronomic traits: days of flowering (33 SNPs), flower color (16 SNPs), node number (6 SNPs), and seed coat color (11 SNPs). These results are consistent with the findings of earlier studies on other genetic features (e.g., natural accessions and recombinant inbred lines). Therefore, our observations suggest that the genomic changes in the mutants generated by gamma irradiation occurred at the same loci as the mutations in the natural soybean population. These findings are indicative of the existence of mutation hotspots, or the acceleration of genome evolution in response to high doses of radiation. Moreover, this study demonstrated that the integration of GBS and GWAS to investigate a mutant population derived from gamma irradiation is suitable for dissecting the molecular basis of complex traits in soybeans.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Soja , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Soja/genética
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