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1.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(4): 716-731, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347066

RESUMO

Stearoyl-ACP Δ9 desaturase (SAD) catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated oleic acid or palmitoleic acid in plastids. SAD is the key enzyme to control the ratio of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids in plant cells. In order to analyze the regulation mechanism of soybean oleic acid synthesis, soybean (Glycine max) GmSAD family members were genome-wide identified, and their conserved functional domains and physicochemical properties were also analyzed by bioinformatics tools. The spatiotemporal expression profile of each member of GmSADs was detected by qRT-PCR. The expression vectors of GmSAD5 were constructed. The enzyme activity and biological function of GmSAD5 were examined by Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in Nicotiana tabacum leaves and genetic transformation of oleic acid-deficient yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant BY4389. Results show that the soybean genome contains five GmSAD family members, all encoding an enzyme protein with diiron center and two conservative histidine enrichment motifs (EENRHG and DEKRHE) specific to SAD enzymes. The active enzyme protein was predicted as a homodimer. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that five GmSADs were divided into two subgroups, which were closely related to AtSSI2 and AtSAD6, respectively. The expression profiles of GmSAD members were significantly different in soybean roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds at different developmental stages. Among them, GmSAD5 expressed highly in the middle and late stages of developmental seeds, which coincided with the oil accumulation period. Transient expression of GmSAD5 in tobacco leaves increased the oleic acid and total oil content in leaf tissue by 5.56% and 2.73%, respectively, while stearic acid content was reduced by 2.46%. Functional complementation assay in defective yeast strain BY4389 demonstrated that overexpression of GmSAD5 was able to restore the synthesis of monounsaturated oleic acid, resulting in high oil accumulation. Taken together, soybean GmSAD5 has strong selectivity to stearic acid substrates and can efficiently catalyze the biosynthesis of monounsaturated oleic acid. It lays the foundation for the study of soybean seed oleic acid and total oil accumulation mechanism, providing an excellent target for genetic improvement of oil quality in soybean.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases , Proteínas de Plantas , Soja , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ácido Oleico/biossíntese , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/química , Soja/classificação , Soja/enzimologia , Soja/genética
2.
Gigascience ; 8(12)2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestication and improvement processes, accompanied by selections and adaptations, have generated genome-wide divergence and stratification in soybean populations. Simultaneously, soybean populations, which comprise diverse subpopulations, have developed their own adaptive characteristics enhancing fitness, resistance, agronomic traits, and morphological features. The genetic traits underlying these characteristics play a fundamental role in improving other soybean populations. RESULTS: This study focused on identifying the selection signatures and adaptive characteristics in soybean populations. A core set of 245 accessions (112 wild-type, 79 landrace, and 54 improvement soybeans) selected from 4,234 soybean accessions was re-sequenced. Their genomic architectures were examined according to the domestication and improvement, and accessions were then classified into 3 wild-type, 2 landrace, and 2 improvement subgroups based on various population analyses. Selection and gene set enrichment analyses revealed that the landrace subgroups have selection signals for soybean-cyst nematode HG type 0 and seed development with germination, and that the improvement subgroups have selection signals for plant development with viability and seed development with embryo development, respectively. The adaptive characteristic for soybean-cyst nematode was partially underpinned by multiple resistance accessions, and the characteristics related to seed development were supported by our phenotypic findings for seed weights. Furthermore, their adaptive characteristics were also confirmed as genome-based evidence, and unique genomic regions that exhibit distinct selection and selective sweep patterns were revealed for 13 candidate genes. CONCLUSIONS: Although our findings require further biological validation, they provide valuable information about soybean breeding strategies and present new options for breeders seeking donor lines to improve soybean populations.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Soja/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Domesticação , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/classificação , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Seleção Genética , Soja/genética , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569565

RESUMO

Fifteen transcription factors in the CAMTA (calmodulin binding transcription activator) family of soybean were reported to differentially regulate in multiple stresses; however, their functional analyses had not yet been attempted. To characterize their role in stresses, we first comprehensively analyzed the GmCAMTA family in silico and thereafter determined their expression pattern under drought. The bioinformatics analysis revealed multiple stress-related cis-regulatory elements including ABRE, SARE, G-box and W-box, 10 unique miRNA (microRNA) targets in GmCAMTA transcripts and 48 proteins in GmCAMTAs' interaction network. We then cloned the 2769 bp CDS (coding sequence) of GmCAMTA12 in an expression vector and overexpressed in soybean and Arabidopsis through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The T3 (Transgenic generation 3) stably transformed homozygous lines of Arabidopsis exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought in soil as well as on MS (Murashige and Skoog) media containing mannitol. In their drought assay, the average survival rate of transgenic Arabidopsis lines OE5 and OE12 (Overexpression Line 5 and Line 12) was 83.66% and 87.87%, respectively, which was ~30% higher than that of wild type. In addition, the germination and root length assays as well as physiological indexes such as proline and malondialdehyde contents, catalase activity and leakage of electrolytes affirmed the better performance of OE lines. Similarly, GmCAMTA12 overexpression in soybean promoted drought-efficient hairy roots in OE chimeric plants as compare to that of VC (Vector control). In parallel, the improved growth performance of OE in Hoagland-PEG (polyethylene glycol) and on MS-mannitol was revealed by their phenotypic, physiological and molecular measures. Furthermore, with the overexpression of GmCAMTA12, the downstream genes including AtAnnexin5, AtCaMHSP, At2G433110 and AtWRKY14 were upregulated in Arabidopsis. Likewise, in soybean hairy roots, GmELO, GmNAB and GmPLA1-IId were significantly upregulated as a result of GmCAMTA12 overexpression and majority of these upregulated genes in both plants possess CAMTA binding CGCG/CGTG motif in their promoters. Taken together, we report that GmCAMTA12 plays substantial role in tolerance of soybean against drought stress and could prove to be a novel candidate for engineering soybean and other plants against drought stress. Some research gaps were also identified for future studies to extend our comprehension of Ca-CaM-CAMTA-mediated stress regulatory mechanisms.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Secas , Expressão Gênica , Soja/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/classificação , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/química , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Químicos , Filogenia , Soja/classificação
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 522, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Soybean seed development is negatively impacted by elevated temperatures during seed fill, which can decrease seed quality and economic value. Prior germplasm screens identified an exotic landrace able to maintain ~ 95% seed germination under stress conditions that reduce germination dramatically (> 50%) for typical soybean seeds. Seed transcriptomic analysis was performed for two soybean lines (a heat-tolerant landrace and a typical high-yielding adapted line) for dry, mature seed, 6-h imbibed seed and germinated seed. Seeds were produced in two environments: a typical Midwestern field and a heat stressed field located in the Midsouth soybean production region. RESULTS: Transcriptomic analysis revealed 23-30K expressed genes in each seed tissue sample, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with ≥ twofold gene expression differences (at q-value < 0.05) comprised ~ 5-44% of expressed genes. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis on DEGs revealed enrichment in heat-tolerant seeds for genes annotated for general and temperature-specific stress, as well as protein-refolding. DEGs were also clustered in modules using weighted co-expressed gene network analysis, which were examined for enrichment of GO biological process terms. Collectively, our results provide new and valuable insights into this unique form of genetic abiotic stress tolerance and to soybean seed physiological responses to elevated temperatures.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Germinação/genética , Temperatura Alta , Sementes/genética , Soja/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Peso Molecular , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Soja/química , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Soja/classificação , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 13): 384, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of next generation sequencer (NGS) and the analytical methods allowed the researchers to profile their samples more precisely and easier than before. Especially for agriculture, the certification of the genomic background of their plant materials would be important for the reliability of seed market and stable yield as well as for quarantine procedure. However, the analysis of NGS data is still difficult for non-computational researchers or breeders to verify their samples because majority of current softwares for NGS analysis require users to access unfamiliar Linux environment. MAIN BODY: Here, we developed a web-application, "Soybean-VCF2Genomes", http://pgl.gnu.ac.kr/soy_vcf2genome/ to map single sample variant call format (VCF) file against known soybean germplasm collection for identification of the closest soybean accession. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), we simplified genotype matrix for lowering computational burden while maintaining accurate clustering. With our web-application, users can simply upload single sample VCF file created by more than 10x resequencing strategy to find the closest samples along with linkage dendrogram of the reference genotype matrix. CONCLUSION: The information of the closest soybean cultivar will allow breeders to estimate relative germplasmic position of their query sample to determine soybean breeding strategies. Moreover, our VCF2Genomes scheme can be extended to other plant species where the whole genome sequences of core collection are publicly available.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Soja/genética , Interface Usuário-Computador , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Aprendizado de Máquina , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/genética , Soja/classificação , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(12)2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200576

RESUMO

Flood has an important effect on plant growth by affecting their physiologic and biochemical properties. Soybean is one of the main cultivated crops in the world and the United States is one of the largest soybean producers. However, soybean plant is sensitive to flood stress that may cause slow growth, low yield, small crop production and result in significant economic loss. Therefore, it is critical to develop soybean cultivars that are tolerant to flood. One of the current bottlenecks in developing new crop cultivars is slow and inaccurate plant phenotyping that limits the genetic gain. This study aimed to develop a low-cost 3D imaging system to quantify the variation in the growth and biomass of soybean due to flood at its early growth stages. Two cultivars of soybeans, i.e. flood tolerant and flood sensitive, were planted in plant pots in a controlled greenhouse. A low-cost 3D imaging system was developed to take measurements of plant architecture including plant height, plant canopy width, petiole length, and petiole angle. It was found that the measurement error of the 3D imaging system was 5.8% in length and 5.0% in angle, which was sufficiently accurate and useful in plant phenotyping. Collected data were used to monitor the development of soybean after flood treatment. Dry biomass of soybean plant was measured at the end of the vegetative stage (two months after emergence). Results show that four groups had a significant difference in plant height, plant canopy width, petiole length, and petiole angle. Flood stress at early stages of soybean accelerated the growth of the flood-resistant plants in height and the petiole angle, however, restrained the development in plant canopy width and the petiole length of flood-sensitive plants. The dry biomass of flood-sensitive plants was near two to three times lower than that of resistant plants at the end of the vegetative stage. The results indicate that the developed low-cost 3D imaging system has the potential for accurate measurements in plant architecture and dry biomass that may be used to improve the accuracy of plant phenotyping.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Soja/anatomia & histologia , Biomassa , Inundações , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Soja/classificação
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013701

RESUMO

Phytophthora root rot (PRR) causes serious annual soybean yield losses worldwide. The most effective method to prevent PRR involves growing cultivars that possess genes conferring resistance to Phytophthora sojae (Rps). In this study, QTL-sequencing combined with genetic mapping was used to identify RpsX in soybean cultivar Xiu94-11 resistance to all P. sojae isolates tested, exhibiting broad-spectrum PRR resistance. Subsequent analysis revealed RpsX was located in the 242-kb genomic region spanning the RpsQ locus. However, a phylogenetic investigation indicated Xiu94-11 carrying RpsX is distantly related to the cultivars containing RpsQ, implying RpsX and RpsQ have different origins. An examination of candidate genes revealed RpsX and RpsQ share common nonsynonymous SNP and a 144-bp insertion in the Glyma.03g027200 sequence encoding a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region. Glyma.03g027200 was considered to be the likely candidate gene of RpsQ and RpsX. Sequence analyses confirmed that the 144-bp insertion caused by an unequal exchange resulted in two additional LRR-encoding fragments in the candidate gene. A marker developed based on the 144-bp insertion was used to analyze the genetic population and germplasm, and proved to be useful for identifying the RpsX and RpsQ alleles. This study implies that the number of LRR units in the LRR domain may be important for PRR resistance in soybean.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Phytophthora , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Soja/genética , Soja/parasitologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Sequência Conservada , Genes de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , Phytophthora/isolamento & purificação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Soja/classificação
8.
Genomics ; 111(4): 619-628, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621573

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are versatile signaling molecules in sensing stresses and play critical roles in signaling and development. Plasma membrane NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are key producers of ROS, and play important roles in the regulation of plant-pathogen interactions. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the NOX gene family in the soybean genome (Glycine max) and 17 NOX (GmNOX) genes were identified. Structural analysis revealed that the GmNOX proteins in soybean were as conserved as those in other plants. 8 duplicated gene pairs were formed by a Glycine-specific whole-genome duplication (WGD) event approximately 13 million years ago (Mya). The Ka/Ks ratios of GmNOX genes ranged from 0.04 to 0.28, suggesting that the GmNOX family had undergone purifying selection in soybean. Gene expression patterns showed different expression of these duplicate genes, suggesting that the GmNOXs were retained by substantial subfunctionalization during the soybean evolutionary processes. Subsequently, the expression of GmNOXs in response to drought and phytohormones were characterized via qPCR. Importantly, four GmNOXs showed strong expression in nodules, pointing to their probable involvement in nodulation. Thus, our results shed light on the evolutionary history of this family in soybean and contribute to the functional characterization of GmNOX genes in soybean.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Família Multigênica , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/classificação
9.
Transgenic Res ; 27(6): 511-524, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173346

RESUMO

The expression of the CP4 EPSPS protein in genetically engineered (GE) soybean confers tolerance to the Roundup® family of agricultural herbicides. This study evaluated the variability of CP4 EPSPS expression using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in soybean tissues collected across diverse germplasm and 74 different environments in Argentina, Brazil and the USA. Evaluated material included single and combined (stacked) trait products with other GE traits in entries with cp4 epsps gene at one or two loci. The highest level of CP4 EPSPS was observed in leaf tissues, intermediate in forage and seed, and lowest in root tissues. Varieties with two loci had approximately twice the level of CP4 EPSPS expression compared to one locus entries. Variable and non-directional level of CP4 EPSPS was observed with other factors like genetic background, trait stacking, growing region or season. The maximum and average CP4 EPSPS expression levels in seed provided large margins of exposure (MOE of approximately 4000 and 11,000, respectively), mitigating concerns over exposure to this protein in food and feed from soybean varieties tolerant to Roundup® herbicides.


Assuntos
3-Fosfoshikimato 1-Carboxiviniltransferase/metabolismo , Agrobacterium/enzimologia , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/enzimologia , Soja/enzimologia , 3-Fosfoshikimato 1-Carboxiviniltransferase/genética , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/classificação , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 126(3): 411-416, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709442

RESUMO

Tempe, a fermented soybean originally from Indonesia, is an excellent protein source with high nutritional quality. Differences in the production process and unique fermentation condition in different regions result in varieties of tempe. Despite its high cultural and economic values, there are very few studies on the characterization of tempe based on the differences of production process and geographical origin. Metabolomics is a powerful tool assessing food quality, food safety, and determination of origin and varietal differences. In this study, metabolomics is applied for the study of Indonesian tempe obtained from various regions and different production processes. Seventeen samples were collected from 6 different cities in Java Island, which were produced by local tempe crafters (traditional), semi-modern industry and modern industry. Untargeted metabolomics by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was implemented to discriminate various kinds of tempe and identify metabolites that are associated with these differences. Results showed that tempe produced in different places clustered together according to the cities and their production category. Sugars and amino acids groups were found to be primary compounds that contributed to this result. This is the first report that address the metabolic differences between different varieties of tempe from different regions and production processes. The knowledge from this study is important for future development of tempe production.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Alimentos de Soja/classificação , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Geografia , Indonésia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/classificação , Soja/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196315, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689113

RESUMO

The ability to determine the origin of soybeans is an important issue following the inclusion of this information in the labeling of agricultural food products becoming mandatory in South Korea in 2017. This study was carried out to construct a prediction model for discriminating Chinese and Korean soybeans using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. The optimal prediction models for discriminating soybean samples were obtained by selecting appropriate scaling methods, normalization methods, variable influence on projection (VIP) cutoff values, and wave-number regions. The factors for constructing the optimal partial-least-squares regression (PLSR) prediction model were using second derivatives, vector normalization, unit variance scaling, and the 4000-400 cm-1 region (excluding water vapor and carbon dioxide). The PLSR model for discriminating Chinese and Korean soybean samples had the best predictability when a VIP cutoff value was not applied. When Chinese soybean samples were identified, a PLSR model that has the lowest root-mean-square error of the prediction value was obtained using a VIP cutoff value of 1.5. The optimal PLSR prediction model for discriminating Korean soybean samples was also obtained using a VIP cutoff value of 1.5. This is the first study that has combined FT-IR spectroscopy with normalization methods, VIP cutoff values, and selected wave-number regions for discriminating Chinese and Korean soybeans.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Soja/química , Soja/classificação , China , Evolução Molecular , Análise de Fourier , Análise Multivariada , República da Coreia , Soja/genética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
12.
Plant Dis ; 102(7): 1326-1333, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673564

RESUMO

Germplasm screening programs have primarily relied on inoculation with mycelia to determine the resistance reaction of soybean genotypes to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. However, under field conditions, ascospores are the primary source of inoculum. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine which components most accurately differentiate the resistance reaction of soybean genotypes inoculated with ascospores of S. sclerotiorum. Ascospores were produced in the laboratory and all of the experiments were carried out under controlled conditions with inoculations at flowering stage. Initially, inoculum densities of 1 × 104, 1 × 105 and 1 × 106 ascospores ml-1 were compared on six soybean genotypes with known resistance reactions. Disease symptoms developed on all genotypes and at all inoculum densities. The highest ascospore concentration increased infection efficiency but it was not correlated with an increase in lesion length. Components of resistance were then measured on a set of 17 cultivars with known resistance reactions at 1 × 105 ascospores ml-1. Resistance reactions could be differentiated based on the level of infection efficiency and lesion length on the main stem. Although inoculation with ascospores presents some limitations such as the time required for inoculum production as well as the time and space required for plant growth, it has the potential to be used to complement other methods for the characterization of resistance of soybean genotypes.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia , Ascomicetos/citologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/microbiologia , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Soja/classificação , Soja/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Esporos Fúngicos/citologia
13.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 293(3): 623-633, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280001

RESUMO

Gene-based molecular markers are increasingly used in crop breeding programs for marker-assisted selection. However, identification of genetic variants associated with important agronomic traits has remained a difficult task in soybean. RNA-Seq provides an efficient way, other than assessing global expression variations of coding genes, to discover gene-based SNPs at the whole genome level. In this study, RNA isolated from four soybean accessions each with three replications was subjected to high-throughput sequencing and a range of 44.2-65.9 million paired-end reads were generated for each library. A total of 75,209 SNPs were identified among different genotypes after combination of replications, 89.1% of which were located in expressed regions and 27.0% resulted in amino acid changes. GO enrichment analysis revealed that most significant enriched genes with nonsynonymous SNPs were involved in ribonucleotide binding or catalytic activity. Of 22 SNPs subjected to PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing, all of them were validated. To test the utility of identified SNPs, these validated SNPs were also assessed by genotyping a relative large population with 393 wild and cultivated soybean accessions. These SNPs identified by RNA-Seq provide a useful resource for genetic and genomic studies of soybean. Moreover, the collection of nonsynonymous SNPs annotated with their predicted functional effects also provides a valuable asset for further discovery of genes, identification of gene variants, and development of functional markers.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Soja/genética , Genótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Soja/classificação
14.
J AOAC Int ; 101(2): 520-528, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28847347

RESUMO

Natural phenols are an important functional compound widely distributed in plants with benefits that promote human health. The content of total phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins and their composition distribution in 18 soybean cultivars was investigated. There are four phenolic acid distribution forms in these soybean cultivars, namely free, esterified, glycosided, and insoluble-bound. Total phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins from 6 black soybean cultivars were found in higher numbers than those from 12 other yellow soybean cultivars. Free and esterified phenolic acids were the main phenolic acid form in all 18 soybean samples. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were the dominant phenolic acids in eight detected phenolic acids, and daidzin and genistin were the abundant isoflavones in five detected isoflavones. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of total phenols from the 6 black soybean cultivars were greater than those from the 12 yellow soybean cultivars, and there was a significant positive correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Black soybeans could be a potential resource for developing natural antioxidants that may play a crucial role in human health protection.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Isoflavonas/análise , Fenóis/análise , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Isoflavonas/química , Isoflavonas/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Soja/química , Soja/classificação
15.
Food Res Int ; 100(Pt 2): 166-174, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28888437

RESUMO

Wild soybeans are considered a potential resource for soybean domestication and an important source of genetic diversity for soybean crop improvement. Understanding metabolite-caused bioactivity differences between cultivated and wild soybeans is essential for designing a soybean with enhanced nutritional traits. In this study, the non-targeted metabolic profiling of 26 soybean varieties, 15 wild black soybeans (WBS) and 11 cultivated black soybeans (CBS), using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in combination with multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in 25 differential metabolites. Among these, the soyasaponins Ab and Bb were found to be characteristic metabolites expressed more substantially in CBS than in WBS. Three different antioxidant assays and correlation analysis identified major and minor antioxidants that contributed to WBS having an antioxidant activity 4- to 8-fold stronger than that of CBS. Epicatechin, procyanidin B2, and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were identified by both association analysis and the online LC-ABTS radical scavenging assay as being major antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Soja/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida , Fabaceae , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Células Hep G2/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Análise Multivariada , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Soja/classificação
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10605, 2017 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878247

RESUMO

The evening complex of ELF4-ELF3-LUX proteins is an integral component of a plant circadian clock. LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX) is one of the key components of the evening complex, and that play a key role in circadian rhythms and flowering. Here, we report that diverged soybean LUX has the additional role in male reproductive development. We studied diurnal and circadian rhythms of soybean LUX (GmLUXa, GmLUXb, and GmLUXc) using qRT-PCR, and show its nuclear localisation by particle bombardment. Yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) studies indicate that both GmLUXb and GmLUXc form an evening complex with GmELF4b and GmELF3a, respectively. Ectopic expression of GmLUXb in Arabidopsis lux mutants can complement functions of AtLUX, whereas GmLUXc generates novel phenotypes of serrated leaves, stunted plants, shortened anther filament, and low seed set. Overall, our results suggest that the LUX gene has diverged in soybean where GmLUXb and GmLUXc share the role to control flowering time, but GmLUXc has evolved to regulate anther filament growth and seed set by regulating the Gibberellin hormone biosynthesis pathway.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Reprodução/genética , Soja/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/classificação , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Expressão Ectópica do Gene , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Filogenia , Pólen/genética , Soja/classificação
17.
Sci China Life Sci ; 60(12): 1416-1427, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942538

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max) is a facultative short-day plant with a sensitive photoperiod perception and reaction system, which allows it to adjust its physiological state and gene regulatory networks to seasonal and diurnal changes in environmental conditions. In the past few decades, soybean cultivation has spread from East Asia to areas throughout the world. Biologists and breeders must now confront the challenge of understanding the molecular mechanism of soybean photoperiodism and improving agronomic traits to enable this important crop to adapt to geographical and environmental changes. In this review, we summarize the genetic regulatory network underlying photoperiodic responses in soybean. Genomic and genetic studies have revealed that the circadian clock, in conjunction with the light perception pathways, regulates photoperiodic flowering. Here, we provide an annotated list of 844 candidate flowering genes in soybean, with their putative biological functions. Many photoperiod-related genes have been intensively selected during domestication and crop improvement. Finally, we describe recent progress in engineering photoperiod-responsive genes for improving agronomic traits to enhance geographic adaptation in soybean, as well as future prospects for research on soybean photoperiodic responses.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Fotoperíodo , Seleção Genética , Soja/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Flores/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Filogenia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Soja/classificação , Soja/genética
18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 9423, 2017 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28842677

RESUMO

Cation/H+ exchangers (CHX) are characterized to be involved in plant growth, development and stress responses. Although soybean genome sequencing has been completed, the CHX family hasn't yet been systematically analyzed, especially in wild soybean. Here, through Hidden Markov Model search against Glycine soja proteome, 34 GsCHXs were identified and phylogenetically clustered into five groups. Members within each group showed high conservation in motif architecture. Interestingly, according to our previous RNA-seq data, only Group IVa members exhibited highly induced expression under carbonate alkaline stress. Among them, GsCHX19.3 displayed the greatest up-regulation in response to carbonate alkaline stress, which was further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. We also observed the ubiquitous expression of GsCHX19.3 in different tissues and its localization on plasma membrane. Moreover, we found that GsCHX19.3 expression in AXT4K, a yeast mutant lacking four ion transporters conferred resistance to low K+ at alkali pH, as well as carbonate stress. Consistently, in Arabidopsis, GsCHX19.3 overexpression increased plant tolerance both to high salt and carbonate alkaline stresses. Furthermore, we also confirmed that GsCHX19.3 transgenic lines showed lower Na+ concentration but higher K+/Na+ values under salt-alkaline stress. Taken together, our findings indicated that GsCHX19.3 contributed to high salinity and carbonate alkaline tolerance.


Assuntos
Carbonatos/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Soja/fisiologia , Arabidopsis , Sequência Conservada , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/química , Soja/classificação , Estresse Fisiológico
19.
Genome Biol ; 18(1): 161, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28838319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is one of the most important oil and protein crops. Ever-increasing soybean consumption necessitates the improvement of varieties for more efficient production. However, both correlations among different traits and genetic interactions among genes that affect a single trait pose a challenge to soybean breeding. RESULTS: To understand the genetic networks underlying phenotypic correlations, we collected 809 soybean accessions worldwide and phenotyped them for two years at three locations for 84 agronomic traits. Genome-wide association studies identified 245 significant genetic loci, among which 95 genetically interacted with other loci. We determined that 14 oil synthesis-related genes are responsible for fatty acid accumulation in soybean and function in line with an additive model. Network analyses demonstrated that 51 traits could be linked through the linkage disequilibrium of 115 associated loci and these links reflect phenotypic correlations. We revealed that 23 loci, including the known Dt1, E2, E1, Ln, Dt2, Fan, and Fap loci, as well as 16 undefined associated loci, have pleiotropic effects on different traits. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into the genetic correlation among complex traits and will facilitate future soybean functional studies and breeding through molecular design.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Soja/genética , Cruzamento , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Soja/classificação , Soja/metabolismo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(32): 6753-6761, 2017 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28723152

RESUMO

Factors including genetics, fertilization, and climatic conditions, can alter the biomass composition of soybean seeds, consequently impacting their market value and usage. This study specifically determined the content of protein and oil, as well as the composition of proteinogenic amino acids and fatty acids in seeds from 10 diverse soybean cultivars grown in four different sites. The results highlighted that different environments produce a different composition for the 10 cultivars under investigation. Specifically, the levels of oleic and linoleic acids, important contributors to oil stability, were negatively correlated. Although the protein and oil contents were higher in some locations, their "quality" was lower in terms of composition of essential amino acids and oleic acid, respectively. Finally, proteinogenic histidine and glutamate were the main contributors to the separation between Central and Northern growing sites. Taken together, these results can guide future breeding and engineering efforts aiming to develop specialized soybean lines.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Soja/química , Aminoácidos/química , Biomassa , Meio Ambiente , Ácidos Graxos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/classificação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleo de Soja/química , Soja/classificação , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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