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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 154-160, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active optical crop sensors have been gaining importance to determine in-season nitrogen (N) fertilization requirements for on-the-go variable rate applications. Although most of these active in-field crop sensors have been evaluated in maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Thell.), these sensors have not been evaluated in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production systems in North Dakota, USA. Recent research from both South Dakota and North Dakota, USA indicate that in-season N application in soybean can increase soybean yield under certain conditions. RESULTS: The study revealed that OptRx™ sensor reading did not show any significant differences from early to midway through the growing season. The NDRE (normalized difference red edge) index data collected towards the end of the growing season showed significantly higher values for some of the N treatments as compared to others in both years. The NDRE values were strongly correlated to grain yield for both years under tiled (r = 0.923) and non-tiled (r = 0.901) drainage conditions. Certain soybean varieties displayed significantly higher NDRE values over both years. The three varieties tested across years, under both tiled and non-tiled conditions, showed a significant linear relationship between late August NDRE values and yield (R2  = 0.85 for tiled and R2  = 0.81 for non-tiled). CONCLUSION: In this research, the study results show that the OptRx™ sensor has the potential to work for soybean as well, though later in the crop growing season. Further investigation is needed to confirm the use of OptRx™ sensor for variable rate in-season N applications in soybeans. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Nitrogênio/análise , Soja/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Soja/química , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Food Chem ; 305: 125462, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618694

RESUMO

The objectives of this research were to demonstrate the changes in isoflavone-aglycones, total phenolics, and biological properties (digestive enzyme inhibition; antioxidant) from six organs including leaves, leafstalks, roots, stems, seeds, and pods at different growth times of soybean plant. Three isoflavone-aglycones in microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis extracts were elucidated using UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS and their contents exhibited remarkable differences in leaves (245.93-2239.33 µg/g), roots (854.96-4425.34 µg/g), and seeds (ND-2339.62 µg/g). Specifically, the collected samples on 15-Oct (leaves: 2239.33; seeds: 2339.62 µg/g) and 31-Aug (roots: 4425.34 µg/g) showed the highest isoflavone-aglycones, and daidzein was observed the most abundant component, comprising approximately 70%. Moreover, the inhibitions against α-glucosidase and α-amylase displayed the predominant effects in roots (89;91%) and leaves (81;85%) of samples on 31-Aug and 15-Oct at 300 µg/ml. The antioxidant activities on ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals increased considerably with the increases of growth times in leaves and seeds, especially, ABTS showed the highest scavenging abilities: leaves (15-Oct;83%) > roots (31-Aug;75%) > seeds (15-Oct;68%). Therefore, our results suggest that soybean leaves, roots and seeds may be considered as excellent natural sources for nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Glucosidases/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/análise , Micro-Ondas , Soja/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucosidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrólise , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 609, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486904

RESUMO

A study was performed to determine whether self-rooted grafting decreases cadmium (Cd) accumulation in post-grafting soybean (Glycine max (Linn.) Merrill) generations. Pot experiments were performed using ungrafted (UG) seedlings, self-rooted grafting from the same soybean seedling (SG), self-rooted grafting from two soybean seedlings at the same growth stage (TG), and self-rooted grafting from two soybean seedlings at different developmental stages (DG). Growth and Cd accumulation in three post-grafting soybean generations were assessed. In the SG treatment, only the second post-grafting generation had increased shoot biomass and only the first post-grafting generation shoots had decreased Cd contents. The seed Cd content, soluble protein content, and antioxidant enzyme activity were not significantly affected in three post-grafting generations. In the TG and DG treatments, shoot biomass, soluble protein content, and antioxidant enzyme activities were increased, and the shoot and seed Cd contents were decreased in three post-grafting generations. The seed Cd contents in the first, second, and third post-grafting generations were 15.00%, 9.46%, and 12.44%, respectively, lower in the TG than UG treatments. The seed Cd contents in the first, second, and third post-grafting generations were 32.73%, 27.03%, and 32.22%, respectively, lower in the DG than UG treatments. Different grafting methods promoted growth and decreased Cd accumulation to different degrees in three post-grafting generations. Grafting seedlings at different developmental stages had the strongest effects.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Biomassa , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180066, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508663

RESUMO

Despite its economic importance, the microclimate in soybean canopies has not yet been studied in detail. Such a study can yield valuable information regarding the interaction of a crop with its environment. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the solar radiation dynamic and yield responses for each canopy strata for two soybean cultivars with determined and undetermined growth habits. A field study was conducted during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons in the city of Frederico Westphalen, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The cultivar NA6411, with a determinate growth habit, presented a greater interception of radiation in the middle and lower canopies strata which results in higher soybean yield when compared to the cultivar TEC6029, and thus, can be recommended for cultivation in crop production systems. The contribution of the middle and upper canopy strata to the total yield formation was greater than that observed in the lower canopy strata due to the greater interception of solar radiation by these strata. To increase soybean yields, new studies regarding the microclimatic conditions of the soybean canopy should be developed to improve the maximum potential yield of the new soybean cultivars.


Assuntos
Microclima , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar , Agricultura/métodos , Brasil
5.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(7): 2345-2351, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418238

RESUMO

Clubroot, caused by the soil-borne obligate pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most severe disease in cruciferous crops. Previous studies showed that when oilseed rape was planted after soybean (namely soybean-oilseed rotation), the incidence and severity of clubroot of oilseed rape could be significantly reduced, compared with that with oilseed rape-oilseed rape conti-nuous cropping. Therefore, the soybean-oilseed rape rotation is a good way to suppress clubroot of oilseed rape. In this study, we compared the rhizosphere microbiome of soybean and oilseed rape rhizosphere soil collected from the field by 16S rRNA (for identification of prokaryotes) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) (for identification of fungi) sequencing. The results showed that both soybean and oilseed rape rhizosphere soils had Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Many microbial genera (e.g., Flavobacterium, Sphingomonas, Bacillus, Streptomyces, Pseudomonas, Trichoderma and Coniothyrium) with activities of biological control and plant growth promotion were more abundant in soybean rhizosphere soil than in the oilseed rape rhizosphere soil. The abundance of plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi was higher in the oilseed rape rhizosphere soil than in the soybean rhizosphere soil. Moreover, the soybean rhizosphere soil was enriched with Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium (both for nitrogen fixation), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus). These results indicated that soybean rhizosphere soil could promote the growth and proliferation of beneficial microorga-nisms, but inhibit that of plant pathogens. Our results provide evidence for explanation of the effectiveness of soybean-oilseed rape rotation to control clubroot of oilseed rape and provide potential bio-control resources for clubroot prevention.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia
6.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 13): 384, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of next generation sequencer (NGS) and the analytical methods allowed the researchers to profile their samples more precisely and easier than before. Especially for agriculture, the certification of the genomic background of their plant materials would be important for the reliability of seed market and stable yield as well as for quarantine procedure. However, the analysis of NGS data is still difficult for non-computational researchers or breeders to verify their samples because majority of current softwares for NGS analysis require users to access unfamiliar Linux environment. MAIN BODY: Here, we developed a web-application, "Soybean-VCF2Genomes", http://pgl.gnu.ac.kr/soy_vcf2genome/ to map single sample variant call format (VCF) file against known soybean germplasm collection for identification of the closest soybean accession. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), we simplified genotype matrix for lowering computational burden while maintaining accurate clustering. With our web-application, users can simply upload single sample VCF file created by more than 10x resequencing strategy to find the closest samples along with linkage dendrogram of the reference genotype matrix. CONCLUSION: The information of the closest soybean cultivar will allow breeders to estimate relative germplasmic position of their query sample to determine soybean breeding strategies. Moreover, our VCF2Genomes scheme can be extended to other plant species where the whole genome sequences of core collection are publicly available.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Soja/genética , Interface Usuário-Computador , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Aprendizado de Máquina , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/genética , Soja/classificação , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26553-26562, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292876

RESUMO

Our study evaluated 163 individuals, being 74 soybean farmers, occupationally exposed to pesticides, and 89 individuals from Goias municipalities, Central Brazil, with similar conditions to the exposed group, comprising the control group. Of the 74 soybean farmers, 43 exposed directly to pesticides and 31 exposed indirectly. The exposed group consisted of individuals aged 19 to 63 years, 21 women and 53 men, and the control group had ages ranging from 18 to 64 years, being 36 women and 53 men. 18.9% of the exposed group were poisoned by pesticides, and the most common symptoms were headache and gastrointestinal problems. The genotype frequencies of the rs2031920 (T>C) polymorphism in the CYP2E1 gene present significant differences between the exposed and control groups (p = 0.02), showing that 24.3% of the exposed group were heterozygotes against 6.7% in the control group. For the OGG1 gene, two SNPs, rs1052133 (G>C) and rs293795 (T>C), were evaluated and the genotype frequencies were not statistically different between the exposed and control groups. The DNA damage was distinct (p < 0.05) in the three analyzed comet parameters (tail length, Olive tail moment, %DNA) between groups. However, there was no influence of age and alcohol consumption between the groups associated with the polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 and OGG1 genes and DNA damage. We also did not find altered hematological and biochemical parameters in the exposed group. Thus, this pioneering study at Goias State carried out an overview of the health of soybean farmers. We evaluated classic laboratory exams, associated with exposure markers (comet assay) and susceptibility markers (genetic polymorphisms), emphasizing the need to expand the Brazilian health assessment protocol. We found, in soybean farmers, increased DNA damage and a higher number of heterozygotes in CYP2E1 gene, compared with the control group, despite the lack of association with age, educational level, smoking, drinking habits, and genetic polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/genética , Dano ao DNA , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Reparo do DNA , Fazendeiros , Polimorfismo Genético , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil , Ensaio Cometa , Feminino , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(2): 281-284, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250597

RESUMO

Changes in the structural diversity of bacterial communities in soybean rhizospheres play important roles in plant growth and crop productivity. However, there are only a few studies on different soybean growth stages. Here, we investigated the changes in the bacterial community of soybean rhizosphere soil at two stages using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the bacterial abundance and diversity in the seeding stage were higher than those in the mature stage and that the diversity changed significantly. Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria in the soybean rhizosphere soil. Additionally, changes in Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria abundances showed opposite trends.Changes in the structural diversity of bacterial communities in soybean rhizospheres play important roles in plant growth and crop productivity. However, there are only a few studies on different soybean growth stages. Here, we investigated the changes in the bacterial community of soybean rhizosphere soil at two stages using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the bacterial abundance and diversity in the seeding stage were higher than those in the mature stage and that the diversity changed significantly. Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria in the soybean rhizosphere soil. Additionally, changes in Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria abundances showed opposite trends.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biota , Rizosfera , Plântula/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Soja/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Biologia Computacional , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenômica , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22835-22845, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177416

RESUMO

Soil compaction is a major environmental problem that affects plant growth and development. In this study, to further our understanding of its negative effects on plant growth, we investigated the effects of soil compaction on the growth, mineral absorption, and activities of key respiratory enzymes in soybean seedlings. We found that moderate-level soil compaction increased the activities of pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase in soybean seedling roots, enhancing the accumulation of P, K, Mg, Ca, and other elements. These accumulated elements, particularly Ca, increased the number of fibrous upper roots, but reduced root length and inhibited plant growth. High-level soil compaction inhibited the accumulation of P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn and increased the accumulation of Ca via decreasing the activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase. These effects led to a decreased root cell size, blurred root cell boundaries, and the inhibition of plant growth. Taken together, our results provide a new insight into the mechanisms by which soil compaction inhibits plant growth.


Assuntos
Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Minerais , Nutrientes , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5384-5391, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soybean seeds contain 18-24% lipids, which are made up of 85% polyunsaturated fatty acids. Two of these (linoleic and linolenic acids) comprise essential fatty acids that are not synthesized in humans and animals. Linolenic acid plays a vital role in the maintenance of brain function and is a source of docosahexaenoic acid for retinal and nerve tissue, with its physiological functions being a focus of attention. RESULTS: We developed mutant soybean populations via gamma irradiation of Korean cultivars Danbaek and Daepung and evaluated the linolenic acid content of 78 and 154 M9 mutant progenies. We selected the four mutant lines with the highest linolenic acid contents based on 2 years of investigation of fatty acids. The selected mutant lines had linolenic acid contents that were 33.9% to 67.7% higher than those of the original cultivars and exhibited increased fatty acid desaturase (FAD) gene expression levels during seed development. We also identified nucleotide polymorphisms of FAD genes in the four mutant lines. CONCLUSION: The present study found that linolenic acid content is related to significantly increased expression levels of the FAD3C and FAD3D genes in the endoplasmic reticulum, which was uncovered by radiation mutation breeding of soybean. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/enzimologia , Soja/genética , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/análise , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes/química , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Soja/química , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo
11.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 21: 40-48, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101154

RESUMO

Light emitting diode (LED) lighting technology for crop production is advancing at a rapid pace, both in terms of the technology itself (e.g., spectral composition and efficiency), and the research that the technological advances have enabled. The application of LED technology for crop production was first explored as a tool for improving the safety and reliability of plant-based bioregenerative life-support systems for long duration human space exploration. Developing and optimizing the lighting environment (spectral quality and quantity) for bioregenerative life-support applications and other controlled environment plant production applications, such as microgreens and sprout production, continues to be an active area of research and LED technology development. This study examines the influence of monochromatic and dichromatic red and blue light on the early development of six food crop species; Cucumis sativa, Solanum lycopersicum, Glycine max, Raphanus sativus, Pisum sativum, and Capsicum annum. Results support previous findings that light responses are often species specific. The results also support the assertion that monochromatic light can interfere with the normal interaction of various photoreceptors (co-action disruption) resulting in intermediate and sometimes unpredictable responses to a given light environment. The nature of the responses reported inform both bioregenerative life-support designs as well as light quality selection for the production of controlled environment crops.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos da radiação , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Luz , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/efeitos da radiação , Produção Agrícola , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucumis sativus/efeitos da radiação , Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Ervilhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ervilhas/efeitos da radiação , Raphanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raphanus/efeitos da radiação , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos da radiação , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/efeitos da radiação
12.
Plant Sci ; 283: 278-289, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128698

RESUMO

Boreal soils tend to be podzols characterized by acidic pH, which can further limit forage crop growth and production. It is unclear, how forage soybeans adopt to produce forage with high nutritional quality when cultivated on podzols in boreal climate. To answer this question, we cultivated forage soybeans on agricultural podzols at 3 farm sites with varied soil pH (6.8, 6.0 or 5.1), and assessed the root membrane lipidome remodeling response to such climatic conditions. Contrary to our expectations, significantly lower biomass was observed at pH 6.8 compared to 6.0 and 5.1. However, surprisingly the plants produced similar forage quality at 6.8 and 5.1 pH. Three major lipid classes including phospholipids, glycolipids and phytosterols were observed in roots irrespective of soil pH. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidic acid (PA), and acylated glucosyl betasitosterol ester (AGlcSiE) accounted for 95% of the root lipidome, and expressed significant changes in response to cultivation across the three soil pH levels. These lipids were also observed to have strong correlations with forage production, and forage quality. Therefore, soybean genotypes with higher abilities to remodel PC, PE, PA, and AGlcSiE could be better suited for producing higher quality forage in acid podzolic soils characteristics of boreal ecosystems.


Assuntos
Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adaptação Fisiológica , Ração Animal , Clima , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Terra Nova e Labrador , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo , Soja/metabolismo
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21849-21857, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134549

RESUMO

Incorporation of organic amendments is one of the most eco-friendly and economic strategies for the restoration of contaminated soils through diminishing mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in these soils. This study was carried out under field conditions during the summer season of 2017 on a clay loam soil naturally polluted with Cd (7.61 mg kg-1) due to successive irrigations with wastewater. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of sugarcane bagasse-derived biochar (SBDB) at different rates on fractionation of Cd in soil and its implications on the growth of soybean and concentrations of Cd within the different plant parts. Incorporation of SBDB into the chosen contaminated soil caused noticeable changes in soil pH, electrical conductivity and organic matter, especially with increasing the rate of application. Immobilization of Cd in the used soil was highly influenced by soil properties. According to the sequential extraction procedure, application of SBDB had an efficient role in reducing the soluble/exchangeable fraction. Moreover, it declined both the reducible and oxidizable forms of Cd. The dry weight of soybean organs (roots, seeds, and straw) improved significantly with SBDB additions. The highest dry weight values of straw and seeds for soybean plants were recorded when the soil was treated with SBDB at rates of 15 and 30 t ha-1. Concentrations of Cd in straw and seeds of soybean were markedly affected by its availability in the soil. They decreased from 2.77, 0.96, and 0.62 mg kg-1 at the control treatment (CK) to 1.75, 0.47, and 0.20 mg kg-1 at B4 treatment (30 t SBDB) ha-1 in roots, straw, and seeds of soybean, respectively. In conclusion, the use of SBDB showed high efficiency in the amelioration of Cd-polluted soils and in decreasing Cd toxicity on soybean plants.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Carvão Vegetal/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/química , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Celulose/química , Argila/química , Egito , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Saccharum/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 682: 271-281, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121352

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid pesticides are applied to seeds and are known to cause lethal and sub-lethal effects in birds and mammals. Neonicotinoid-treated seeds could be available to wildlife through spillage or exposed seeds near or at the soil surface due to incomplete or shallow drilling. We quantified seed spills that may occur during loading or refilling the hopper at a landscape-scale using road-based surveys. We also quantified undrilled seeds in 1-m2 frames on the soil in the center and corner of fields to obtain estimates at the field scale. We broadcast seeds on the soil surface of a tilled field and left them for 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 30 days to quantify the decrease of neonicotinoids under field conditions. Lastly, we documented wildlife at neonicotinoid-treated seed spills with trail cameras. We estimated the number of spills during planting to be 3496 (95% CI: 1855-5138) and 2609 (95% CI: 862-4357) for corn, 11,009 (95% CI: 6950-15,067) and 21,105 (95% CI: 6162-36,048) for soybean, and 830 (95% CI: 160-1500) and 791 (95% CI: 0-1781) for wheat in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Exposed seeds were present at the soil surface in 35% of 71 fields. The probability that seeds were present on the soil surface was higher for soybeans (18.8 and 49.4% in the center and corners, respectively) than for corn (1.6 and 2.7%, respectively), and seed densities were also higher (1.04 vs 0.07 seeds/m2, respectively). Neonicotinoids decreased rapidly on seeds on the soil surface but persisted as long as 30 days. Over a dozen species of birds and mammals consumed seeds at simulated spills, with an average time for birds to find spills of 1.3 ±â€¯1.5 days and an average time to consumption of 4.1 ±â€¯3.4 days. Seeds are abundant on the soil surface for wildlife to consume during the spring planting season and should be considered in pesticide risk assessments.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides/análise , Sementes/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Soja , Triticum , Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Guanidinas/análise , Minnesota , Nitrocompostos/análise , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tiametoxam/análise , Tiazóis/análise , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Plant Dis ; 103(7): 1712-1720, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059383

RESUMO

Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme, is an important soilborne disease of soybean. Risk of SDS increases when cool and wet conditions occur soon after planting. Recently, multiple seed treatment and foliar products have been registered and advertised for management of SDS but not all have been tested side by side in the same field experiment at multiple field locations. In 2015 and 2016, seed treatment fungicides fluopyram and thiabendazole; seed treatment biochemical pesticides citric acid and saponins extract of Chenopodium quinoa; foliar fungicides fluoxastrobin + flutriafol; and an herbicide, lactofen, were evaluated in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and Ontario for SDS management. Treatments were tested on SDS-resistant and -susceptible cultivars at each location. Overall, fluopyram provided the highest level of control of root rot and foliar symptoms of SDS among all the treatments. Foliar application of lactofen reduced foliar symptoms in some cases but produced the lowest yield. In 2015, fluopyram reduced the foliar disease index (FDX) by over 50% in both resistant and susceptible cultivars and provided 8.9% yield benefit in susceptible cultivars and 3.5% yield benefit in resistant cultivars compared with the base seed treatment (control). In 2016, fluopyram reduced FDX in both cultivars by over 40% compared with the base seed treatment. For yield in 2016, treatment effect was not significant in the susceptible cultivar while, in the resistant cultivar, fluopyram provided 3.5% greater yield than the base seed treatment. In this study, planting resistant cultivars and using fluopyram seed treatment were the most effective tools for SDS management. However, plant resistance provided an overall better yield-advantage than using fluopyram seed treatment alone. Effective seed treatments can be an economically viable consideration to complement resistant cultivars for managing SDS.


Assuntos
Proteção de Cultivos , Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Soja , Proteção de Cultivos/métodos , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontário , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Sementes/química , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estados Unidos
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(16): 4652-4661, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933513

RESUMO

Five oligochitosans with increasing degrees of polymerization (DPs), i.e., from chitotriose to chitoheptaose, were examined to clarify the structure-bioactivity relationship between the DPs of oligochitosans and their effects on the isoflavone metabolites, total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively), and antioxidant activity of soybean ( Glycine max) seeds during germination. Oligochitosans of different DPs exhibited varying influences on the TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activities of soybean seeds. Chitohexaose exerted a strong effect and significantly increased the aforementioned parameters in soybean seeds 72 h after germination. Genistin, malonylgenistin, and genistein were the main isoflavones found, and the genistin and genistein contents were significantly enhanced by 67.32% and 131.38%, respectively, after chitohexaose treatment. Several critical genes involved in the isoflavone biosynthesis (i.e., PAL, CHS, CHI, IFS) of soybeans treated with and without chitohexaose were analyzed, and results suggested that chitohexaose application could dramatically stimulate the transcription of these genes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Quitina/análogos & derivados , Isoflavonas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Quitina/química , Quitina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(2): 157-163, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020517

RESUMO

The production of bread with addition of selenium-enriched soya malt was studied. Processing of this soya malt included soaking of the soya beans in the solution of hydroselenite with concentration 1.5 mg Se/L (20 µg of Se per 1 g of soya beans), then 4 days of beans germination at 20 °C, drying at 50 °C until moisture content 8%, separation from the sprouts and grinding. The soya malt was a powder containing 15-18 µg of Se in 1 g. The accumulated selenium was mainly in the protein fraction of soya malt. Addition of selenium-enriched soya malt to leaven intensified activity of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. The quality of the wheat bread with selenium-enriched soya malt was better than that of the bread in control. The enriched bread had specific pleasant smell and soft texture. The daily intake of 277 g of bread with the selenium-enriched soya malt, which is added in quantity of 1.0-1.75% to mass of plain flour, ensures the consumption of 30-50% of selenium recommended daily allowance for 17 million population of the northern and northwestern Ukraine.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados , Plântula/química , Selênio/metabolismo , Soja/química , Alcaloides de Berberina , Biomassa , Pão/análise , Dieta , Farinha/análise , Germinação , Fenantridinas , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Selênio/análise , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(4): 1049-1058, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982151

RESUMO

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is the main source of nitrogen for soybean growth. Since the genotypes of rhizobia and soybean germplasms vary, the nitrogen-fixing ability of soybean after inoculation also varies. A few studies have reported that quantitative trait loci (QTLs) control biological nitrogen fixation traits, even soybean which is an important crop. The present study reported that the Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 gene rhcJ belongs to the tts (type III secretion) cluster and that the mutant HH103ΩrhcJ can clearly decrease the number of nodules in American soybeans. However, few QTLs of nodule traits have been identified. This study used a soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) 'Charleston' × 'Dongnong 594' (C × D, n = 150) recombinant inbred line (RIL). Nodule traits were analysed in the RIL population after inoculation with S. fredii HH103 and the mutant HH103ΩrhcJ. Plants were grown in a greenhouse with a 16-h light cycle at 26 °C and an 8-h dark cycle at 18 °C. Then, 4 weeks after inoculation, plants were harvested for evaluation of nodule traits. Through QTL mapping, 16 QTLs were detected on 8 chromosomes. Quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and RNA-seq analysis determined that the genes Glyma.04g060600, Glyma.18g159800 and Glyma.13g252600 might interact with rhcJ.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sinorhizobium fredii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Família Multigênica , Mutação , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Sinorhizobium fredii/genética , Sinorhizobium fredii/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/metabolismo
19.
Phytopathology ; 109(7): 1157-1170, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860431

RESUMO

As complete host resistance in soybean has not been achieved, Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum continues to be of major economic concern for farmers. Thus, chemical control remains a prevalent disease management strategy. Pesticide evaluations were conducted in Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Wisconsin from 2009 to 2016, for a total of 25 site-years (n = 2,057 plot-level data points). These studies were used in network meta-analyses to evaluate the impact of 10 popular pesticide active ingredients, and seven common application timings on SSR control and yield benefit, compared with not treating with a pesticide. Boscalid and picoxystrobin frequently offered the best reductions in disease severity and best yield benefit (P < 0.0001). Pesticide applications (one- or two-spray programs) made during the bloom period provided significant reductions in disease severity index (DIX) (P < 0.0001) and led to significant yield benefits (P = 0.0009). Data from these studies were also used in nonlinear regression analyses to determine the effect of DIX on soybean yield. A three-parameter logistic model was found to best describe soybean yield loss (pseudo-R2 = 0.309). In modern soybean cultivars, yield loss due to SSR does not occur until 20 to 25% DIX, and considerable yield loss (-697 kg ha-1 or -10 bu acre-1) is observed at 68% DIX. Further analyses identified several pesticides and programs that resulted in greater than 60% probability for return on investment under high disease levels.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Praguicidas , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Illinois , Iowa , Michigan , Minnesota , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Wisconsin
20.
Transgenic Res ; 28(2): 257-266, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830582

RESUMO

Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR) caused by an oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae is one of the most devastating and widespread diseases throughout soybean-producing regions worldwide. The diversity and variability of P. sojae races make effective control of the pathogen challenging. Here, we introduced an elicitor of plant defense response, the harpinXooc-encoding hrf2 gene from the rice bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola into soybean and evaluated resistance to P. sojae infection. Molecular analysis confirmed the integration and expression of hrf2 in the transgenic soybean. After inoculation with P. sojae, non-transformed control (NC) plants exhibited typical PRR symptoms, including necrotic and wilting leaves, and plant death, whereas most of the transgenic plants showed slightly chlorotic leaves and developed normally. Through T3 to T5 generations, the transgenic events displayed milder disease symptoms and had higher survival rates compared to NC plants, indicating enhanced and stable resistance to P. sojae infection, whereas without P. sojae inoculation, no significant differences in agronomic traits were observed between the transgenic and non-transformed plants. Moreover, after inoculation with P. sojae, significant upregulation of a set of plant defense-related genes, including salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-dependent and hypersensitive response-related genes was observed in the transgenic plants. Our results indicate that hrf2 expression in transgenic soybean significantly enhanced resistance to P. sojae by eliciting multiple defense responses mediated by different signaling pathways. The potential functional role of the hrf2 gene in plant defense against P. sojae and other pathogens makes it a promising tool for broadening disease resistance in soybean.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Soja/parasitologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais , Soja/genética , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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