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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(9): 2803-2815, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037818

RESUMO

This study evaluated the applicability of a rapid analytical method using a headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) technique to identify gamma-irradiated soybeans (0.1-5 kGy). From the partial least squares discriminant analysis used to discriminate between non-irradiated and irradiated soybean samples, 1,7-hexadecadiene was selected as the identifying marker. Response surface methodology experiments were used to determine the optimal HS-SPME extraction conditions including a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber with an extraction temperature of 98 °C and an extraction time of 55 min. 1,7-Hexdecadiene was detected in all samples irradiated at ≥ 0.1 kGy under the optimized HS-SPME-GC/MS conditions, and the unique presence of the marker in a gamma-irradiated sample was verified by comparing the results from heat, steam, microwave, sonication, and ultraviolet treatments. The comparisons of the identification properties for various conventional methods validated several advances in HS-SPME-GC/MS analysis in terms of rapid analysis, high sensitivity, and absence of solvent.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Soja/química , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Raios gama
2.
Food Chem ; 303: 125376, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442900

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of persistent ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation on isoflavone accumulation in soybean sprouts. Three malonyl isoflavones were increased by UV-B. Malonylgenistin specifically accumulated upon UV-B exposure, whereas the other isoflavones were significantly increased under both dark conditions and UV-B exposure. The results of isoflavone accumulation to UV-B irradiation time were observed as following: acetyl glycitin rapidly increased and then gradually decreased; malonyl daidzin and malonyl genistin were highly accumulated within an intermediate period; genistein and daidzin were gradually maximized; daidzin, glycitin, genistein, and malonyl glycitin did not increase; and glycitin, acetyl daidzin, and acetyl genistin exhibited trace amounts. Transcriptional analysis of isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes demonstrated that most metabolic genes were highly activated in response to UV-B 24 and UV-B 36 treatments. In particular, it was found that GmCHS6, GmCHS7, and GmCHS8 genes among the eight known genes encoding chalcone synthase were specifically related to UV-B response.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Aciltransferases/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Genisteína/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Cinética , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Tempo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(49): 13577-13588, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730344

RESUMO

Light-emitting diode (LED) based light sources, which can selectively and quantitatively provide different spectra, have been frequently applied to manipulate plant growth and development. In this study, the effects of different LED light spectra on the growth, phenolic compounds profile, antioxidant capacity, and transcriptional changes in genes regulating phenolic biosynthesis in soybean microgreens were investigated. The results showed that light illumination decreased the seedling length and yield but increased phenolic compound content. Blue light and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) induced significant increases in total phenolic and total flavonoid content, as compared with the white light control. Sixty-six phenolic compounds were identified in the soybean samples, of which isoflavone, phenolic acid, and flavonol were the main components. Ten phenolic compounds obtained from the orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were reflecting the effect of light spectra. The antioxidant capacity was consistent with the phenolic metabolite levels, which showed higher levels under blue light and UV-A compared with the control. The highest transcript levels of phenolic biosynthesis-related genes were observed under blue light and UV-A. The transcript levels of GmCHI, GmFLS, and GmIOMT were also upregulated under far-red and red light. Taken together, our findings suggested that the application of LED light could pave a green and effective way to produce phenolic compound-enriched soybean microgreens with high nutritional quality, which could stimulate further investigations for improving plant nutritional value and should have a wide impact on maintaining human health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Antioxidantes/química , Luz , Fenóis/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Soja/genética , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 420, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soybean is subjected to genetic manipulation by breeding, mutation, and transgenic approaches to produce value-added quality traits. Among those genetic approaches, mutagenesis through fast neutrons radiation is intriguing because it yields a variety of mutations, including single/multiple gene deletions and/or duplications. Characterizing the seed composition of the fast neutron mutants and its relationship with gene mutation is useful towards understanding oil and protein traits in soybean. RESULTS: From a large population of fast neutron mutagenized plants, we selected ten mutants based on a screening of total oil and protein content using near infra-red spectroscopy. These ten mutants were regrown, and the seeds were analyzed for oil by GC-MS, protein profiling by SDS-PAGE and gene mapping by comparative genomic hybridization. The mutant 2R29C14Cladecr233cMN15 (nicknamed in this study as L10) showed higher protein and lower oil content compared to the wild type, followed by three other lines (nicknamed in this study as L03, L05, and L06). We characterized the fatty acid methyl esters profile of the trans-esterified oil and found the presence of five major fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids) at varying proportions among the mutants. Protein profile using SDS-PAGE of the ten mutants did exhibit discernable variation between storage (glycinin and ß-conglycinin) and anti-nutritional factor (trypsin inhibitor) proteins. In addition, we physically mapped the position of the gene deletions or duplications in each mutant using comparative genomic hybridization. CONCLUSION: Characterization of oil and protein profile in soybean fast neutron mutants will assist scientist and breeders to develop new value-added soybeans with improved protein and oil quality traits.


Assuntos
Nêutrons Rápidos , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Sementes/química , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Mutagênese , Mutação , Óleos Vegetais/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Soja/química , Soja/genética
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180066, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508663

RESUMO

Despite its economic importance, the microclimate in soybean canopies has not yet been studied in detail. Such a study can yield valuable information regarding the interaction of a crop with its environment. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the solar radiation dynamic and yield responses for each canopy strata for two soybean cultivars with determined and undetermined growth habits. A field study was conducted during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons in the city of Frederico Westphalen, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The cultivar NA6411, with a determinate growth habit, presented a greater interception of radiation in the middle and lower canopies strata which results in higher soybean yield when compared to the cultivar TEC6029, and thus, can be recommended for cultivation in crop production systems. The contribution of the middle and upper canopy strata to the total yield formation was greater than that observed in the lower canopy strata due to the greater interception of solar radiation by these strata. To increase soybean yields, new studies regarding the microclimatic conditions of the soybean canopy should be developed to improve the maximum potential yield of the new soybean cultivars.


Assuntos
Microclima , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar , Agricultura/métodos , Brasil
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277435

RESUMO

High-intensity ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation is a complex abiotic stressor resulting in excessive light exposure, heat, and dehydration, thereby affecting crop yields. In the present study, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to high-intensity UV-B irradiation in soybean (Glycine max [L.]). We used a genotyping-by-sequencing approach using an F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Cheongja 3 (UV-B sensitive) and Buseok (UV-B resistant). We evaluated the degree of leaf damage by high-intensity UV-B radiation in the RIL population and identified four QTLs, UVBR12-1, 6-1, 10-1, and 14-1, for UV-B stress resistance, together explaining 20% of the observed phenotypic variation. The genomic regions containing UVBR12-1 and UVBR6-1 and their syntenic blocks included other known biotic and abiotic stress-related QTLs. The QTL with the highest logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 3.76 was UVBR12-1 on Chromosome 12, containing two genes encoding spectrin beta chain, brain (SPTBN, Glyma.12g088600) and bZIP transcription factor21/TGACG motif-binding 9 (bZIP TF21/TGA9, Glyma.12g088700). Their amino acid sequences did not differ between the mapping parents, but both genes were significantly upregulated by UV-B stress in Buseok but not in Cheongja 3. Among five genes in UVBR6-1 on Chromosome 6, Glyma.06g319700 (encoding a leucine-rich repeat family protein) had two nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms differentiating the parental lines. Our findings offer powerful genetic resources for efficient and precise breeding programs aimed at developing resistant soybean cultivars to multiple stresses. Furthermore, functional validation of the candidate genes will improve our understanding of UV-B stress defense mechanisms.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Endogamia , Escore Lod , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos da radiação , Sintenia/genética
7.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 21: 40-48, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101154

RESUMO

Light emitting diode (LED) lighting technology for crop production is advancing at a rapid pace, both in terms of the technology itself (e.g., spectral composition and efficiency), and the research that the technological advances have enabled. The application of LED technology for crop production was first explored as a tool for improving the safety and reliability of plant-based bioregenerative life-support systems for long duration human space exploration. Developing and optimizing the lighting environment (spectral quality and quantity) for bioregenerative life-support applications and other controlled environment plant production applications, such as microgreens and sprout production, continues to be an active area of research and LED technology development. This study examines the influence of monochromatic and dichromatic red and blue light on the early development of six food crop species; Cucumis sativa, Solanum lycopersicum, Glycine max, Raphanus sativus, Pisum sativum, and Capsicum annum. Results support previous findings that light responses are often species specific. The results also support the assertion that monochromatic light can interfere with the normal interaction of various photoreceptors (co-action disruption) resulting in intermediate and sometimes unpredictable responses to a given light environment. The nature of the responses reported inform both bioregenerative life-support designs as well as light quality selection for the production of controlled environment crops.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos da radiação , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Luz , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/efeitos da radiação , Produção Agrícola , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucumis sativus/efeitos da radiação , Sistemas Ecológicos Fechados , Ervilhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ervilhas/efeitos da radiação , Raphanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raphanus/efeitos da radiação , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos da radiação , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/efeitos da radiação
8.
J Environ Radioact ; 204: 35-41, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959328

RESUMO

With the increasing density of high voltage transmission systems, the potential risks and hazards of environmental electric fields (EFs) generated by these systems to surrounding organisms is becoming a source of public concern. To evaluate the effect of environmental EFs on plants, we used soybean as a model and systematically evaluated the effect of continuous exposure to different intensities (0 kV/m, 2 kV/m, and 10 kV/m) of power frequency EFs on agronomic characters, yield, nutrient contents, protective enzyme activities, and gene transcription. We found that the effects on soybean were more pronounced when plants were exposed to EF during development (especially at the seedling stage) than when they were exposed at maturity. The functional leaf number, stem diameter, plant dry weight, and pod number were largely unaffected by EF, while the germination rate and protective enzyme activities increased with increasing EF intensity. In plants exposed to low-intensity EF (2 kV/m), some agronomic characters, including chlorophyll content, plant height, and bean dry weight, as well as the soluble sugar and total protein contents, were significantly higher than those of plants exposed to high-intensity EF (10 kV/m) and control plants (0 kV/m). Through transcriptome analysis, we found that 2,977 genes were significantly up-regulated and 1,462 genes were down-regulated when plants were exposed to EF. These differentially expressed genes mainly encode ribosome proteins and related enzymes involved in carbon metabolism pathway, providing a novel perspective for understanding molecular mechanisms underpinning the responses to EF stress in soybean.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Germinação/efeitos da radiação , Centrais Elétricas , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação , Condutividade Elétrica , Campos Magnéticos/efeitos adversos , Soja/enzimologia , Soja/genética , Soja/fisiologia
9.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 74, 2019 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant domestication provides a unique model to study genome evolution. Many studies have been conducted to examine genes, genetic diversity, genome structure, and epigenome changes associated with domestication. Interestingly, domesticated accessions have significantly higher [A] and [T] values across genome-wide polymorphic sites than accessions sampled from the corresponding progenitor species. However, the relative contributions of different genomic regions to this genome divergence pattern and underlying mechanisms have not been well characterized. RESULTS: Here, we investigate the genome-wide base-composition patterns by analyzing millions of SNPs segregating among 100 accessions from a teosinte-maize comparison set and among 302 accessions from a wild-domesticated soybean comparison set. We show that non-genic part of the genome has a greater contribution than genic SNPs to the [AT]-increase observed between wild and domesticated accessions in maize and soybean. The separation between wild and domesticated accessions in [AT] values is significantly enlarged in non-genic and pericentromeric regions. Motif frequency and sequence context analyses show the motifs (PyCG) related to solar-UV signature are enriched in these regions, particularly when they are methylated. Additional analysis using population-private SNPs also implicates the role of these motifs in relatively recent mutations. With base-composition across polymorphic sites as a genome phenotype, genome scans identify a set of putative candidate genes involved in UV damage repair pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The [AT]-increase is more pronounced in genomic regions that are non-genic, pericentromeric, transposable elements; methylated; and with low recombination. Our findings establish important links among UV radiation, mutation, DNA repair, methylation, and genome evolution.


Assuntos
Composição de Bases , Domesticação , Soja/genética , Zea mays/genética , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar , Zea mays/efeitos da radiação
10.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 21(5): 891-898, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825360

RESUMO

When plants are exposed to a heterogeneous environment, photosynthesis of leaves is not only determined by their local condition, but also by certain signals from other parts of the same plant, termed systemic regulation. Our present study was conducted to investigate the effects of light-dependent systemic regulation on the photosynthetic performance of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) under heterogeneous light conditions. Soybean plants were treated with heterogeneous light. Then gas exchange characteristics were measured to evaluate the photosynthetic performance of leaves. Parameters related to photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence, Rubisco and photosynthates were examined to study the mechanisms of light-dependent systemic regulation on photosynthesis. Light-induced systemic signalling by illuminated leaves reduced the Pn of both upper and lower non-illuminated leaves on the same soybean plant. The decrease in gs and increase in Ci in these non-illuminated leaves indicated restriction of carbon assimilation, which was further verified by the decline in content and activity of Rubisco. However, the activation state of Rubisco decreased only in upper non-illuminated leaves. Quantum efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) and ETR also decreased only in upper non-illuminated leaves. Moreover, the effects of light-induced systemic signalling on carbohydrate content were also detectable only in upper non-illuminated leaves. Light-induced systemic signalling by illuminated leaves restricts carbon assimilation and down-regulates photosynthetic performance of non-illuminated leaves within a soybean plant. However, effects of such systemic regulation differed when regulated in upward or downward direction.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 275: 439-445, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724218

RESUMO

The influences of abscisic acid (ABA)-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) on UV-B treatment-stimulated isoflavone synthesis in soybean sprouts was explored. It turned out that ABA, with cGMP, up-regulated gene expression and activity of chalcone synthase (CHS) and isoflavone synthase (IFS), and subsequently induced isoflavone biosynthesis under UV-B treatment. Furthermore, data obtained from the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) analysis showed that there were two core components in ABA response: SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK) and type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C), were up and down regulated after UV-B treatment, respectively. UV-B exposure stimulated increment in guanine nucleotide-binding protein and calreticulin expression. Additionally, CHS and IFS protein expression were up regulated under UV-B stress. Overall, UV-B-induced ABA resulted in PP2C inhibition and SnRK2 activation, and up-regulated CHS and IFS expression, leading to enhancement of isoflavone accumulation. cGMP and calreticulin as downstream messengers, mediated ABA-stimulated isoflavone biosynthesis after UV-B exposure.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/biossíntese , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
12.
Food Chem ; 275: 467-473, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724221

RESUMO

It has been shown that 15 µW·cm-2 UV-B radiation has the most pronounced effects on γ-aminobutiric acid (GABA), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in 4-day-old soybean sprouts. Nevertheless, its mechanism of action, from the perspective of protein expression, remains largely unknown. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) were employed to investigate UV-B treatment-induced proteomic changes in soybean sprouts. Results showed that UV-B treatment effectively regulated proteins involved in GABA biosynthesis, such as glutamate synthase, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), methionine synthetase, 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate--homocysteine methyltransferase, aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) and inositol phosphate metabolism pathways, including phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PI-PLC), purple acid phosphatase (PAP) and inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase. In addition, proteins involved in ABA biosynthesis and signal transduction, such as 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), abscisic-aldehyde oxidase (AO), SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK), protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), guanine nucleotide-binding protein and calreticulin-3, were also modulated under UV-B treatment.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Soja/citologia , Soja/enzimologia
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 34, 2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intercropping and close planting are important cultivation methods that increase soybean yield in agricultural production. However, plant shading is a major abiotic stress factor that influences soybean growth and development. Although shade affects leaf morphological parameters and decreases leaf photosynthesis capacity, information on the responses of soybean leaf photosynthesis to shading at proteomic level is still lacking. RESULTS: Compared with leaves under normal light (CK) treatment, leaves under shading treatment exhibited decreased palisade and spongy tissue thicknesses but significantly increased cell gap. Although shade increased the number of the chloroplast, the thickness of the grana lamella and the photosynthetic pigments per unit mass, but the size of the chloroplast and starch grains and the rate of net photosynthesis decreased compared with those of under CK treatment. A total of 248 differentially expressed proteins, among which 138 were upregulated, and 110 were downregulated, in soybean leaves under shading and CK treatments were detected via isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling in the three biological repeats. Differentially expressed proteins were classified into 3 large and 20 small groups. Most proteins involved in porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, photosynthesis-antenna proteins and carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms were upregulated. By contrast, proteins involved in photosynthesis were downregulated. The gene family members corresponding to differentially expressed proteins, including protochlorophyllide reductase (Glyma06g247100), geranylgeranyl hydrogenase (Ggh), LHCB1 (Lhcb1) and ferredoxin (N/A) involved in the porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, photosynthesis-antenna proteins and photosynthesis pathway were verified with real-time qPCR. The results showed that the expression patterns of the genes were consistent with the expression patterns of the corresponding proteins. CONCLUSIONS: This study combined the variation of the soybean leaf structure and differentially expressed proteins of soybean leaves under shading. These results demonstrated that shade condition increased the light capture efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in soybean leaves but decreased the capacity from PSII transmitted to photosystem II (PSI). This maybe the major reason that the photosynthetic capacity was decreased in shading.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Plântula/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Luz , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Plântula/genética , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Soja/genética , Soja/efeitos da radiação
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 683-690, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658304

RESUMO

Ozone layer depletion leads to elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, which affects plant growth; however, little is known about the relationship between root growth and signaling molecules in roots. Therefore, in this work, simulated UV-B radiation was used to study the effects of elevated UV-B radiation on root growth of soybean seedlings and changes in the content of signaling molecules in roots. The results showed that compared with the control, the 2.63 kJ m-2 d-1 and 6.17 kJ m-2 d-1 elevated UV-B radiation treatments inhibited root growth, and root growth parameters (total root length, root surface area, root volume, average diameter, root tip number, and root dry weight) all decreased. For root signaling molecules, the content of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid increased, and the content of auxin, cytokinin, and gibberellin decreased. The above indices changed more significantly under the 6.17 kJ m-2 d-1 treatment. After withdrawal of the exposure, the above indices could be restored to a certain extent. These data indicated that UV-B radiation interfered with root growth by affecting the content of signaling molecules in roots, and the degree of the effects was related to the intensity of UV-B radiation. The results from this study provide a theoretical basis for studying the preliminary mechanism of elevated UV-B radiation on root growth and possible pathways that can mitigate UV-B radiation damage for root growth. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: The effects of elevated UV-B on root growth of soybean seedlings were regulated by signaling molecules, and the degree of the effects was related to the intensity of UV-B radiation.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos da radiação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
15.
J Biochem ; 165(3): 277-288, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496541

RESUMO

Soybean-based intercropping is important for sustainable agricultural practice on a regional and global scale. However, most soybean varieties use shade avoidance strategy to acquire more light absorption when suffered in canopy shade in intercropping systems, thus reduced the yield of the whole population on a farmland. The mechanisms underlying early response of soybean in shade avoidance is still largely unknown. Here we report our identification of differentially accumulated proteins in shade-sensitive soybean seedlings by global quantitative proteome analysis under white light (WL) and shade conditions. By using Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) labelling and HPLC fractionation followed by high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis, 29 proteins were found up-regulated and 412 proteins were found down-regulated in soybean seedlings by 2-h shade stress than that by 2-h WL treatment. Multiple differentially expressed proteins are enriched in carbohydrate metabolic process especially in the biosynthetic pathways of cell wall polysaccharides in soybean seedlings by shade stress comparing to those in WL growth conditions. Physiological assays showed that saccharides were rapidly declined in shoot apex of soybean seedlings under a short-term shading. Our results would provide new insights into the mechanisms of shade avoidance responses in soybean seedlings.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos da radiação , Açúcares/metabolismo , Escuridão , Luz , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Soja/química
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 90(4): 3799-3812, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379268

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max L.) monocropping have had a great socio-economic and environmental impact on the world and agroforestry systems has been considered an alternative for more sustainable production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different arrangements of agroforestry systems of the species E. urophylla x E. grandis and P. dubium and the pruning of the trees on the dynamics of solar radiation and soybean yield. A field experiment was conducted in Southern Brazil. In order to achieve the objective of the study, the solar radiation transmissivity and the productive performance of the soybean were evaluated. In this study, the soybean yield was determined by the arrangement of the agroforestry system and forest species utilized. The soybean crop cultivated in the understory of the P. dubium trees showed the highest yield response. The use of silvicultural practices for the management of forest species should be considered to generate the balance of the productive system. In this context, tree pruning is a viable side for agroforestry systems, as it promotes an increase in the incidence of solar radiation in the understory, resulting in an increase in soybean yield, especially when integrated with P. dubium.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Florestas , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar , Brasil , Soja/fisiologia
17.
Ann Bot ; 122(4): 669-676, 2018 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905760

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Currently, functional-structural plant models (FSPMs) mostly resort to static descriptions of leaf spectral characteristics, which disregard the influence of leaf physiological changes over time. In many crop species, including soybean, these time-dependent physiological changes are of particular importance as leaf chlorophyll content changes with leaf age and vegetative nitrogen is remobilized to the developing fruit during pod filling. Methods: PROSPECT, a model developed to estimate leaf biochemical composition from remote sensing data, is well suited to allow a dynamic approximation of leaf spectral characteristics in terms of leaf composition. In this study, measurements of the chlorophyll content index (CCI) were linked to leaf spectral characteristics within the 400-800 nm range by integrating the PROSPECT model into a soybean FSPM alongside a wavelength-specific light model. Key Results: Straightforward links between the CCI and the parameters of the PROSPECT model allowed us to estimate leaf spectral characteristics with high accuracy using only the CCI as an input. After integration with an FSPM, this allowed digital reconstruction of leaf spectral characteristics on the scale of both individual leaves and the whole canopy. As a result, accurate simulations of light conditions within the canopy were obtained. Conclusions: The proposed approach resulted in a very accurate representation of leaf spectral properties, based on fast and simple measurements of the CCI. Integration of accurate leaf spectral characteristics into a soybean FSPM leads to a better, dynamic understanding of the actual perceived light within the canopy in terms of both light quantity and quality.


Assuntos
Clorofila/análise , Modelos Biológicos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Soja/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Luz , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Soja/anatomia & histologia , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Tempo
18.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0198159, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851989

RESUMO

Intercropping is an important agronomic practice adopted to increase crop production and resource efficiency in areas with intensive agricultural production. Two sequential field trials were conducted in 2015-2016 to investigate the effect of shading on the morphological features, leaf structure, and photosynthetic characteristics of soybean in a maize-soybean relay-strip intercropping system. Three treatments were designed on the basis of different row configurations A1 ("50 cm + 50 cm" one row of maize and one row of soybean with a 50 cm spacing between the rows), A2 ("160 cm + 40 cm" two rows of maize by wide-narrow row planting, where two rows of soybean were planted in the wide rows with a width of 40 cm, and with 60 cm row spacing was used between the maize and soybean rows), and CK (sole cropping of soybean, with 70 cm rows spacing). Results showed that the photosynthetically active radiation transmittances of soybean canopy at V5 stage under A2 treatment (31.1%) were considerably higher than those under A1 (8.7%) treatment, and the red-to-far-red ratio was reduced significantly under A1 (0.7) and A2 (1.0) treatments compared with those under CK (1.2). By contrast with CK, stem diameter, total aboveground biomass, chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate decreased significantly except plant height under A1 and A2. The thickness of palisade tissue and spongy tissue of soybean leaf under A1 and A2 were significantly reduced at V5 stage compared with CK. The leaf thicknesses under A1 and A2 were lower than those in CK by 39.5% and 18.2%, respectively. At the R1 stage of soybean (after maize harvest), the soybean plant height, stem biomass, leaf biomass and petiole biomass under A1 and A2 treatments were still significantly lower than those under CK, but no significant differences were observed in Chl a/b, Pn, epidermis thickness and spongy tissue thickness of soybean leaves in A2 compared with CK. In addition, the soybean yields (g plant-1) under A1 and A2 were 54.69% and 16.83% lower than those in CK, respectively. These findings suggested that soybean plants can regulate its morphological characteristics and leaf anatomical structures under different light environments.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Luz , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pigmentação/efeitos da radiação , Soja/efeitos da radiação
19.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 139: 224-230, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29852404

RESUMO

Fungal infection is inevitable in the cultivation and storage process of soybean. Gamma irradiation is an effective method to control fungal growth and inactivate mycotoxins. The effects of gamma irradiation and fungal damage on the number of fungi, aflatoxin B1 content, proximate composition of soybeans, and quality of soybean oil (acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, fatty acid profile, tocopherols content, and oxidation stability) were investigated in this work. Growth of fungi caused some changes in proximate composition of soybean and qualities of soybean oil. However, the changes depended on the damage extent of soybeans. No significant change was found for the soybeans incubated for 30 days (moderately fungi-damaged). Gamma irradiation could completely eliminate the fungi and greatly reduce the content of aflatoxin B1 in soybeans at 10 kGy. For soybeans incubated for 30 days, there were no significant changes in the quality attributes, tocopherols content and oxidation stability of oil when the gamma irradiation dose was less than 20 kGy. Gamma irradiation is a promising method to improve the safety and economy of moderately fungi-damaged soybean used for feedstuff.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxina B1/efeitos da radiação , Irradiação de Alimentos/métodos , Óleo de Soja/química , Óleo de Soja/efeitos da radiação , Soja/química , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/efeitos da radiação , Raios gama/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Oxirredução , Tocoferóis/análise
20.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 293(5): 1169-1180, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785615

RESUMO

Proton beam irradiation is a next-generation technique to develop mutant crop varieties. The mutagenic effects and molecular mechanisms of radiation are important multi-disciplinary research subjects. This study was conducted to investigate the types of mutations induced in the soybean genome by proton beam irradiation. In total, 22 plants, including 10 M2 plants treated with proton beam irradiation at 118 and 239 Gy, each, and two wild-type plants (Daepung) were sequenced by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). In total, 7453 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the 20 M2 plants, compared with the two wild-type controls. The SNP frequency was 1/36,976 bp with proton beam irradiation at 118 Gy, and 1/32,945 bp at 239 Gy. Of these, 3569 SNPs were detected in genic regions. We observed that proton beam irradiation induced more substitutions than small insertion-deletions (INDELs). Based on the mutagenic effect of proton beam irradiation, the frequency of transition mutations was shown to be higher than that of transversions. The proton beam-induced SNPs were distributed uniformly in most of the chromosomes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that there were many genes involved in protein metabolic process under biological process, intracellular membrane-bounded organelle under cellular component, and nucleic acid binding under molecular function. This study could provide valuable information for investigating the potential mechanisms of mutation, and guidance for developing soybeans cultivars using mutation breeding.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genoma de Planta , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mutação INDEL , Prótons , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Soja/genética , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Soja/efeitos da radiação
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