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1.
Food Chem ; 335: 127582, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739806

RESUMO

To improve genetically modified product labelling legislation and promote the development of genetically modified foods, the mass variations of genomic DNA and length distributions of DNA fragments in non-genetically and genetically modified soybean (Roundup Ready) and the variations in transgenic contents during soybean protein concentrate (SPC) and soybean protein isolate (SPI) preparation were monitored. The material masses throughout the process conformed to the law of mass conservation, and amounts of DNA recovered decreased with SPC and SPI preparation. The successive steps of ethanol extraction led to a decrease in the size distribution of the recovered DNA. For the LECTIN and CP4 EPSPS targets investigated, longer fragments (>800 bp) were more affected than smaller fragments (<200 bp), and both targets degraded slowly upon degradation into small fragments. DNA distribution and degradation thereby affected GMO quantification. After preparation procedures, the transgenic contents of SPC and SPI products were higher than that of raw soybean.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Proteínas de Soja/isolamento & purificação
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239701, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125378

RESUMO

There is a growing need to enhance the productivity of soybean (Glycine max L.) under severe drought conditions in order to improve global food security status. Melatonin, a ubiquitous hormone, could alleviate drought stress in various plants. Earlier, we demonstrated that exogenous melatonin treatment could enhance the tolerance of drought-treated soybean. However, the underlying mechanisms by which this hormone exerts drought resistance is still unclear. The present study used transcriptomic and metabolomic techniques to determine some critical genes and pathways regulating melatonin response to drought conditions. Results showed that exogenous melatonin treatment could increase relative water content and decrease electrolyte leakage in the leaves and increase seed yield under drought stress. Transcriptomic analysis showed that there were 852 core differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were regulated by drought stress and melatonin in soybean leaves. The most enriched drought-responsive genes are mainly involved in the 'biosynthesis of secondary metabolites'. Metabolomic profiling under drought stress showed higher accumulation levels of secondary metabolites related to drought tolerance after exogenous melatonin treatment. Also, we highlighted the vital role of the pathways including phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, isoflavonoid, and steroid biosynthesis pathways for improvement of drought tolerance in soybean by exogenous melatonin treatment. In all, findings from this study give detailed molecular basis for the application of melatonin as a drought-resistant agent in soybean cultivation.


Assuntos
Melatonina/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Fabaceae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Metabolômica/métodos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
3.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20000, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016628

RESUMO

Soybean breeding relies on the use of wild (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) and domesticated [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm for trait improvement. Soybeans are self-pollinating and accessions can be maintained as pure lines, however within-accession genetic variation has been observed in previous studies of some landraces and elite cultivars. The objective of this study was to characterize within-line variation in the accessions housed in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. This collection includes over 20,000 accessions, each previously genotyped using the SoySNP50K Chip. Each SoySNP50K genotype was developed by pooling approximately three individuals per accession. Therefore, clusters of SNPs called as heterozygous within an accession can be inferred to represent putative regions of heterogeneity between the three individuals sampled. In this study, we found high-probability intervals of heterogeneity in 4% of the collection, representing 870 accessions. Heterogeneous loci were found on every chromosome and, collectively, covered 98.4% of the soybean genome and 99% of the gene models. Sanger sequencing confirmed regions of genomic heterogeneity among a subset of ten accessions. This dataset provides useful information and considerations for users of crop germplasm seed banks. Furthermore, the heterogeneous accessions and/or loci represent a unique genetic resource that is immediately available for forward and reverse genetics studies.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Soja , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Humanos , Soja/genética , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture
4.
Yi Chuan ; 42(8): 788-798, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952114

RESUMO

Plant E2 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes regulate various biological pathways such as stress resistance, growth and development. Reports on its functions are more frequent in Arabidopsis thaliana, but relatively rare in soybean (Glycine max), which is one of the most important economic crops. In this study, a gene Glyma.12G161200, which may be related to the soybean cotyledon folding mutant, was cloned from soybean "Nanong 94-16". Analysis of its sequence suggested that it encodes an E2 ubiquitin binding enzyme, so it was named as GmUBC1. Its coding region is 462 bp in length, which encodes a protein of 153 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 17.25 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.74. The expression pattern of GmUBC1 in different tissues of soybean and its response patterns to different stresses and hormone treatments were analyzed by real-time PCR. The results showed that the gene was expressed at the highest level in mutant seeds at 40 days after flowering. Moreover, the expression of the GmUBC1 gene was down-regulated by the treatments of PEG, cold, JA and ABA, respectively. Subcellular localization analysis of GmUBC1 revealed that the protein was expressed in the whole cell. When GmUBC1 was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, the 1000-grain weight and total amino acid content of some transgenic lines were found to be significantly increased. Collectively, heterologous overexpression of GmUBC1 can regulate seed weights and amino acid contents, which may provide genetic resources for soybean quality improvement.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Soja , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina , Arabidopsis/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Sementes , Soja/enzimologia , Soja/genética , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética
5.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 33(11): 1340-1352, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757880

RESUMO

DNA methylation is a widespread epigenetic mark that affects gene expression and transposon mobility during plant development and stress responses. However, the role of DNA methylation in regulating the expression of microRNA (miRNA) genes remains largely unexplored. Here, we analyzed DNA methylation changes of miRNA genes using a pair of soybean (Glycine max) near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing in their response to soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines). Differences in global DNA methylation levels over miRNA genes in response to SCN infection were observed between the isogenic lines. miRNA genes with significant changes in DNA methylation levels in the promoter and primary transcript-coding regions were detected in both lines. In the susceptible isogenic line (NIL-S), 82 differentially methylated miRNAs were identified in response to SCN infection whereas, in the resistant isogenic line (NIL-R), only 16 differentially methylated miRNAs were identified. Interestingly, gma-miR5032, gma-miR5043, gma-miR1520b, and gma-2107-ch16 showed opposite methylation patterns in the isogenic lines. In addition, the miRNA paralogs gma-miR5770a and gma-miR5770b showed hypermethylation and hypomethylation in NIL-S and NIL-R, respectively. Gene expression quantification of gma-miR5032, gma-miR5043, gma-miR1520b, and gma-miR5770a/b and their confirmed targets indicated a role of DNA methylation in regulating miRNA expression and, thus, their targets upon SCN infection. Furthermore, overexpression of these four miRNAs in NIL-S using transgenic hairy root system enhanced plant resistance to SCN to various degrees with a key role observed for miR5032. Together, our results provide new insights into the role of epigenetic mechanisms in controlling miRNA regulatory function during SCN-soybean interactions.[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , MicroRNAs , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Soja/genética , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Epigênese Genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Soja/parasitologia
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110918, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800253

RESUMO

This work evaluates different generations of transgenic (cp4-EPSPS gene) and non-transgenic soybean plants through proteomics and metabolomics. For proteomics purpose, 24 differentially abundant protein spots were found through 2-D DIGE, being 4 belonging to transgenic plants. From this total, 19 were successfully identified, storage proteins as predominant class. Some identified proteins are involved in growing and cell division, and stress response, such as LEA and dehydrin. For metabolomics, 17 compounds were putatively annotated, mainly belonging to the secondary metabolism, such as flavonoids. From these analyzes, all generations and varieties of the soybean are prone to be differentiate by PLS-DA. According to our results, transgenic plants appear to be more stable than non-transgenic ones. In addition, the omics-based approaches allowed access some relations between those differential spot proteins and metabolites, mainly those storage proteins and flavonoid.


Assuntos
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Soja/fisiologia , Metabolômica , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
7.
Plant Dis ; 104(11): 3002-3009, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822262

RESUMO

Precise diagnosis of plant diseases is one of the most effective tools to minimize yield losses. Colletotrichum truncatum, Corynespora cassiicola, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are common soilborne pathogens that affect soybeans all over the world. We developed a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to simultaneously detect and quantify the three pathogens in soybean seeds and to survey their occurrence in the main soybean production areas in Brazil. Species-specific primers and probes for C. truncatum and C. cassiicola were designed based on GAPDH and TEF1 genes, respectively, to be combined with qPCR detection of S. sclerotiorum previously reported. The multiplex qPCR assay was successful in the simultaneous detection of C. truncatum, C. cassiicola, and S. sclerotiorum, along with a host internal control. The four pathogens were detected and quantified in artificially and naturally infested soybean seeds, even in the lowest incidence level tested of 0.0625% or 1 infected seed out of 1,599 healthy ones. From 81 seed samples tested, C. truncatum was the most frequently detected pathogen and with higher incidence levels (0.25 to 0.125%), followed by S. sclerotiorum and C. cassiicola, both with lower incidence levels (0.125 to 0.0625%). Together, the results evidenced the high sensitivity of the multiplex qPCR assay, indicating its usefulness for a quick and reliable diagnosis of soybean diseases in seeds.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Colletotrichum , Ascomicetos/genética , Brasil , Colletotrichum/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sementes , Soja/genética
8.
Gene ; 762: 145015, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783994

RESUMO

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a carbon fixation enzyme which probably plays crucial roles in seed development. A greater number of PEPC isoforms are encoded in the soybean genome, while most of the PEPC isoforms are functionally unknown. In this study, we investigated on soybean PEPC expressed in the external layer of seed coat (ELSC) during seed formation. PEPC activity in ELSC ranged from 0.24 to 1.0 U/g F.W., which could be comparable to those in whole seeds at U per dry matter. Public RNA-Seq data in separated soybean seed tissues revealed that six plant-type PEPC isogenes were substantially expressed in ELSC, and Gmppc1 and Gmppc7 were highly expressed in hourglass cells of ELSC. Gene Ontology enrichment of co-expressed genes with Gmppc1 and Gmppc7 implicated a role of these isogenes in assisting energy production and cellulose biosynthesis. Comparison of PEPC sequences from 16 leguminous species hypothesized adaptive evolution of the Gmppc1 and Gmppc7 lineage after divergence from the other plant-type PEPC lineages. Molecular diversification of these plant-type PEPC was possibly accomplished by adaptation to the functions of the soybean seed tissues. This study indicates that energy demand in immature seeds may be a driving force for the molecular evolution of PEPC.


Assuntos
Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Evolução Molecular , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
9.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(10): 1850-1861, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790504

RESUMO

Strigolactones (SLs) are the major plant hormones that play important roles in regulating organ development and environmental stress tolerance in plants. Even though the SL-related genes have been identified and well characterized in some plants, the information of SL-related genes in soybean is not fully established yet, especially in response to salt and alkaline stresses. In this study, we identified nine SL biosynthetic genes that include two D27, two CCD7, two CCD8, and three MAX1, as well as seven SL signaling genes that comprised two D14, two MAX2, and three D53 in the soybean genome. We found that SL biosynthetic and signaling genes are evolutionary conserved among different species. Syntenic analysis of these genes revealed their location on nine chromosomes as well as the presence of 10 pairs of duplication genes. Moreover, plant hormone and stress-responsive elements were identified in the promoter regions of SL biosynthetic and signaling genes. By using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR, we confirmed that SL genes have different tissue expressions in roots, stems, and leaves. The expression profile of SL biosynthetic and signaling genes under salt and alkaline stresses further confirmed the regulatory roles of SL biosynthetic and signaling genes under stress. In conclusion, we identified and provided valuable information on the soybean SL biosynthetic and signaling genes, and established a foundation for further functional analysis of soybean SL-related genes in response to salt and alkaline stresses.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino , Soja/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Soja/metabolismo , Sintenia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628728

RESUMO

A Glycine max (soybean) hemicellulose modifying gene, xyloglucan endotransglycoslase/hydrolase (XTH43), has been identified as being expressed within a nurse cell known as a syncytium developing within the soybean root undergoing the process of defense to infection by the parasitic nematode, Heterodera glycines. The highly effective nature of XTH43 overexpression in suppressing H. glycines parasitism in soybean has led to experiments examining whether the heterologous expression of XTH43 in Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) could impair the parasitism of Meloidogyne incognita, that form a different type of nurse cell called a giant cell that is enclosed within a swollen root structure called a gall. The heterologous transgenic expression of XTH43 in cotton resulted in an 18% decrease in the number of galls, 70% decrease in egg masses, 64% decrease in egg production and a 97% decrease in second stage juvenile (J2) production as compared to transgenic controls. The heterologous XTH43 expression does not significantly affect root mass. The results demonstrate XTH43 expression functions effectively in impairing the development of M. incognita at numerous life cycle stages occurring within the cotton root. The experiments reveal that there are highly conserved aspects of the defense response of G. max that can function effectively in G. hirsutum to impair M. incognita having a different method of parasitism.


Assuntos
Glicosiltransferases/genética , Gossypium/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Soja/enzimologia , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Gossypium/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235070, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603340

RESUMO

A gene regulatory network can be described at a high level by a directed graph with signed edges, and at a more detailed level by a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The former qualitatively models the causal regulatory interactions between ordered pairs of genes, while the latter quantitatively models the time-varying concentrations of mRNA and proteins. This paper clarifies the connection between the two types of models. We propose a property, called the constant sign property, for a general class of ODE models. The constant sign property characterizes the set of conditions (system parameters, external signals, or internal states) under which an ODE model is consistent with a signed, directed graph. If the constant sign property for an ODE model holds globally for all conditions, then the ODE model has a single signed, directed graph. If the constant sign property for an ODE model only holds locally, which may be more typical, then the ODE model corresponds to different graphs under different sets of conditions. In addition, two versions of constant sign property are given and a relationship between them is proved. As an example, the ODE models that capture the effect of cis-regulatory elements involving protein complex binding, based on the model in the GeneNetWeaver source code, are described in detail and shown to satisfy the global constant sign property with a unique consistent gene regulatory graph. Even a single gene regulatory graph is shown to have many ODE models of GeneNetWeaver type consistent with it due to combinatorial complexity and continuous parameters. Finally the question of how closely data generated by one ODE model can be fit by another ODE model is explored. It is observed that the fit is better if the two models come from the same graph.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Modelos Biológicos , Algoritmos , Arabidopsis/genética , Simulação por Computador , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Soja/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235434, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649700

RESUMO

The genetic diversity of North American soybean cultivars has been largely influenced by a small number of ancestors. High yielding breeding lines that possess exotic pedigrees have been developed, but identifying beneficial exotic alleles has been difficult as a result of complex interactions of yield alleles with genetic backgrounds and environments as well as the highly quantitative nature of yield. PI 416937 has been utilized in the development of many high yielding lines that have been entered into the USDA Southern States Uniform Tests over the past ~20 years. The primary goal of this research was to identify genomic regions under breeding selection from PI 416937 and introduce a methodology for identifying and potentially utilizing beneficial diversity from lines prevalent in the ancestry of elite cultivars. Utilizing SoySNP50K Infinium BeadChips, 52 high yielding PI 416937-derived lines as well as their parents were genotyped to identify PI 416937 alleles under breeding selection. Nine genomic regions across three chromosomes and 17 genomic regions across seven chromosomes were identified where PI 416937 alleles were under positive or negative selection. Minimal significant associations between PI 416937 alleles and yield were observed in replicated yield trials of five RIL populations, highlighting the difficulty of consistently detecting yield associations.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Variação Genética/genética , Soja/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estados Unidos
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3763, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724132

RESUMO

In both animals and plants, the perception of bacterial flagella by immune receptors elicits the activation of defence responses. Most plants are able to perceive the highly conserved epitope flg22 from flagellin, the main flagellar protein, from most bacterial species. However, flagellin from Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of the bacterial wilt disease, presents a polymorphic flg22 sequence (flg22Rso) that avoids perception by all plants studied to date. In this work, we show that soybean has developed polymorphic versions of the flg22 receptors that are able to perceive flg22Rso. Furthermore, we identify key residues responsible for both the evasion of perception by flg22Rso in Arabidopsis and the gain of perception by the soybean receptors. Heterologous expression of the soybean flg22 receptors in susceptible plant species, such as tomato, enhances resistance to bacterial wilt disease, demonstrating the potential of these receptors to enhance disease resistance in crop plants.


Assuntos
Flagelina/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Soja/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Flagelina/genética , Flagelina/metabolismo , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Polimorfismo Genético/imunologia , Ralstonia solanacearum/imunologia , Ralstonia solanacearum/patogenicidade , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235089, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673346

RESUMO

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is one of the most devastating pathogens affecting soybean production in the U.S. and worldwide. The use of SCN-resistant soybean cultivars is one of the most affordable strategies to cope with SCN infestation. Because of the limited sources of SCN resistance and changes in SCN virulence phenotypes, host resistance in current cultivars has increasingly been overcome by the pathogen. Host tolerance has been recognized as an additional tool to manage the SCN. The objectives of this study were to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS), to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, and to perform a genomic selection (GS) study for SCN tolerance in soybean based on reduction in biomass. A total of 234 soybean genotypes (lines) were evaluated for their tolerance to SCN in greenhouse using four replicates. The tolerance index (TI = 100 × Biomass of a line in SCN infested / Biomass of the line without SCN) was used as phenotypic data of SCN tolerance. GWAS was conducted using a total of 3,782 high quality SNPs. GS was performed based upon the whole set of SNPs and the GWAS-derived SNPs, respectively. Results showed that (1) a large variation in soybean TI to SCN infection among the soybean genotypes was identified; (2) a total of 35, 21, and 6 SNPs were found to be associated with SCN tolerance using the models SMR, GLM (PCA), and MLM (PCA+K) with 6 SNPs overlapping between models; (3) GS accuracy was SNP set-, model-, and training population size-dependent; and (4) genes around Glyma.06G134900, Glyma.15G097500.1, Glyma.15G100900.3, Glyma.15G105400, Glyma.15G107200, and Glyma.19G121200.1 (Table 4). Glyma.06G134900, Glyma.15G097500.1, Glyma.15G100900.3, Glyma.15G105400, and Glyma.19G121200.1 are best candidates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report highlighting SNP markers associated with tolerance index based on biomass reduction under SCN infestation in soybean. This research opens a new approach to use SCN tolerance in soybean breeding and the SNP markers will provide a tool for breeders to select for SCN tolerance.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Soja/genética , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade , Animais , Biomassa , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Infecções por Secernentea/prevenção & controle , Soja/parasitologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233721, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516314

RESUMO

Understanding the molecular processes of seed development is important especially in agronomic crops that produce large amounts of nutrient reserves. Because soybean is a vital source of vegetable protein worldwide, producers are concerned about increasing the total amount of protein in the seed without substantially lowering the amount of oil, another economically important product. Here we describe a transgenic soybean line with increased protein and protein/oil ratio, containing an average of 42.2% protein vs. 38.5% in controls and with a protein/oil ratio of 2.02 vs. 1.76 in controls over several generations of greenhouse growth. Other phenotypic data show that the seeds are heavier, although there are overall lower yields per plant. We postulate these effects result from insertion site mutagenesis by the transgenic construct. As this line never achieves homozygosity and appears to be embryo lethal when homozygous, one functional copy of the gene is most likely essential for normal seed development. Global transcript analyses using RNA-Seq for 88,000 gene models over two stages of cotyledon development revealed that more genes are over-expressed in the transgenic line including ribosomal protein related genes and those in the membrane protein and transporters families. Localization of the insertion site should reveal the genes and developmental program that has been perturbed by the transgenic construct, resulting in this economically interesting increase in protein and the protein/oil ratio.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Heterozigoto , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584851

RESUMO

Two low-phytate soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) mutant lines- V99-5089 (mips mutation on chromosome 11) and CX-1834 (mrp-l and mrp-n mutations on chromosomes 19 and 3, respectively) have proven to be valuable resources for breeding of low-phytate, high-sucrose, and low-raffinosaccharide soybeans, traits that are highly desirable from a nutritional and environmental standpoint. A recombinant inbred population derived from the cross CX1834 x V99-5089 provides an opportunity to study the effect of different combinations of these three mutations on soybean phytate and oligosaccharides levels. Of the 173 recombinant inbred lines tested, 163 lines were homozygous for various combinations of MIPS and two MRP loci alleles. These individuals were grouped into eight genotypic classes based on the combination of SNP alleles at the three mutant loci. The two genotypic classes that were homozygous mrp-l/mrp-n and either homozygous wild-type or mutant at the mips locus (MIPS/mrp-l/mrp-n or mips/mrp-l/mrp-n) displayed relatively similar ~55% reductions in seed phytate, 6.94 mg g -1 and 6.70 mg g-1 respectively, as compared with 15.2 mg g-1 in the wild-type MIPS/MRP-L/MRP-N seed. Therefore, in the presence of the double mutant mrp-l/mrp-n, the mips mutation did not cause a substantially greater decrease in seed phytate level. However, the nutritionally-desirable high-sucrose/low-stachyose/low-raffinose seed phenotype originally observed in soybeans homozygous for the mips allele was reversed in the presence of mrp-l/mrp-n mutations: homozygous mips/mrp-l/mrp-n seed displayed low-sucrose (7.70%), high-stachyose (4.18%), and the highest observed raffinose (0.94%) contents per gram of dry seed. Perhaps the block in phytic acid transport from its cytoplasmic synthesis site to its storage site, conditioned by mrp-l/mrp-n, alters myo-inositol flux in mips seeds in a way that restores to wild-type levels the mips conditioned reductions in raffinosaccharides. Overall this study determined the combinatorial effects of three low phytic acid causing mutations on regulation of seed phytate and oligosaccharides in soybean.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Mutação , Oligossacarídeos , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Sementes , Soja , Oligossacarídeos/genética , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 330: 127198, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535313

RESUMO

The metabolome of three soybean genotypes, Glycine max Hwangkeum (elite or domesticated cultivar), Glycine max Napjakong (landrace or semi-wild cultivar) and Glycine soja Dolkong (wild cultivar), were characterized in seeds and leaves using a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach. Expression of primary and secondary metabolites were different in seeds and leaves as well as amongst soybean genotypes. Different kaempferol glycosides were observed in the leaves but not in the seeds, and quercetin derivatives were found only in G. max Napjakong and G. soja Dolkong. Moreover, epicatechin was found only in the seeds of G. max Napjakong and G. soja Dolkong. These results demonstrate distinct adaptations of different soybean genotypes to given environmental conditions. The current study, therefore, provides useful information on global metabolic compositions that might be used to develop soybean-based products through better understanding of the metabolic phenotypes of existing soybean genotypes.


Assuntos
Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Genótipo , Metabolômica , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
18.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(6): 609-621, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415514

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Map-based cloning revealed that two novel soybean distorted trichome mutants were due to loss function of GmNAP1 gene, which affected the trichome morphology and pavement cell ploidy by regulating actin filament assembly. Trichomes increase both biotic and abiotic stress resistance in soybean. In this study, Gmdtm1-1 and Gmdtm1-2 mutants with shorter trichomes and bigger epidermal pavement cells were isolated from an ethyl methylsulfonate mutagenized population. Both of them had reduced plant height and smaller seeds. Map-based cloning and bulked segregant analysis identified that a G-A transition at the 3' boundary of the sixth intron of Glyma.20G019300 in the Gmdtm1-1 mutant and another G-A transition mutation at the 5' boundary of the fourteenth intron of Glyma.20G019300 in Gmdtm1-2; these mutations disrupted spliceosome recognition sites creating truncated proteins. Glyma.20G019300 encodes a Glycine max NCK-associated protein 1 homolog (GmNAP1) in soybean. Further analysis revealed that the GmNAP1 involved in actin filament assembling and genetic information processing pathways during trichome and pavement cell development. This study shows that GmNAP1 plays an important role in soybean growth and development and agronomic traits.


Assuntos
Soja/genética , Tricomas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Íntrons/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
19.
Gene ; 753: 144803, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446917

RESUMO

R2R3-type MYBs are a key group of regulatory factors that control diverse developmental processes and stress tolerance in plants. Soybean is a major legume crop with the richness of seed protein and edible vegetable oil, and 244 R2R3-type MYBs have been identified in soybean. However, the knowledge regarding their functional roles has been greatly limited as yet. In this study, a novel R2R3-type MYB (GmMYB81) was functionally characterized in soybean, and it is closely related to two abiotic stress-associated regulators (AtMYB44 and AtMYB77). GmMYB81 transcripts not only differentially accumulated in soybean tissues and during embryo development, but also were significantly enhanced by drought, salt and cold stress. Histochemical GUS assay in Arabidopsis indicated that GmMYB81 promoter showed high activity in seedlings, rosette leaves, inflorescences, silique wall, mature anthers, roots, and germinating seeds. Further investigation indicated that over-expression of GmMYB81 in Arabidopsis caused auxin-associated phenotypes, including small flower and silique, more branch, and weakened apical dominance. Moreover, over-expression of GmMYB81 significantly elevated the rates of seed germination and green seedling under salt and drought stress, indicating that GmMYB81 might confer plant tolerance to salt and drought stress during seed germination. Additionally, protein interaction analysis showed that GmMYB81 interacts with the abiotic stress regulator GmSGF14l. Further observation indicated that they displayed similar expression patterns under drought and salt stress, suggesting GmMYB81 and GmSGF14l might cooperatively affect stress tolerance. These findings will facilitate future investigations of the regulatory mechanisms of GmMYB81 in response to plant stress tolerance, especially seed germination under abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Soja/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Secas , Fabaceae/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Germinação/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233290, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442213

RESUMO

Path analysis allows understanding the direct and indirect effects among traits. Multicollinearity in correlation matrices may cause a bias in path analysis estimates. This study aimed to: a) understand the correlation among soybean traits and estimate their direct and indirect effects on gain oil content; b) verify the efficiency of ridge path analysis and trait culling to overcome colinearity. Three different matrices with different levels of collinearity were obtained by trait culling. Ridge path analysis was performed on matrices with strong collinearity; otherwise, a traditional path analysis was performed. The same analyses were run on a simulated dataset. Trait culling was applied to matrix R originating the matrices R1 and R2. Path analysis for matrices R1 and R2 presented a high determination coefficient (0.856 and 0.832, respectively) and low effect of the residual variable (0.379 and 0.410 respectively). Ridge path analysis presented low determination coefficient (0.657) and no direct effects greater than the effects of the residual variable (0.585). Trait culling was more effective to overcome collinearity. Mass of grains, number of nodes, and number of pods are promising for indirect selection for oil content.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Óleo de Soja , Soja/genética , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas
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