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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257008, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478465

RESUMO

In this study, the feasibility of classifying soybean frogeye leaf spot (FLS) is investigated. Leaf images and hyperspectral reflectance data of healthy and FLS diseased soybean leaves were acquired. First, image processing was used to classify FLS to create a reference for subsequent analysis of hyperspectral data. Then, dimensionality reduction methods of hyperspectral data were used to obtain the relevant information pertaining to FLS. Three single methods, namely spectral index (SI), principal component analysis (PCA), and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), along with a PCA and SI combined method, were included. PCA was used to select the effective principal components (PCs), and evaluate SIs. Characteristic wavelengths (CWs) were selected using CARS. Finally, the full wavelengths, CWs, effective PCs, SIs, and significant SIs were divided into 14 datasets (DS1-DS14) and used as inputs to build the classification models. Models' performances were evaluated based on the classification accuracy for both the overall and individual classes. Our results suggest that the FLS comprised of five classes based on the proportion of total leaf surface covered with FLS. In the PCA and SI combination model, 5 PCs and 20 SIs with higher weight coefficient of each PC were extracted. For hyperspectral data, 20 CWs and 26 effective PCs were also selected. Out of the 14 datasets, the model input variables provided by five datasets (DS2, DS3, DS4, DS10, and DS11) were more superior than those of full wavelengths (DS1) both in support vector machine (SVM) and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) classifiers. The models developed using these five datasets achieved overall accuracies ranging from 91.8% to 94.5% in SVM, and 94.5% to 97.3% in LS-SVM. In addition, they improved the classification accuracies by 0.9% to 3.6% (SVM) and 0.9% to 3.7% (LS-SVM).


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Micoses/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta , Soja/ultraestrutura , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Cercospora , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Soja/microbiologia , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257225, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506590

RESUMO

Diaporthe species are fungal plant pathogens of many important crops. Seed decay is one of the most important diseases on soybean. It is caused by various species of the genus Diaporthe and responsible for significant economic damage. In central Europe the four species D. longicolla, D. caulivora, D. eres, and D. novem are considered the principal species of Diaporthe on soybean. Fast and accurate detection of these pathogens is of utmost importance. In this study four species-specific TaqMan primer-probe sets that can be combined into a quadruplex assay were designed based on TEF sequences. The specificity and efficiency of the primer-probe sets were tested using PCR products and genomic DNA from pure cultures of the four Diaporthe species and other soybean fungal pathogens. Our results indicate that the primer-probe sets DPCL, DPCC, DPCE, and DPCN allow discrimination of D. longicolla, D. caulivora, D. eres, and D. novem, respectively, and can be used to detect and quantify these four Diaporthe species in parallel using quadruplex real-time PCR. In addition, the quadruplex real-time PCR assay was evaluated on different plant materials including healthy and infected soybean seeds or seed lots, soybean stems, and soybean leaves. This assay is a rapid and effective method to detect and quantify Diaporthe species from samples relevant for disease control.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Soja/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Soja/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443655

RESUMO

To identify and analyze the characteristics of the microorganisms involved in the formation of the desirable flavor of Doenjang, a total of 179 strains were isolated from ninety-four Doenjang collected from six regions in South Korea, and fourteen strains were selected through a sensory evaluation of the aroma of each culture. The enzyme activities of amylase, protease and lipase was shown in the various strains. Bacillus sp.-K3, Bacillus sp.-K4 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-J2 showed relatively high protease activity, at 317.1 U, 317.3 U and 319.5 U, respectively. The Bacillus sp.-K1 showed the highest lipase activity at 2453.6 U. In the case of amylase, Bacillus subtilis-H6 showed the highest activity at 4105.5 U. The results of the PCA showed that Bacillus subtilis-H2, Bacillus subtilis-H3, and Bacillus sp.-K2 were closely related to the production of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (23.51%~43.37%), and that Bacillus subtilis-H5 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-J2 were significantly associated with the production of phenethyl alcohol (0.39% and 0.37%). The production of peptides was observed to vary among the Bacillus cultures such as Val-Val-Pro-Pro-Phe-Leu and Pro-Ala-Glu-Val-Leu-Asp-Ile. These peptides are precursors of related volatile flavor compounds created in Doenjang via the enzymatic or non-enzymatic route; it is expected that these strains could be used to enhance the flavor of Doenjang.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/enzimologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Biossíntese Peptídica/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/genética , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361631

RESUMO

The cyclic lipopeptide produced from Bacillus pumilus strain HY1 was isolated from Korean soybean sauce cheonggukjang. The chemical structures of the surfactin isomers were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The five potential surfactin isoforms were detected with protonated masses of m/z 994.7, 1008.7, 1022.7, 1036.7, and 1050.7 and different structures in combination with Na+, K+, and Ca2+ ions. ESI-MS/MS analysis revealed that the isolated surfactin possessed the precise amino acid sequence LLVDLL and hydroxyl fatty acids with 12 to 16 carbons. The surfactin content during cheonggukjang fermentation increased from 0.3 to 51.2 mg/kg over 60 h of fermentation. The mixture of five surfactin isoforms of cheonggukjang inhibited the growth of two cancer cell lines. The growth of both MCF-7 and Caco-2 cells was strongly inhibited with 100 µg/µL of surfactin. This study is the first-time report of five surfactin isomers of Bacillus pumilus strain HY1 during Korean soybean sauce cheonggukjang fermentation, which has cytotoxic properties.


Assuntos
Bacillus pumilus/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Lipopeptídeos , Soja/microbiologia , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Lipopeptídeos/química , Lipopeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Células MCF-7
6.
Pol J Microbiol ; 70(2): 257-271, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349815

RESUMO

The development of rhizobial inoculants with increased resistance to abiotic stress is critical to mitigating the challenges related to climate change. This study aims at developing a soybean stress-tolerant Bradyrhizobium inoculant to be used under the mixed stress conditions of acidity, high temperature, and drought. Six isolates of Bradyrhizobium with high symbiotic performance on soybean were tested to determine their growth or survival abilities under in vitro conditions. The representative stress-tolerant Bradyrhizobium isolates 184, 188, and 194 were selected to test their ability to promote soybean growth under stress conditions compared to the type strain Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110. The plant experiment indicated that isolate 194 performed better in symbiosis with soybean than other Bradyrhizobium strains under stress conditions. Based on the stress tolerance index, soybeans inoculated with isolate 194 showed a high growth performance and significantly better nodulation competition ability than USDA110 under several stress conditions. Interestingly, supplementation of sucrose in the culture medium significantly enhances the survival of the isolate and leads to improved plant biomass under various stress conditions. Analysis of the intra-cellular sugars of isolate 194 supplemented with sucrose showed the accumulation of compatible solutes, such as trehalose and glycerol, that may act as osmoprotectants. This study indicates that inoculation of stress-tolerant Bradyrhizobium together with sucrose supplementation in a medium could enhance bacterial survival and symbiosis efficiency under stress conditions. Although it can be applied for inoculant production, this strategy requires validation of its performance in field conditions before adopting this technology.


Assuntos
Bradyrhizobium/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16907, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413429

RESUMO

The Phytophtora root and stem rot is a serious disease in soybean. It is caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. Growing Phytophthora resistant cultivars is the major method of controlling this disease. Resistance is race- or gene-specific; a single gene confers immunity against only a subset of the P. sojae isolates. Unfortunately, rapid evolution of new Phytophthora sojae virulent pathotypes limits the effectiveness of an Rps ("resistance to Phytophthora sojae") gene to 8-15 years. The current study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of Rps12 against a set of P. sojae isolates using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) that contain recombination break points in the Rps12 region. Our study revealed a unique Rps gene linked to the Rps12 locus. We named this novel gene as Rps13 that confers resistance against P. sojae isolate V13, which is virulent to recombinants that contains Rps12 but lack Rps13. The genetic distance between the two Rps genes is 4 cM. Our study revealed that two tightly linked functional Rps genes with distinct race-specificity provide broad-spectrum resistance in soybean. We report here the molecular markers for incorporating the broad-spectrum Phytophthora resistance conferred by the two Rps genes in commercial soybean cultivars.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/microbiologia , Alelos , Endogamia , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Phytophthora/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético
8.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(10): 1799-1812, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232377

RESUMO

Charcoal rot (CR) is a major disease of soybean, which is caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Mp). Increasing temperatures and low rainfall in recent years have immensely benefitted the pathogen. Hence, the search for genetically acquired resistance to this pathogen is essential. The pathogen is a hemibiotroph, which germinates on the root surface and colonizes epidermal tissue. Several surface receptors initiate pathogenesis, followed by the secretion of various enzymes that provide entry to host tissue. Several enzymes and other converging cascades in the pathogen participate against host defensive responses. ß-glucan of the fungal cell wall is recognized as MAMPs (microbe-associated molecular patterns) in plants, which trigger host immune responses. Kinase receptors, resistance, and pathogenesis-related genes correspond to host defense response. They work in conjunction with hormone-mediated defense pathway especially, the systemic acquired resistance, calcium-signaling, and production of phytoalexins. Due to its quantitative nature, limited QTLs have been identified in soybean for CR resistance. The present review attempts to provide a functional link between M. phaseolina pathogenicity and soybean responses. Elucidation of CR resistance responses would facilitate improved designing of breeding programs, and may help in the selection of corresponding genes to introgress CR resistant traits.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/genética , Soja/microbiologia , Sinalização do Cálcio , Resistência à Doença/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15279, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315968

RESUMO

Intercropping of medicinal plants/legumes along with bio-fertilizer application is a relatively new sustainable practice for improving the yield and secondary metabolites production. Here, a 2-years field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of water deficit stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) application (as bio-fertilizer) on nutrients concentration, dry matter yield, essential oil quantity and quality of thyme in intercropping with soybean. Three irrigation levels, including (i) irrigation after depletion of 20% (I20) as non-stressed, 50% (I50) as moderate water deficit and 80% (I80) available water as severe water deficit were applied as the main factor. The sub-factor was represented by different cropping patterns including thyme sole culture, replacement intercrop ratio of 50:50 and 66:34 (soybean: thyme) and the third factor was non-usage (control) and usage of AMF. According to our results, the thyme dry yield under moderate and severe water deficit stress decreased by 35 and 44% in the first year, and by 27 and 40% in the second year compared with non-stressed (I20) plants, respectively. Also, the macro- and micro-nutrients of thyme leaves increased significantly in intercropping patterns after application of AMF. The maximum essential oil percentage of thyme was achieved in 50:50 intercropping ratio treated with AMF. Under moderate and severe water deficits, the major constituents of thyme essential oil including thymol, p-cymene and γ-terpinene were increased in intercropping patterns treated with AMF. Generally, AMF application in intercropping ratio of 50:50 may be proposed to farmers as an eco-friendly approach to achieve desirable essential oil quality and quantity in thyme under water deficit stress conditions.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Desidratação/metabolismo , Fungos/fisiologia , Soja/metabolismo , Thymus (Planta)/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia , Thymus (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Microbes Environ ; 36(3)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234044

RESUMO

Nitrogen deficiency affects soybean growth and physiology, such as symbiosis with rhizobia; however, its effects on the bacterial composition of the soybean root microbiota remain unclear. A bacterial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed nitrogen deficiency-induced bacterial community shifts in soybean roots with the marked enrichment of Methylobacteriaceae. The abundance of Methylobacteriaceae was low in the roots of field-grown soybean without symptoms of nitrogen deficiency. Although Methylobacteriaceae isolated from soybean roots under nitrogen deficiency did not promote growth or nodulation when inoculated into soybean roots, these results indicate that the enrichment of Methylobacteriaceae in soybean roots is triggered by nitrogen-deficiency stress.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Nitrogênio/análise , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072216

RESUMO

Cheonggukjang (CGJ, fermented soybean paste), a traditional Korean fermented dish, has recently emerged as a functional food that improves blood circulation and intestinal regulation. Considering that excessive consumption of refined salt is associated with increased incidence of gastric cancer, high blood pressure, and stroke in Koreans, consuming CGJ may be desirable, as it can be made without salt, unlike other pastes. Soybeans in CGJ are fermented by Bacillus strains (B. subtilis or B. licheniformis), Lactobacillus spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Enterococcus faecium, which weaken the activity of putrefactive bacteria in the intestines, act as antibacterial agents against pathogens, and facilitate the excretion of harmful substances. Studies on CGJ have either focused on improving product quality or evaluating the bioactive substances contained in CGJ. The fermentation process of CGJ results in the production of enzymes and various physiologically active substances that are not found in raw soybeans, including dietary fiber, phospholipids, isoflavones (e.g., genistein and daidzein), phenolic acids, saponins, trypsin inhibitors, and phytic acids. These components prevent atherosclerosis, oxidative stress-mediated heart disease and inflammation, obesity, diabetes, senile dementia, cancer (e.g., breast and lung), and osteoporosis. They have also been shown to have thrombolytic, blood pressure-lowering, lipid-lowering, antimutagenic, immunostimulatory, anti-allergic, antibacterial, anti-atopic dermatitis, anti-androgenetic alopecia, and anti-asthmatic activities, as well as skin improvement properties. In this review, we examined the physiological activities of CGJ and confirmed its potential as a functional food.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Fermentação , Alimento Funcional , Soja , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Avaliação Nutricional , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070397

RESUMO

Bacterial communities in rhizosphere and root nodules have significant contributions to the growth and productivity of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). In this report, we analyzed the physiological properties and dynamics of bacterial community structure in rhizosphere and root nodules at different growth stages using BioLog EcoPlate and high-throughput sequencing technology, respectively. The BioLog assay found that the metabolic capability of rhizosphere is in increasing trend in the growth of soybeans as compared to the bulk soil. As a result of the Illumina sequencing analysis, the microbial community structure of rhizosphere and root nodules was found to be influenced by the variety and growth stage of the soybean. At the phylum level, Actinobacteria were the most abundant in rhizosphere at all growth stages, followed by Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, and the phylum Bacteroidetes showed the greatest change. But, in the root nodules Alphaproteobacteria were dominant. The results of the OTU analysis exhibited the dominance of Bradyrhizobium during the entire stage of growth, but the ratio of non-rhizobial bacteria showed an increasing trend as the soybean growth progressed. These findings revealed that bacterial community in the rhizosphere and root nodules changed according to both the variety and growth stages of soybean in the field.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Nodulação , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Soja , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia
13.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0026421, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132570

RESUMO

Uncharacterized viral genomes that encode circular replication-associated proteins of single-stranded DNA viruses have been discovered by metagenomics/metatranscriptomics approaches. Some of these novel viruses are classified in the newly formed family Genomoviridae. Here, we determined the host range of a novel genomovirus, SlaGemV-1, through the transfection of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum with infectious clones. Inoculating with the rescued virions, we further transfected Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructicola, two economically important members of the family Sclerotiniaceae, and Fusarium oxysporum. SlaGemV-1 causes hypovirulence in S. sclerotiorum, B. cinerea, and M. fructicola. SlaGemV-1 also replicates in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells but not in Caenorhabditis elegans or plants. By expressing viral genes separately through site-specific integration, the replication protein alone was sufficient to cause debilitation. Our study is the first to demonstrate the reconstruction of a metagenomically discovered genomovirus without known hosts with the potential of inducing hypovirulence, and the infectious clone allows for studying mechanisms of genomovirus-host interactions that are conserved across genera. IMPORTANCE Little is known about the exact host range of widespread genomoviruses. The genome of soybean leaf-associated gemygorvirus-1 (SlaGemV-1) was originally assembled from a metagenomic/metatranscriptomic study without known hosts. Here, we rescued SlaGemV-1 and found that it could infect three important plant-pathogenic fungi and fall armyworm (S. frugiperda Sf9) insect cells but not a model nematode, C. elegans, or model plant species. Most importantly, SlaGemV-1 shows promise for inducing hypovirulence of the tested fungal species in the family Sclerotiniaceae, including Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, and Monilinia fructicola. The viral determinant of hypovirulence was further identified as replication initiation protein. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that viromes discovered in plant metagenomes can be a valuable genetic resource when novel viruses are rescued and characterized for their host range.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/virologia , Geminiviridae/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Metagenoma , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Virulência , Animais , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Botrytis/genética , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Botrytis/virologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/virologia , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Fusarium/virologia , Geminiviridae/classificação , Geminiviridae/genética , Genoma Viral , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia , Tabaco/microbiologia , Tabaco/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vírion
14.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(8): 2699-2709, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057551

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Association and linkage mapping techniques were used to identify and verify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum resistance. A novel resistant gene, GmGST , was cloned and shown to be involved in soybean resistance to SSR. Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR), caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most devastating diseases in soybean (Glycine max (Linn.) Merr.) However, the genetic architecture underlying soybean resistance to SSR is poorly understood, despite several mapping and gene mining studies. In the present study, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in the resistance to S. sclerotiorum was conducted in two segregating populations: an association population that consisted of 261 diverse soybean germplasms, and the MH population, derived from a cross between a partially resistant cultivar (Maple arrow) and a susceptible cultivar (Hefeng25). Three and five genomic regions affecting resistance were detected by genome-wide association study to control the lesion length of stems (LLS) and the death rate of seedling (DRS), respectively. Four QTLs were detected to underlie LLS, and one QTL controlled DRS after SSR infection. A major locus on chromosome (Chr.) 13 (qDRS13-1), which affected both DRS and LLS, was detected in both the natural population and the MH population. GmGST, encoding a glutathione S-transferase, was cloned as a candidate gene in qDRS13-1. GmGST was upregulated by the induction of the partially resistant cultivar Maple arrow. Transgenic experiments showed that the overexpression of GmGST in soybean increased resistance to S. sclerotiorum and the content of soluble pigment in stems of soybean. The results increase our understanding of the genetic architecture of soybean resistance to SSR and provide a framework for the future marker-assisted breeding of resistant soybean cultivars.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia
15.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(12): e0313220, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811028

RESUMO

Root-associated microbes are key players in plant health, disease resistance, and nitrogen (N) use efficiency. It remains largely unclear how the interplay of biological and environmental factors affects rhizobiome dynamics in agricultural systems. In this study, we quantified the composition of rhizosphere and bulk soil microbial communities associated with maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) in a long-term crop rotation study under conventional fertilization and low-N regimes. Over two growing seasons, we evaluated the effects of environmental conditions and several treatment factors on the abundance of rhizosphere- and soil-colonizing microbial taxa. Time of sampling, host plant species, and N fertilization had major effects on microbiomes, while no effect of crop rotation was observed. Using variance partitioning as well as 16S sequence information, we further defined a set of 82 microbial genera and functional taxonomic groups at the subgenus level that show distinct responses to treatment factors. We identified taxa that are highly specific to either maize or soybean rhizospheres, as well as taxa that are sensitive to N fertilization in plant rhizospheres and bulk soil. This study provides insights to harness the full potential of soil microbes in maize and soybean agricultural systems through plant breeding and field management. IMPORTANCE Plant roots are colonized by large numbers of microbes, some of which may help the plant acquire nutrients and fight diseases. Our study contributes to a better understanding of root-colonizing microbes in the widespread and economically important maize-soybean crop rotation system. The long-term goal of this research is to optimize crop plant varieties and field management to create the best possible conditions for beneficial plant-microbe interactions to occur. These beneficial microbes may be harnessed to sustainably reduce dependency on pesticides and industrial fertilizer. We identify groups of microbes specific to the maize or to the soybean host and microbes that are sensitive to nitrogen fertilization. These microbes represent candidates that may be influenced through plant breeding or field management, and future research will be directed toward elucidating their roles in plant health and nitrogen usage.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Rizosfera , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilizantes , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia do Solo , Soja/microbiologia , Zea mays/microbiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835912

RESUMO

Soybean pods, separated and enclosed from the outside environment, are considered a suitable place to find new microbes. A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterium, bacterial strain (YB22T) was isolated from the pod of Glycine max (soybean) collected from a rural area in Republic of Korea and characterized by using polyphasic taxonomy. Cells of the strain were rod-shaped (approximately 0.4-0.6 µm wide and 4.0-5.0 µm long), non-flagellated and formed silver-yellow colonies. Cells grew at 25-35 °C (optimum, 28-30 °C), at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and with 0-2.0% NaCl (optimum, 0 % NaCl). 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain YB22T was phylogenetically closest to the genus Elizabethkingia, and showed highest similarities to Elizabethkingia occulta G4070T (96.7 %), Elizabethkingia meningoseptica ATCC 13253T (96.7 %), Elizabethkingia miricola DSM 14571T (96.6 %), Elizabethkingia bruuniana G0146T (96.5 %), Elizabethkingia ursingii G4122T (96.4 %) and Elizabethkingia anophelis R26T (96.2 %). Average amino acid identity values between strain YB22T and other taxa in the genus Elizabethkingia were all above the threshold range of genus determination. Average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain YB22T and other phylogenetic relatives were all found to be below the threshold range for species determination. The respiratory quinone of strain YB22T was menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and the predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (47.8 %) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (18.5 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified polar lipids. The phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical data showed that strain YB22T should represent a novel species in the genus Elizabethkingia, for which the name Elizabethkingia argenteiflava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for this novel species is YB22T (=KCCM 43263T=JCM 32097T).


Assuntos
Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Soja/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
17.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103762, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875200

RESUMO

Harmful levels of biogenic amines (BAs) are frequently identified in sufu. The microorganisms and mechanisms responsible for BA production in sufu, however, are not well documented. In this study, sufu samples were randomly obtained from various regions of China. Putrescine, tyramine, and histamine were quantitated as the most abundant BAs. According to the metagenome sequencing, the abundances and diversities of genes encoding the critical enzymes in BA production were acquired. The results showed that genes encoding arginine-, ornithine-, tryptophan-, and histidine decarboxylases were the predominant amino acid decarboxylase genes. Furthermore, 34 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were generated, of which 23 encoded at least one gene involved in BA production. Genetic analysis of MAGs indicated genera affiliated with Enterococcus, Lactobacillus-related, and Lactococcus were the major histamine-synthesizing bacteria, and tyrosine may be utilized by Bacillus, Chryseobacterium, Kurthia, Lysinibacillus, Macrococcus, and Streptococcus to product tyramine. The critical species involved in two putrescine-producing pathways were also explored. In the ornithine decarboxylase pathway, Lactobacillus-related and Veillonella were predicted to be the main performers, whereas Sphingobacterium and unclassified Flavobacteriaceae were the dominant executors in the agmatine deiminase pathway. The present study not only explained the BAs formation mechanism in sufu but also identified specific bacteria used to control BAs in fermented soybean products.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , China , Fermentação , Histamina/análise , Histamina/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Putrescina/análise , Putrescina/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia , Tiramina/análise , Tiramina/metabolismo
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 176, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salinity is a major threat to the agriculture industry due to the negative impact of salinity stress on crop productivity. In the present study, we isolated rhizobacteria and evaluated their capacities to promote crop growth under salt stress conditions. RESULTS: We isolated rhizospheric bacteria from sand dune flora of Pohang beach, Korea, and screened them for plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits. Among 55 bacterial isolates, 14 produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 10 produced siderophores, and 12 produced extracellular polymeric and phosphate solubilization. Based on these PGP traits, we selected 11 isolates to assess for salinity tolerance. Among them, ALT29 and ALT43 showed the highest tolerance to salinity stress. Next, we tested the culture filtrate of isolates ALT29 and ALT43 for IAA and organic acids to confirm the presence of these PGP products. To investigate the effects of ALT29 and ALT43 on salt tolerance in soybean, we grew seedlings in 0 mM, 80 mM, 160 mM, and 240 mM NaCl treatments, inoculating half with the bacterial isolates. Inoculation with ALT29 and ALT43 significantly increased shoot length (13%), root length (21%), shoot fresh and dry weight (44 and 35%), root fresh and dry weight (9%), chlorophyll content (16-24%), Chl a (8-43%), Chl b (13-46%), and carotenoid (14-39%) content of soybean grown under salt stress. Inoculation with ALT29 and ALT43 also significantly decreased endogenous ABA levels (0.77-fold) and increased endogenous SA contents (6-16%), increased total protein (10-20%) and glutathione contents, and reduced lipid peroxidation (0.8-5-fold), superoxide anion (21-68%), peroxidase (12.14-17.97%), and polyphenol oxidase (11.76-27.06%) contents in soybean under salinity stress. In addition, soybean treated with ALT29 and ALT43 exhibited higher K+ uptake (9.34-67.03%) and reduced Na+ content (2-4.5-fold). Genes involved in salt tolerance, GmFLD19 and GmNARK, were upregulated under NaCl stress; however, significant decreases in GmFLD19 (3-12-fold) and GmNARK (1.8-3.7-fold) expression were observed in bacterial inoculated plants. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, bacterial isolates ALT29 and ALT43 can mitigate salinity stress and increase plant growth, providing an eco-friendly approach for addressing saline conditions in agricultural production systems.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Estresse Salino , Tolerância ao Sal , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Sódio/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 195, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to study the effects of biofertilizers potential of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and Bradyrhizobium japonicum (B. japonicum) strains on yield and growth of drought stressed soybean (Giza 111) plants at early pod stage (50 days from sowing, R3) and seed development stage (90 days from sowing, R5). RESULTS: Highest plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, nodulation, and grain yield were observed in the unstressed plants as compared with water stressed-plants at R3 and R5 stages. At soil rhizosphere level, AMF and B. japonicum treatments improved bacterial counts and the activities of the enzymes (dehydrogenase and phosphatase) under well-watered and drought stress conditions. Irrespective of the drought effects, AMF and B. japonicum treatments improved the growth and yield of soybean under both drought (restrained irrigation) and adequately-watered conditions as compared with untreated plants. The current study revealed that AMF and B. japonicum improved catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in the seeds, and a reverse trend was observed in case of malonaldehyde (MDA) and proline under drought stress. The relative expression of the CAT and POD genes was up-regulated by the application of biofertilizers treatments under drought stress condition. Interestingly a reverse trend was observed in the case of the relative expression of the genes involved in the proline metabolism such as P5CS, P5CR, PDH, and P5CDH under the same conditions. The present study suggests that biofertilizers diminished the inhibitory effect of drought stress on cell development and resulted in a shorter time for DNA accumulation and the cycle of cell division. There were notable changes in the activities of enzymes involved in the secondary metabolism and expression levels of GmSPS1, GmSuSy, and GmC-INV in the plants treated with biofertilizers and exposed to the drought stress at both R3 and R5 stages. These changes in the activities of secondary metabolism and their transcriptional levels caused by biofertilizers may contribute to increasing soybean tolerance to drought stress. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that application of biofertilizers to soybean plants is a promising approach to alleviate drought stress effects on growth performance of soybean plants. The integrated application of biofertilizers may help to obtain improved resilience of the agro ecosystems to adverse impacts of climate change and help to improve soil fertility and plant growth under drought stress.


Assuntos
Bradyrhizobium/química , Secas , Fertilizantes/análise , Micorrizas/química , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia , Soja/química , Estresse Fisiológico
20.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(7): 2151-2165, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792774

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A variable genomic region containing two Harosoy-derived loci related to Rps7 and one Nemashirazu-derived locus confers broad-spectrum Phytophthora sojae resistance in Tosan-231 and is useful for developing resistant cultivars. We investigated resistance to pathotypically variable Phytophthora sojae isolates in the soybean variety Tosan-231, which has broad-spectrum resistance. Mapping analysis using descendent lines from a cross between Shuurei and Tosan-231 demonstrated that a genomic region between SSR markers BARCSOYSSR_03_0209 and BARCSOYSSR_03_0385 (termed "Region T"), confers broad-spectrum resistance in Tosan-231 and contains three closely linked resistance loci. Inoculation tests with 20 P. sojae isolates of different pathotypes and simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis of progenitors of Tosan-231 facilitated identification and characterization of Rps genes at the three resistance loci. Two resistance genes, RpsT1 and RpsT2, were found to be derived from Harosoy carrying Rps7. This result suggested two mutually exclusive possibilities: (1) either RpsT1 or RpsT2 is Rps7, and the other is a locally functional novel gene; (2) Rps7 is not a single gene but in fact comprises RpsT1 and RpsT2. The resistance locus containing RpsT3 is derived from Nemashirazu, in which Rps genes have remained poorly defined. Moreover, we identified two genomic regions with relatively high recombination frequencies on the basis of mapping information and proposed a strategy to readily assemble useful resistance genes in or around Region T.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia
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