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1.
Food Chem ; 340: 127926, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919357

RESUMO

This paper provides a method for the quantification of sterols in different types of calf feedstuffs based on soy, sunflower, hay, calf feed and a mixture of all of them. The free fraction and the total sterolic fraction, after saponification and acidic hydrolysis of the samples, are extracted by solvent and the sterols are identified/quantified by reversed phase HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. After the recovery evaluation, the method is validated in terms of linearity (coefficient of determination R2), repeatability (coefficient of variation RSD), limit of detection and quantification. In most of the cases, the most representative phytosterol is ß-sitosterol, followed by campesterol or stigmasterol and by other minor sterols such as fucosterol, and Δ-5-avenasterol. In addition, also cholesterol and ergosterol, if present, are evaluated in all the samples. As far as we know, very little information is available on the investigated feeds, which are commonly used on farms. The results of this survey were compared to other studies, if present in literature, showing good agreement. The proposed method resulted to be simple, fast and suitable for application to other sterols, feedstuffs and derived foods. The knowledge of the sterolic content and composition is getting more and more important, both in terms of comprehension of the vegetal biochemistry and as basis for sterolomic studies.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fitosteróis/análise , Animais , Pressão Atmosférica , Bovinos , Colesterol/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ergosterol/análise , Helianthus , Sitosteroides/análise , Soja/química , Estigmasterol/análogos & derivados , Estigmasterol/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Food Chem ; 336: 127669, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758804

RESUMO

Curcumin was recently attracted great interest owing to its multiple bioactivities; however, the use of curcumin was hindered by its poor solubility and stability. In this study, curcumin-nisin-soy soluble polysaccharide nanoparticles (Cur-Nisin-SSPS-NPs, size = 118.76 nm) have been successfully elaborated to improve the application of curcumin. The formation of Cur-Nisin-SSPS-NPs was mediated by amphiphilic and positively charged nisin: SSPS encapsulated nisin, which was mainly driven by electrostatic attraction. And nisin-SSPS complex encapsulated curcumin mainly through hydrophobic interactions between nisin and curcumin. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin (91.66%) in this novel nanocarriers was significantly higher than that in nanoparticles prepared by a single SSPS (31.82%) or nisin (41.69%), most likely because more hydrophobic regions of nisin were exposed after interacting with SSPS through electrostatic interaction. Consequently, this facile and green nanocarriers improved the solubility/dispersibility and stability of curcumin and nisin, as well as endowed SSPS-based nanoparticles with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.


Assuntos
Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nisina/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Imidazóis , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Morfolinas , Solubilidade , Soja/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
3.
Food Chem ; 338: 128074, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950011

RESUMO

A separation and analysis method of fosthiazate stereoisomers was established utilizing supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-MS/MS) with a CHIRALPAK AD-3 column. The determination of the four fosthiazate stereoisomers could be completed within 6 min. The environmental behaviors of fosthiazate stereoisomers were studied in legume vegetables. After applying fosthiazate granules to soil, the concentrations of fosthiazate stereoisomers in the legume vegetables increased with time, reached maximum values in 7-10 days, and then decreased gradually in all legumes except for in Glycine max. No obvious dissipation behaviors were observed in Glycine max. Interestingly, the stereoselective behaviors were species-specific. A-(-), B-(-) and B-(±)-fosthiazate were preferentially enriched in Phaseolus vulgaris Linn and Vigna unguiculata, while A-(+) and A-(±)-fosthiazate preferentially accumulated in Vicia faba Linn, Pisum sativum Linn and G. max. The opposite stereoselectivity of B-(±)-fosthiazate was observed in different growth stage of G. max. No stereoselective dissipation occurred in soil.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiazolidinas/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Ervilhas/química , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Phaseolus/química , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Vicia faba/química , Vicia faba/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 338: 128020, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932087

RESUMO

Plant-based protein foods are increasingly common, but data on their nutritional protein quality are scarce. This study evaluated it for seitan (wheat-based food), tofu (soya-based food), soya milk, and a pea emulsion. The true ileal digestibility (TID) of their amino acids was determined in minipigs, to calculate the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS). The TID of the proteins was high and not significantly different between the foods tested: 97% for seitan, 95% for tofu, 92% for soya milk and 94% for pea emulsion. There were only minor differences in individual amino acid TIDs. DIAAS ranking was thus essentially driven by the amino acid composition of the food: soya-based food > pea emulsion > seitan. Nevertheless, the lower TID of sulphur-containing amino acids in tofu than in soya milk induced a significant decrease in DIAAS (from 117% to 97%), highlighting the importance of the matrix effect on nutritional protein quality.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacocinética , Íleo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacocinética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Essenciais/análise , Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo , Animais , Digestão , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Valor Nutritivo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja , Leite de Soja , Soja/química , Suínos , Porco Miniatura , Triticum/química
5.
Food Chem ; 338: 128131, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091982

RESUMO

Soybean is one of the greatest crops in the world, with about 348.7 million tons being produced in 2018. Soybean hull is a by-product produced during the processing of soybean to obtain flour and oil. Though not being actually exploited, it is a source of polyphenols with antioxidant activity. Here, the extraction of polyphenols from soybean hull was performed by means of an alkaline hydrolysis treatment, which was optimized by the response surface methodology. At the optimal region, a total phenolic content of 0.72 g gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of soybean hull was obtained with an antioxidant activity of 2.17 mmoles of Trolox equivalents. Polyphenols responsible for the antioxidant activities were identified by LC-MS, including phenolic acids, anthocyanins, stilbenes, and the two main isoflavones of soybean, daidzein and genistein, in their non-glycosylated form. Other alternative extraction methods based on Aspergillus oryzae fermentation and α-amylase hydrolysis are also proposed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Química Verde/métodos , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Soja/química , Antioxidantes/química , Aspergillus oryzae/metabolismo , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Polifenóis/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 338: 128071, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092005

RESUMO

This study was proposed to investigate the possibility of co-delivering essential oils and lipophilic nutrients via lecithin stabilized emulsions. Emulsions with different droplet sizes (62.5-105 nm), zeta potentials (-33.7 to -58.6 mV), and PdI values (0.155-0.275) were successfully prepared. Incorporation of curcumin into emulsions significantly improved its water solubility (1700-fold), thermal and photochemical stability. The droplet size of curcumin-loaded emulsions did not change over 30 days of storage at 4 °C. Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion caused significant changes in the droplet size and interfacial properties of curcumin-loaded emulsions. The bioaccessibility of encapsulated curcumin was 4.79-10.6-fold higher than that of free molecule. This is mainly attributed to the different solubility of curcumin in essential oils, which also showed different bioaccessibility. The findings suggested that emulsions can be novel carriers for co-delivering essential oils and lipophilic nutrients with increased stability and bioaccessibility.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Lecitinas/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/química , Soja/química , Água/química , Temperatura Baixa , Curcumina/química , Nutrientes/análise , Reologia , Solubilidade , Soja/metabolismo
7.
Food Chem ; 340: 127880, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877847

RESUMO

We applied oven-roasting on soybean in order to investigate their physicochemical, sensory, and volatile profiles using electronic nose and HS-SPME-GC-MS. Results revealed a temperature dependent kinetic on the physicochemical index except fat content. Roasting at 200 °C for 20 min decreased the protein dispersibility index about 38%; while, lipoxygenase and peroxidase were entirely inactivated. The primary heat sensitive amino acids were methionine, arginine, and cysteine. Electronic nose showed certain capacity to discriminate varying roasted soybeans. Out of 41 volatile compounds identified in soybean headspace, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine showed the highest abundance of 411.18 µg/Kg. Regression model suggested the association of hexanal and aliphatic alcohols with beany flavor, while pyrazines, heterocycles, and furanoids showed a positive correlation with roasted flavor. The selected flavor markers can be used to predict the development of flavor in roasted soybeans. Our study emphasized the effect of roasting level on nutritive value and flavor profiles of soybeans.


Assuntos
Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Soja/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adulto , Aldeídos/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/química , Cor , Nariz Eletrônico , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Paladar
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113236, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750462

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhynchosia nulubilis (black soybean) has many applications in oriental medicine. It is traditionally used to treat disease related with high blood pressure, diabetes, inflammation, and osteoporosis. Furthermore, fermented soybean foods have traditionally been used for immunity enhancement in East Asia. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of germinated R. nulubilis (GR) against delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) are not fully understood. AIM OF STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of germinated Rhynchosia nulubilis (GR) fermented with the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus pentosus SC65 (GR-SC65) isolated from pickled burdock. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of GR-SC65 (300 mg/kg/day) on ear thickness and immune cell infiltration in DNFB-induced DTH in mice. We used dexamethasone (3 mg/kg) as a reference drug. Changes in infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and NK cells were examined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we investigated cytokine and chemokine production related to DTH using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We also investigated DTH-related cytokine production using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. RESULTS: Two lactic acid bacterial strains (Lactobacillus pentosus SC65 and Pediococcus pentosaceus ON81A) were selected for fermenting GR due to their high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. The total polyphenol contents (TPCs) in GR-SC65 and GR-ON81A were higher than that in unfermented GR (∗∗∗P < 0.001 vs. GR). Content of daidzein, glycitein, and genistein, the deglycosylated form of isoflavonoids, was higher in GR-SC65 than in unfermented GR. The ethanol extracts of GR-SC65 exerted a stronger anti-inflammatory activity than GR by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. GR-SC65 reduced 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced ear swelling and hyperplasia as well as vascular permeability. Fewer infiltrated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were observed in the ear tissue of the GR-SC65-treated mice than those of the unfermented GR-treated mice. Furthermore, fewer infiltrated NK cells were observed in the GR-SC65 treated mice, than in the GR-treated mice. GR-SC65 significantly diminished the levels of CCL5 and COX-2 mRNAs and increased the level of IL-10 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that GR-SC65 can be used as a health supplement or a prophylactic against delayed-type hypersensitive inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillus pentosus , Soja/química , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dinitrofluorbenzeno , Feminino , Fermentação , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células RAW 264.7
9.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658295

RESUMO

Soybean expellers may be produced by dry extrusion and mechanical oil pressing of soybeans, but there is limited information about the nutritional value of expellers produced via this procedure. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and amino acids (AA), apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and total dietary fiber (TDF), and concentrations of DE, ME, and NE are greater in soybean expellers than in soybean meal (SBM) when fed to growing pigs. Pigs were the offspring of Line 359 boars mated to Camborough females (Pig Improvement Company, Hendersonville, TN). In experiment 1, nine growing barrows (initial BW: 55.98 kg ± 13.75 kg) with T-cannulas installed in the distal ileum were allotted to 1 of 3 diets using a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods. Two diets were formulated to contain 35% soybean expellers or 33% SBM as the sole source of AA. A N-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of AA. Ileal digesta were collected on days 6 and 7 of each 7-d period. Results indicated that the SID of most indispensable and dispensable AA were greater (P < 0.05) or tended (P < 0.10) to be greater in soybean expellers than in SBM. In experiment 2, a corn-based diet and 2 diets based on corn and each of the 2 soybean products were formulated. Twenty-four growing barrows (initial BW: 44.88 kg ± 2.17 kg) were allotted to 1 of the 3 diets with 8 pigs per diet. Urine and fecal samples were collected for 4 d after 5 d of adaptation. Results indicated that the ATTD of energy and TDF was not different between soybean expellers and SBM, but the ATTD of TDF in the 2 soybean products was greater (P < 0.05) than in corn. Concentrations of DE and ME in soybean expellers were greater (P < 0.05) compared with corn or SBM. Soybean expellers had greater (P < 0.05) calculated NE compared with SBM, but there was no difference in NE between corn and soybean expellers. In conclusion, values for SID of most AA and DE, ME, and NE in soybean expellers were greater than in SBM.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Digestão , Soja/química , Suínos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético , Fezes , Manipulação de Alimentos , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4021-4047, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606662

RESUMO

Purpose: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with microbial accumulation. The purpose of this study was to reuse the agricultural waste to produce cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and further modification of the CNF with κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides (CO) for drug delivery. In addition, this study is focused on the antimicrobial activity of surfactin-loaded CO-CNF towards periodontal pathogens. Materials and Methods: A chemo-mechanical method was used to extract the CNF and the modification was done by using CO. The studies were further proceeded by adding different quantities of surfactin [50 mg (50 SNPs), 100 mg (100 SNPs), 200 mg (200 SNPs)] into the carrier (CO-CNF). The obtained materials were characterized, and the antimicrobial activity of surfactin-loaded CO-CNF was evaluated. Results: The obtained average size of CNF and CO-CNF after ultrasonication was 263 nm and 330 nm, respectively. Microscopic studies suggested that the CNF has a short diameter with long length and CO became cross-linked to form as beads within the CNF network. The addition of CO improved the degradation temperature, crystallinity, and swelling property of CNF. The material has a controlled drug release, and the entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of the drug were 53.15 ± 2.36% and 36.72 ± 1.24%, respectively. It has antioxidant activity and inhibited the growth of periodontal pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis by preventing the biofilm formation, reducing the metabolic activity, and promoting the oxidative stress. Conclusion: The study showed the successful extraction of CNF and modification with CO improved the physical parameters of the CNF. In addition, surfactin-loaded CO-CNF has potential antimicrobial activity against periodontal pathogens. The obtained biomaterial is economically valuable and has great potential for biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Carragenina/química , Celulose/química , Lipopeptídeos/química , Nanofibras/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Periodonto/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanofibras/ultraestrutura , Oligossacarídeos/química , Picratos/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Soja/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
11.
Food Chem ; 331: 127312, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619907

RESUMO

Growing interest in the health benefits of soy isoflavones has led to research in the isolation of individual isoflavone species for further application. Herein, we develop a new strategy to isolate daidzein, genistein, daidzin and genistin in soybean. We investigated the impact of solvents used and the extraction time on the extracted isoflavone contents from soybean. A 30-min extraction with 65% aqueous methanol gave a total isoflavone yield of 345 mg/100 g soybean, the highest value among tested conditions. Further, we proposed a two-stage adsorption/desorption chromatography comprising macroporous resin and aluminium oxide to isolate isoflavone. First, HP-20 resin was used to separate the glucosidic and aglyconic forms of isoflavone, then individual species of isoflavone could be isolated using aluminium oxide by specific retention of 5-hydroxy isoflavone. This process achieved overall high recovery (82-97%) and purity (92-95%) of the four isoflavones, which confirms a high separating efficiency for isoflavones from soybean.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio/química , Isoflavonas/isolamento & purificação , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Solventes/química , Soja/química , Isoflavonas/análise , Isoflavonas/química , Porosidade , Resinas Vegetais
12.
Food Chem ; 333: 127527, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683263

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a novel fermented soybean food (FSF) using selected Bacillus subtilis GD1, Bacillus subtilis N4, Bacillus velezensis GZ1, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Hansenula anomala, as well as to assess its antioxidant and anti-fatigue activity. These Bacillus strains had excellent enzyme producing and soybean transformation capacity. FSF showed the highest peptide, total phenol, total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and suitable organic acid and biological amine content. In intense exercise mice, FSF treatment markedly increased hepatic glycogen level, decreased metabolite accumulation, improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in serum and liver, respectively. Furthermore, FSF treatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent gene expression. Together, the selection of microbial starter culture and mixed culture fermentation are essential for the effective enrichment of bioactive compounds, and FSF has stronger antioxidant and anti-fatigue activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bacillus/metabolismo , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Fadiga/metabolismo , Fadiga/patologia , Flavonoides/análise , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Pichia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/química
13.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(8): 1382-1388, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lipid abnormalities are common in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and no effective treatment to decrease serum lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] in dialysis patients is known so far. Therefore, this research was designed to investigate the effects of soy isoflavone supplement on serum lipids and Lp(a) in PD patients. METHODS & RESULTS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 40 PD patients were randomly assigned to either the isoflavone or the placebo group. The patients in the isoflavone group received 100 mg soy isoflavone daily for 8 weeks, whereas the placebo group received corresponding placebos. At baseline and the end of the 8th week, 7 mL of blood was obtained from each patient and serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and Lp(a) were measured. Serum Lp(a) reduced significantly up to 10% in the isoflavone group at the end of week 8 compared to baseline (P < 0.05), and the reduction was significant in comparison with the placebo group (P < 0.05). Serum HDL-C increased significantly up to 11.5% in the isoflavone group at the end of week 8 compared to baseline (P = 0.05), and the increment was significant in comparison with the placebo group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in mean changes of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that daily administration of 100 mg soy isoflavones reduces serum Lp(a) and increases HDL-C concentration which are two determinants of cardiovascular disease in PD patients. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT03773029. REGISTRATION NUMBER AND DATE: NCT03773029 - 2018.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Nefropatias/terapia , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Diálise Peritoneal Ambulatorial Contínua , Soja , Biomarcadores/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Isoflavonas/efeitos adversos , Isoflavonas/isolamento & purificação , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Peritoneal Ambulatorial Contínua/efeitos adversos , Soja/química , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Food Chem ; 329: 127148, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485647

RESUMO

The performance of a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) for producing physically and chemically stable omega-3 emulsions was compared to hydrolysates obtained from other sustainable protein sources such as soy (SPH) and blue whiting (BPH). The oxidative stability of hydrolysate-stabilized emulsions was greatly influenced by their physical stability. Emulsion stabilized with BPH suffered a constant increase in droplet size and BPH was not able to prevent omega-3 oxidation, showing high concentration of volatiles. The peroxide value of SPH emulsion increased after the first day of storage, but it had a lower concentration of volatiles. In contrast, WPH-stabilized emulsion, which did not had any change in droplet size during storage, showed the highest oxidative stability. Therefore, our results confirmed that WPH is an interesting option for physical and oxidative stabilization of omega-3 emulsions, while SPH could be used in emulsions with shorter storage time such as pre-emulsions for microencapsulation of omega-3 oils.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Emulsificantes/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Animais , Emulsões , Gadiformes , Oxirredução , Proteínas de Soja/química , Soja/química
15.
Food Chem ; 331: 127349, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593041

RESUMO

Atomic force microscopy was applied to characterize the self-assembling behaviors of α-zein molecules in 70% (v/v) aqueous ethanol solution under different parameters including α-zein concentration (0.001%-0.1%, w/v), pH (2.0-8.0) and the thermal treatment (90 â„ƒ, 2-24 h). α-Zein (0.1% and 0.01%, w/v) at pH 7.0 formed globules while α-zein assemblies (0.001%, w/v) exhibited the co-existence of worm-like strings, bundles of fibers, and rod-like fibers. Heating the aqueous ethanol solutions containing 0.001% (w/v) α-zein at 90 °C and pH 4.0 converted the irregular aggregates into regular spherical particles (100-120 nm), followed by fibrils (15-50 nm) at a prolonged times (8 h). Besides, fibrils were formed after heating aqueous ethanol solutions containing α-zein (0.001%, w/v) at pH 2.0 for 8 h. A two-step mechanism was proposed to explain such findings, which involved the aggregation of α-zein molecules to form aggregates, and followed by the rearrangement of α-zein molecules to form fibrils.


Assuntos
Soja/química , Zeína/química , Etanol/química , Calefação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Água/química
16.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 1971-1982, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529719

RESUMO

Phytosterol glycosides (PGs), comprising both acylated steryl glycosides (ASGs) and steryl glycosides (SGs), are active ingredients with benefits for human use. Here, we aimed to optimize the silica-gel adsorption technique for the extraction of PGs from soybean lecithin powder, which contains 5 to 10% of these glycolipids. Both response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied to optimize the PG extraction parameters (X1 = silica-gel dosage, X2 = adsorption temperature, and X3 = lecithin concentration) for high-purity phospholipid and PG production, and their prediction and optimization accuracies were compared. Although both models fitted well with the experimental data, the ANN model demonstrated better accuracy for predicting and optimizing the conditions using four interrelated dependent variables (Y1 = phospholipid yield, Y2 = ASG recovery, Y3 = SG recovery, and Y4 = PG purity) and had a higher coefficient of determination and lower root mean square error and absolute average deviation. After digitally setting the percentages of the four dependent variables for phospholipid and PG production, the ANN-optimized phospholipid product (Y1 = 88.07%, Y2 = 98.89%, Y3 = 100%, and Y4 = 49.03%) was acquired at X1 = 3.54 g/g, X2 = 26 °C, and X3 = 43 mg/mL, whereas the PG product (Y1 = 83.83%, Y2 = 97.64%, Y3 = 100%, and Y4 = 59.21%) was obtained at X1 = 2.00 g/g, X2 = 28.38 °C, and X3 = 41 mg/mL. In conclusion, the ANN method was better than RSM for the optimization of the silica-gel adsorption technique for PG extraction from soybean lecithin powder. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This paper lays a theoretical foundation for the optimization of the industrial production of phytosterol glycosides and the comprehensive utilization of lecithin resources.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lecitinas/química , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sílica Gel/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Soja/química , Adsorção , Glicosídeos/análise , Redes Neurais de Computação , Fitosteróis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Pós/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação
17.
Food Chem ; 330: 127172, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531634

RESUMO

This study demonstrates the development of biocompatible Ag nanoparticles/Tannic acid/Zein electrospun membranes with synergistic antibacterial, catalytic and antioxidant activity. The optimal spinning concentration of zein was 32 wt%. The prepared zein electrospun membranes were immersed into tannic acid (TA) solution to investigate the effects of TA concentrations, pH, temperature and time on the loading amount of TA. Then, the TA/Zein electrospun membranes were immersed into a silver nitrate solution to reduce the AgNPs in situ. The morphology of the electrospun membranes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-visible spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to carry out the loading amount of TA and Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs). Finally, the antioxidant, antibacterial and catalytic activity of TA/Zein and AgNPs/TA/Zein electrospun membranes were studied. It was found that the AgNPs/TA/Zein electrospun membranes with different TA concentrations have certain antibacterial, antioxidation and catalytic ability, which may be of interest for the development of active packaging that could extend the shelf life of perishable foods.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Soja/química , Taninos/química , Zeína/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Catálise , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Food Chem ; 326: 126973, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413757

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to substitute part of soybean phospholipid (SPC) with hydrogenated soybean phospholipid (HSPC) in curcumin-loaded liposomes (Cur-LP), in order to further enhance stability and release performances of curcumin. When the SPC/HSPC mass ratio changed from 10:0 to 5:5, vesicle size, encapsulation efficiency and alkali resistance of curcumin increased, although a small decrease in centrifugal stability was observed. Salt stability became worse as more HSPC was used (3:7 and 0:10). Owing storage at 4 °C and 25 °C, Cur-LP at a SPC/HSPC mass ratio of 5:5 performed well considering vesicle size, lipid oxidation and curcumin retention. These vesicles displayed also the best sustained-release performance in simulated digestion, attributed to the tighter lipid packing in membranes as indicated by fluorescence probes, DSC and FTIR. This study can guide the development of a Cur-LP product with improved shelf-life stability by using HSPC.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacocinética , Lipossomos/química , Lipossomos/farmacocinética , Fosfolipídeos/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrogenação , Lecitinas , Soja/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6233-6243, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418685

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of a novel and proprietary high-protein corn product [56% crude protein (CP)] relative to other common sources of protein on the lactation performance of dairy cows. Twenty-four Holstein cows (620 ± 47.7 kg of body weight, 111 ± 34 d in milk, 2.28 ± 0.46 lactations; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design balanced for carryover effects. Cows were individually fed 1 of 4 diets with a different protein concentrate source during each 28-d period, including soybean meal (SBM), high-protein corn product (HPCP), soybean meal with rumen-bypass soy protein (SBMBP), and canola meal with rumen-bypass soy protein (CANBP). Diets were formulated for equal concentrations of CP and balanced to meet predicted lysine and methionine requirements. The SBM diet was formulated to provide 5.7% rumen-undegradable protein (RUP), whereas SBMBP and CANBP diets were formulated for 6.8% RUP to match HPCP. Data were analyzed using mixed models with the fixed effects of treatment, period, square, the interactions of treatment and period and of treatment and square, and the random effect of cow. The CANBP diet increased dry matter intake (DMI) compared with SBM and HPCP. Treatment affected milk yield, as SBMBP and CANBP increased yield compared with SBM, but HPCP decreased milk yield compared with all treatments. The HPCP diet reduced CP intake as a percent of total DMI and increased the CP content of orts, indicative of selection against HPCP. The HPCP diet also decreased apparent total-tract and CP digestibility, leading to less urine nitrogen excretion and greater fecal nitrogen output. The SBMBP and CANBP diets performed similarly in nearly every variable measured, except that SBMBP increased milk urea nitrogen. In conclusion, the HPCP diet reduced yield of milk and milk components, likely because of reduced apparent total-tract dry matter and CP digestibility.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/química , Bovinos , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/química , Zea mays/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Lactação/fisiologia , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Leite/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Rúmen/metabolismo
20.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(2): 195-199, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370929

RESUMO

Ectoine production using inexpensive and renewable biomass resources has attracted great interest among the researchers due to the low yields of ectoine in current fermentation approaches that complicate the large-scale production of ectoine. In this study, ectoine was produced from corn steep liquor (CSL) and soybean hydrolysate (SH) in replacement to yeast extract as the nitrogen sources for the fermentation process. To enhance the bacterial growth and ectoine production, biotin was added to the Halomonas salina fermentation media. In addition, the effects addition of surfactants such as Tween 80 and saponin on the ectoine production were also investigated. Results showed that both the CSL and SH can be used as the nitrogen source substitutes in the fermentation media. Higher amount of ectoine (1781.9 mg L-1) was produced in shake flask culture with SH-containing media as compared to CSL-containing media. A total of 2537.0 mg L-1 of ectoine was produced at pH 7 when SH-containing media was applied in the 2 L batch fermentation. Moreover, highest amount of ectoine (1802.0 mg L-1) was recorded in the SH-containing shake flask culture with addition of 0.2 µm mL-1 biotin. This study demonstrated the efficacy of industrial waste as the nutrient supplement for the fermentation of ectoine production.


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Halomonas/metabolismo , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Biomassa , Biotina/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Resíduos Industriais , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Soja/química , Zea mays/química
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