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1.
Toxicon ; 204: 21-30, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715240

RESUMO

Nierembergia rivularis causes enzootic calcinosis (EC) in sheep. In this work, we describe EC caused by N. rivularis in cattle. For 3 years cattle grazing in 7 paddocks were evaluated. Cows with clinical signs compatible with EC were detected in only one paddock with a morbidity of 9.4%, 24.5%, and 34.5% during the summer of 2019, 2020, and 2021, respectively. Affected cows weighed 55 kg less (p < 0.01) than cows without signs of the same paddock, and 19.6% of these cows had hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia. Typical soft tissue calcification was observed in 3 autopsied cows. Additionally to the arterial calcification, 2 cows had multiple mineralized foci in several veins. In the Paddock A where EC occurred, the pasture contained 7-12% N. rivularis. In the other 6 paddocks (Paddocks B-G) where EC had not occurred, the pasture had 0.2-3.5% N. rivularis. Cows grazing in Paddock A had ∼30% lower pregnancy rates than cows from Paddocks B-G. At the slaughterhouse, the carcasses of 45 cows from Paddock A weighed 17.6% (p < 0.01) less than 93 carcasses of cows from Paddocks B-G. Furthermore, the carcasses of cows from Paddock A were classified as low quality. Eight cows with EC signs from Paddock A and 10 cows without EC signs from Paddocks B-G were removed to a Lolium multiflorum pasture. After 120 days of grazing, the cows from Paddock A gained 45.2% less (p < 0.01) live weight than cows from Paddocks B-G. Poisoning with N. rivularis may cause significant economic losses in Uruguay due to low fertility rates and weight gain of affected cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Solanaceae , Ração Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/induzido quimicamente , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Uruguai
2.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641293

RESUMO

A fast method for the determination of tropane alkaloids, using a portable CE instrument with a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (CE-C4D) was developed and validated for determination of atropine and scopolamine in seeds from Solanaceae family plants. Separation was obtained within 5 min, using an optimized background electrolyte consisting of 0.5 M acetic acid with 0.25% (w/v) ß-CD. The limit of detection and quantification was 0.5 µg/mL and 1.5 µg/mL, respectively, for both atropine and scopolamine. The developed method was validated with the following parameters-precision (CV): 1.07-2.08%, accuracy of the assay (recovery, RE): 101.0-102.7% and matrix effect (ME): 92.99-94.23%. Moreover, the optimized CE-C4D method was applied to the analysis of plant extracts and pharmaceuticals, proving its applicability and accuracy.


Assuntos
Atropina/análise , Escopolamina/análise , Solanaceae/química , Eletroforese Capilar , Limite de Detecção , Alcaloides de Solanáceas/análise
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4344-4359, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581037

RESUMO

The Solanaceae plants distributed in China belong to 105 species and 35 varietas of 24 genera. Some medicinal plants of Solanaceae are rich in tropane alkaloids(TAs), which have significant pharmacological activities. In this paper, the geographical distribution, chemical components, traditional therapeutic effect, pharmacological activities, and biosynthetic pathways of TAs in Solanaceous plants were summarized. Besides, the phylogeny of medicinal plants belonging to Solanaceae was visualized by network diagram. Fourteen genera of Solanaceae plants in China contain TAs and have medical records. TAs mainly exist in Datura, Anisodus, Atropa, Physochlaina, and Hyoscyamus. The TAs-containing species were mainly concentrated in Southwest China, and the content of TAs was closely related to plant distribution area and altitude. The Solanaceae plants containing TAs mainly have antispasmodic, analgesic, antiasthmatic, and antitussive effects. Modern pharmacological studies have proved the central sedative, pupil dilating, glandular secretion-inhibiting, and anti-asthma activities of TAs. These pharmacological activities provide a reasonable explanation for the traditional therapeutic efficacy of tropane drugs. In this paper, the geographical distribution, chemical components, traditional therapeutic effect, and modern pharmacological activities of TAs-containing species in Solanaceae were analyzed for the first time. Based on these data, the genetic relationship of TAs-containing Solanaceae species was preliminarily discussed, which provided a scientific basis for the basic research on TAs-containing solanaceous species and was of great significance for the development of natural medicinal plant resources containing TAs.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Solanaceae , Vias Biossintéticas , Filogenia , Solanaceae/genética , Tropanos
4.
Phytochemistry ; 192: 112957, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563977

RESUMO

Chemical investigation of the alkaloid extract of the aerial parts of Schizanthus tricolor led to the targeted isolation of 26 hygroline derivatives of which 20 were fully characterized. They have not yet been described in the literature and their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR, UV and IR spectroscopy, and HRESIMS. The configuration was determined by Gauge-Independent Atomic Orbital NMR chemical shift calculations supported by the advanced statistical method DP4 plus, vibrational circular dichroism, and measurement of optical rotation. Their anti-trypanosomatid, antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities were measured. Several compounds exhibited low micromolar activity against Plasmodium falciparum. None of the identified molecules was cytotoxic.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Antimaláricos , Solanaceae , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Plasmodium falciparum , Pirrolidinas
6.
PLoS Biol ; 19(8): e3001136, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424903

RESUMO

In plants, nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-containing proteins can form receptor networks to confer hypersensitive cell death and innate immunity. One class of NLRs, known as NLR required for cell death (NRCs), are central nodes in a complex network that protects against multiple pathogens and comprises up to half of the NLRome of solanaceous plants. Given the prevalence of this NLR network, we hypothesised that pathogens convergently evolved to secrete effectors that target NRC activities. To test this, we screened a library of 165 bacterial, oomycete, nematode, and aphid effectors for their capacity to suppress the cell death response triggered by the NRC-dependent disease resistance proteins Prf and Rpi-blb2. Among 5 of the identified suppressors, 1 cyst nematode protein and 1 oomycete protein suppress the activity of autoimmune mutants of NRC2 and NRC3, but not NRC4, indicating that they specifically counteract a subset of NRC proteins independently of their sensor NLR partners. Whereas the cyst nematode effector SPRYSEC15 binds the nucleotide-binding domain of NRC2 and NRC3, the oomycete effector AVRcap1b suppresses the response of these NRCs via the membrane trafficking-associated protein NbTOL9a (Target of Myb 1-like protein 9a). We conclude that plant pathogens have evolved to counteract central nodes of the NRC immune receptor network through different mechanisms. Coevolution with pathogen effectors may have driven NRC diversification into functionally redundant nodes in a massively expanded NLR network.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Proteínas de Helminto/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Proteínas NLR/fisiologia , Solanaceae/microbiologia , Morte Celular , Resistência à Doença
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4941, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400639

RESUMO

Plant small RNAs are important regulatory elements that fine-tune gene expression and maintain genome integrity by silencing transposons. Reproductive organs of monocots produce abundant phased, small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs). The 21-nt reproductive phasiRNAs triggered by miR2118 are highly enriched in pre-meiotic anthers, and have been found in multiple eudicot species, in contrast with prior reports of monocot specificity. The 24-nt reproductive phasiRNAs are triggered by miR2275, and are highly enriched during meiosis in many angiosperms. Here, we report the widespread presence of the 21-nt reproductive phasiRNA pathway in eudicots including canonical and non-canonical microRNA (miRNA) triggers of this pathway. In eudicots, these 21-nt phasiRNAs are enriched in pre-meiotic stages, a spatiotemporal distribution consistent with that of monocots and suggesting a role in anther development. Although this pathway is apparently absent in well-studied eudicot families including the Brassicaceae, Solanaceae and Fabaceae, our work in eudicots supports an earlier singular finding in spruce, a gymnosperm, indicating that the pathway of 21-nt reproductive phasiRNAs emerged in seed plants and was lost in some lineages.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Meiose , MicroRNAs/genética , Filogenia , Picea/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
8.
Planta ; 254(3): 55, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415427

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: In a co-evolutionary crosstalk amid plants and their pollinators, nectaries serve as a labile link between the relatively fixed structural domains of divergent flower forms and associated pollination syndromes. Floral nectary plays a crucial role in sexual plant reproduction by enabling interaction between plants and their pollinators. It is known to associate with different floral whorls, and exhibits variations in structure and location in different clades across angiosperms. To infer evolutionary patterns, it is important to map key features associated with the trait at various taxonomic ranks. In the present study, we analysed variability and distribution of floral nectaries in Solanaceae for the first time. Floral nectaries of 23 taxa representing different clades in the family were studied using bright-field and scanning electron microscopy. The study reveals that although floral nectaries share anatomical similarity, they differ in morphology, composition within cells, and locations within a flower across the clades. The analysis suggests that (i) there is a shift from symmetric, lobed type nectary in the early branching sub-families to asymmetric, annular type in the late branching ones, (ii) floral organization has shifted from asymmetry (zygomorphy) to symmetry (actinomorphy) in corolla, and (iii) the lobed nectary correlates with zygomorphic floral forms that are pollinated by birds and long-tongued vectors, while the annular nectary is predominant among species with bee-pollinated actinomorphic flowers.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Solanaceae , Animais , Abelhas , Evolução Biológica , Flores , Polinização
9.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204308

RESUMO

Globally, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative disorders associated with cognitive decline and memory deficits due to beta-amyloid deposition (Aß) and tau protein hyperphosphorylation. To date, approximately 47 million people worldwide have AD. This figure will rise to an estimated 75.6 million by 2030 and 135.5 million by 2050. According to the literature, the efficacy of conventional medications for AD is statistically substantial, but clinical relevance is restricted to disease slowing rather than reversal. Withaferin A (WA) is a steroidal lactone glycowithanolides, a secondary metabolite with comprehensive biological effects. Biosynthetically, it is derived from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Acnistus breviflorus (Gallinero) through the mevalonate and non-mevalonate pathways. Mounting evidence shows that WA possesses inhibitory activities against developing a pathological marker of Alzheimer's diseases. Several cellular and animal models' particulates to AD have been conducted to assess the underlying protective effect of WA. In AD, the neuroprotective potential of WA is mediated by reduction of beta-amyloid plaque aggregation, tau protein accumulation, regulation of heat shock proteins, and inhibition of oxidative and inflammatory constituents. Despite the various preclinical studies on WA's therapeutic potentiality, less is known regarding its definite efficacy in humans for AD. Accordingly, the present study focuses on the biosynthesis of WA, the epidemiology and pathophysiology of AD, and finally the therapeutic potential of WA for the treatment and prevention of AD, highlighting the research and augmentation of new therapeutic approaches. Further clinical trials are necessary for evaluating the safety profile and confirming WA's neuroprotective potency against AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Vitanolídeos/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Placa Amiloide/tratamento farmacológico , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Withania/metabolismo , Vitanolídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13573, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193923

RESUMO

Withania coagulans (W. coagulans) extract and camel chymosin have aspartic protease capable of coagulating milk for cheese production. This study investigated the quality of camel and bovine milk cheeses coagulated using Withania extracts, came chymosin, and their mixture in two experiments. In Experiment (1), a factorial design with four factors (W. coagulans, camel chymosin, incubation time, and incubation temperature) was performed. The effect of these factors on cheese's yield and hardness were assessed. An enzyme concentration corresponding to a 36 µg/L of milk of W. coagulans, 50 IMCU/L of camel chymosin, holding time of 4 h, and incubation temperature of 60 °C provided the optimal textural hardness for both camel and bovine milk cheeses. Seven treatments were analyzed in experiment (2) were analyzed for physicochemical properties, yield, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGEitation). The results showed that pure Withania extract exhibited the lower coagulating effect resulting in cheeses with low yield, hardness, fat, protein, and total solids. The SDS-PAGE electropherograms of camel cheese showed several low molecular weight bands as compared to bovine cheese. This phenomenon is due to excessive proteolysis in camel cheese, which we believed is caused by the presence of endogenous enzymes.


Assuntos
Queijo , Quimosina/química , Leite/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solanaceae/química , Animais , Camelus , Bovinos
11.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 671, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083720

RESUMO

Wolfberry Lycium, an economically important genus of the Solanaceae family, contains approximately 80 species and shows a fragmented distribution pattern among the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Although several herbaceous species of Solanaceae have been subjected to genome sequencing, thus far, no genome sequences of woody representatives have been available. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 13 perennial woody species of Lycium, with a focus on Lycium barbarum. Integration with other genomes provides clear evidence supporting a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event shared by all hitherto sequenced solanaceous plants, which occurred shortly after the divergence of Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae. We identified new gene families and gene family expansions and contractions that first appeared in Solanaceae. Based on the identification of self-incompatibility related-gene families, we inferred that hybridization hotspots are enriched for genes that might be functioning in gametophytic self-incompatibility pathways in wolfberry. Extremely low expression of LOCULE NUBER (LC) and COLORLESS NON-RIPENING (CNR) orthologous genes during Lycium fruit development and ripening processes suggests functional diversification of these two genes between Lycium and tomato. The existence of additional flowering locus C-like MADS-box genes might correlate with the perennial flowering cycle of Lycium. Differential gene expression involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway between Lycium and tomato likely illustrates woody and herbaceous differentiation. We also provide evidence that Lycium migrated from Africa into Asia, and subsequently from Asia into North America. Our results provide functional insights into Solanaceae origins, evolution and diversification.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Lycium/genética , Solanaceae/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , África , Ásia , Evolução Molecular , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Geografia , Lycium/classificação , Lycium/metabolismo , América do Norte , Filogenia , Poliploidia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Solanaceae/classificação , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 264: 118049, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910751

RESUMO

Biopolymers are renowned for their sustainable, biodegradable, biocompatible and most of them have antitoxic characteristics. These versatile naturally derived compounds include proteins, polynucleotides (RNA and DNA) and polysaccharides. Cellulose and chitosan are the most abundant polysaccharides. Proteins and polysaccharides have been applied as emulsifiers. Additional applications of proteins and polysaccharides include cosmetics, food and wastewater treatment for adsorption of dyes and pesticides. However, more interesting applications of biopolymers are emerging, such as use in transport systems for delivery of plant derived nutraceuticals to sites of inflammation, due to its inherent ability to immobilize different biological and chemical systems. This review aims to give a summary on new trends and complement what is already known in the development of polysaccharides and proteins as adsorbents of nutraceutical compounds. The application of polysaccharides/protein containing the adsorbed Solanum derived nutraceutical compounds for drug deliveryis also reviewed.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solanaceae/química , Adsorção , Celulose/química , Quitosana/química , Corantes/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsificantes/química , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Polissacarídeos/química , Proteínas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 163: 166-177, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848929

RESUMO

Knowledge about Solanaceae species naturally adapted to salinity is scarce, despite the fact that a considerable number of Solanaceae has been reported growing in saline environments. Lycium humile Phil. inhabits extreme saline soils in the Altiplano-Puna region (Central Andes, South America) and represents a promising experimental model to study salt tolerance in Solanaceae plants. Seeds, leaves and roots were collected from a saline environment (Salar del Diablo, Argentina). Seeds were scarified and 30 days after germination salt treatments were applied by adding NaCl salt pulses (up to 750 or 1000 mM). Different growth parameters were evaluated, and leaf spectral reflectance, endogenous phytohormone levels, antioxidant capacity, proline and elemental content, and morpho-anatomical characteristics in L. humile under salinity were analyzed both in controlled and natural conditions. The multiple salt tolerance mechanisms found in this species are mainly the accumulation of the phytohormone abscisic acid, the increase of the antioxidant capacity and proline content, together with the development of a large leaf water-storage parenchyma that allows Na+ accumulation and an efficient osmotic adjustment. Lycium humile is probably one of the most salt-tolerant Solanaceae species in the world, and, in controlled conditions, can effectively grow at high NaCl concentrations (at least, up to 750 mM NaCl) but also, in the absence of salts in the medium. Therefore, we propose that natural distribution of L. humile is more related to water availability, as a limiting factor of growth in Altiplano-Puna saline habitats, than to high salt concentrations in the soils.


Assuntos
Lycium , Solanaceae , Argentina , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal
14.
Cell ; 184(7): 1724-1739.e16, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667348

RESUMO

Divergence of gene function is a hallmark of evolution, but assessing functional divergence over deep time is not trivial. The few alleles available for cross-species studies often fail to expose the entire functional spectrum of genes, potentially obscuring deeply conserved pleiotropic roles. Here, we explore the functional divergence of WUSCHEL HOMEOBOX9 (WOX9), suggested to have species-specific roles in embryo and inflorescence development. Using a cis-regulatory editing drive system, we generate a comprehensive allelic series in tomato, which revealed hidden pleiotropic roles for WOX9. Analysis of accessible chromatin and conserved cis-regulatory sequences identifies the regions responsible for this pleiotropic activity, the functions of which are conserved in groundcherry, a tomato relative. Mimicking these alleles in Arabidopsis, distantly related to tomato and groundcherry, reveals new inflorescence phenotypes, exposing a deeply conserved pleiotropy. We suggest that targeted cis-regulatory mutations can uncover conserved gene functions and reduce undesirable effects in crop improvement.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Alelos , Arabidopsis/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inflorescência/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Mutagênese , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Solanaceae/genética , Solanaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Bioorg Chem ; 110: 104809, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752145

RESUMO

Seven undescribed withanolides (1-7) and six artificial withanolides (8-13), along with 20 known compounds (14-33) were isolated from the aerial parts of Tubocapsicum anomalum. Their structures were confirmed by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was defined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. All isolates were evaluated for their antiproliferative effects against five human tumor cell lines (Hep3B, MDA-MB-231, SW480, HCT116 and A549), among which compound 24 (tubocapsanolide A) exhibited the highest activities against the MDA-MB-231 cells with an IC50 value of 1.89 ± 1.03 µM. Further studies showed that 24 exhibited significant damage to mitochondria in MDA-MB-231 cells, including excess reactive oxygen species, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis initiation. In addition, compound 24 also inhibited cell migration. These findings show that tubocapsanolide A may be a promising molecule for triple-negative breast cancer treatment and merit further evaluation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solanaceae/química , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Vitanolídeos/química , Vitanolídeos/isolamento & purificação
16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247688, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617573

RESUMO

Anticholinergic plants of the family Solanaceae have a long history of use as medicines, poisons, and recreational drugs. Though they were the intoxicating substances of choice throughout Europe for centuries, their use for these purposes has declined with the globalisation of other recreational drugs. The present study sought to examine the level of knowledge surrounding these plants among individuals who had used other hallucinogenic plants or mushrooms in Slovenia. Participants were questioned in regards to the anticholinergic Solanaceae that are known to grow wild in Slovenia: Atropa belladonna L., Datura stramonium L., Hyoscyamus niger L., and Scopolia carniolica L. As expected, only a small number of individuals had any substantial knowledge of these plants, and fewer still had used them; some were even unfamiliar with any of these plants. Knowledge of toxicity generally arose from family members, while books and the internet played prominent roles in regards to use knowledge. Knowledge of the plants was vastly varied, with many individuals confusing the plants for others, especially other members of the Solanaceae. Ultimately, a small group of individuals had the largest body of knowledge of these plants, though this was linked with university studies rather than traditional uses. Knowledge of the intoxicating Solanaceae has been largely lost in Slovenia among users of other botanical hallucinogens, likely due to the various dangers their use poses and the undesirable effects they often cause.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Alucinógenos , Conhecimento , Extratos Vegetais , Solanaceae , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Eslovênia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun ; 77(Pt 1): 8-12, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439150

RESUMO

Plant nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) play crucial roles in recognizing pathogen effectors and activating plant immunity. The tomato NLR Sw-5b is a coiled-coil NLR (CC-NLR) immune receptor that confers resistance against tospoviruses, which cause serious economic losses in agronomic crops worldwide. Compared with other CC-NLRs, Sw-5b possesses an extended N-terminal Solanaceae domain (SD). The SD of Sw-5b is critical for recognition of the tospovirus viral movement protein NSm. An SD is also frequently detected in many NLRs from Solanaceae plants. However, no sequences homologous to the SD have been detected in animals or in plants other than Solanaceae. The properties of the SD protein are largely unknown, and thus 3D structural information is vital in order to better understand its role in pathogen perception and the activation of immune receptors. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of Sw-5b SD (amino acids 1-245) are reported. Native and selenomethionine-substituted crystals of the SD protein belonged to space group P3112, with unit-cell parameters a = 81.53, b = 81.53, c = 98.44 Šand a = 81.63, b = 81.63, c = 98.80 Å, respectively. This is the first report of a structural study of the noncanonical SD domain of the NLR proteins from Solanaceae plants.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Cristalização , Cristalografia por Raios X , Lycopersicon esculentum/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Selenometionina/química , Solanaceae/química
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1153, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441896

RESUMO

The tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechuidae) is native to South America and has now become the main tomato pest in Europe, Africa and Asia. The wide range of host plants attacked by this pest has been reported as one of the main reasons for the success of this important insect species. However, the information currently available on the biological performance of T. absoluta on Solanaceae has been obtained from a limited number of host species. The Solanaceae family is composed of thousands of species, many of which are potential hosts for T. absoluta. Our results showed that the highest oviposition rates occurred on cultivated tomato plants, potato and wild tomato. The lowest rates occurred on "gilo", "jurubeba", green pepper and pepper. The highest survival rates of the immature stages occurred on potato and the lowest on pepper, green pepper and "jurubeba". Female fertility, following infestation of the different plant species, was highest for insects that developed on tomato or potato and the lowest rates were seen on American black nightshade. The net reproductive rate and the intrinsic growth rate were highest on potato and tomato. Cluster analysis grouped tomato and potato as highly susceptible to attack, American black nightshade, juá, eggplant, gilo and wild tomato as moderately susceptible, whilst pepper, green pepper and jurubeba were categorized as resistant to T. absoluta. These results clearly demonstrate that the choice of solanaceous host plant species has a direct impact on the fitness parameters of the tomato pinworm as well as survival potential, dispersion and establishment at new sites. These results are important for the planning of integrated pest management strategies.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros/anatomia & histologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Oviposição , Solanaceae/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Lepidópteros/fisiologia , Masculino , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 882, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441607

RESUMO

Tropane alkaloids and terpenoids are widely used in the medicine and pharmaceutic industry and evolved as chemical defenses against herbivores and pathogens in the annual herb Datura stramonium (Solanaceae). Here, we present the first draft genomes of two plants from contrasting environments of D. stramonium. Using these de novo assemblies, along with other previously published genomes from 11 Solanaceae species, we carried out comparative genomic analyses to provide insights on the genome evolution of D. stramonium within the Solanaceae family, and to elucidate adaptive genomic signatures to biotic and abiotic stresses in this plant. We also studied, in detail, the evolution of four genes of D. stramonium-Putrescine N-methyltransferase, Tropinone reductase I, Tropinone reductase II and Hyoscyamine-6S-dioxygenase-involved in the tropane alkaloid biosynthesis. Our analyses revealed that the genomes of D. stramonium show signatures of expansion, physicochemical divergence and/or positive selection on proteins related to the production of tropane alkaloids, terpenoids, and glycoalkaloids as well as on R defensive genes and other important proteins related with biotic and abiotic pressures such as defense against natural enemies and drought.


Assuntos
Datura stramonium/genética , Datura stramonium/metabolismo , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Meio Ambiente , Evolução Molecular , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genômica/métodos , Solanaceae/genética , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Tropanos/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
J Nat Prod ; 84(1): 81-90, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397096

RESUMO

Cyclotides are plant-derived peptides found within five families of flowering plants (Violaceae, Rubiaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, and Poaceae) that have a cyclic backbone and six conserved cysteine residues linked by disulfide bonds. Their presence within the Violaceae species seems ubiquitous, yet not all members of other families produce these macrocyclic peptides. The genus Palicourea Aubl. (Rubiaceae) contains hundreds of neotropical species of shrubs and small trees; however, only a few cyclotides have been discovered hitherto. Herein, five previously uncharacterized Möbius cyclotides within Palicourea sessilis and their pharmacological activities are described. Cyclotides were isolated from leaves and stems of this plant and identified as pase A-E, as well as the known peptide kalata S. Cyclotides were de novo sequenced by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, and their structures were solved by NMR spectroscopy. Because some cyclotides have been reported to modulate immune cells, pase A-D were assayed for cell proliferation of human primary activated T lymphocytes, and the results showed a dose-dependent antiproliferative function. The toxicity on other nonimmune cells was also assessed. This study reveals that pase cyclotides have potential for applications as immunosuppressants and in immune-related disorders.


Assuntos
Ciclotídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclotídeos/metabolismo , Fabaceae/química , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Solanaceae/química , Violaceae/química , Brasil , Ciclotídeos/química , Humanos , Linfócitos/química , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnoliopsida , Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
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