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1.
Environ Entomol ; 51(1): 94-107, 2022 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864906

RESUMO

Insects harbor bacterial endosymbionts that provide their hosts with nutritional benefit or with protection against natural enemies, plant defenses, insecticides, or abiotic stresses. We used directed sequencing of 16S rDNA to identify and compare endosymbionts of Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford) and the western, central, and northwestern haplotypes of B. cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae). Both species are native to North America, are known to harbor the plant pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' and develop on shared host plants within the Convolvulaceae. The Old-World species Heterotrioza chenopodii (Reuter) (Psylloidea: Triozidae), now found in North America, was included as an outgroup. 16S sequencing confirmed that both Bactericera species harbor 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' and revealed that both species harbor unique strains of Wolbachia and Sodalis. However, the presence of Wolbachia and Sodalis varied among haplotypes of B. cockerelli. The central and western haplotypes harbored the same strains of Wolbachia, which was confirmed by Sanger sequencing of the wsp and ftsZ genes. Wolbachia was also detected in very low abundance from the northwestern haplotype by high-throughput sequencing of 16S but was not detected from this haplotype by PCR screening. The northwestern and central haplotypes also harbored Sodalis, which was not detected in the western haplotype. Heterotrioza chenopodii harbored an entirely different community of potential endosymbionts compared with the Bactericera spp. that included Rickettsia and an unidentified bacterium in the Enterobacteriaceae. Results of this study provide a foundation for further research on the interactions between psyllids and their bacterial endosymbionts.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Rhizobiaceae , Solanum tuberosum , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Haplótipos , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 228, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins, which account for color variation and remove reactive oxygen species, are widely synthesized in plant tissues and organs. Using targeted metabolomics and nanopore full-length transcriptomics, including differential gene expression analysis, we aimed to reveal potato leaf anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways in different colored potato varieties. RESULTS: Metabolomics analysis revealed 17 anthocyanins. Their levels varied significantly between the different colored varieties, explaining the leaf color differences. The leaves of the Purple Rose2 (PurpleR2) variety contained more petunidin 3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-glucoside than the leaves of other varieties, whereas leaves of Red Rose3 (RedR3) contained more pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside than the leaves of other varieties. In total, 114 genes with significantly different expression were identified in the leaves of the three potato varieties. These included structural anthocyanin synthesis-regulating genes such as F3H, CHS, CHI, DFR, and anthocyanidin synthase and transcription factors belonging to multiple families such as C3H, MYB, ERF, NAC, bHLH, and WRKY. We selected an MYB family transcription factor to construct overexpression tobacco plants; overexpression of this factor promoted anthocyanin accumulation, turning the leaves purple and increasing their malvidin 3-o-glucoside and petunidin 3-o-glucoside content. CONCLUSIONS: This study elucidates the effects of anthocyanin-related metabolites on potato leaves and identifies anthocyanin metabolic network candidate genes.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Solanum tuberosum , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 226, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kelch repeat F-box (KFB) proteins play vital roles in the regulation of multitudinous biochemical and physiological processes in plants, including growth and development, stress response and secondary metabolism. Multiple KFBs have been characterized in various plant species, but the family members and functions have not been systematically identified and analyzed in potato. RESULTS: Genome and transcriptome analyses of StKFB gene family were conducted to dissect the structure, evolution and function of the StKFBs in Solanum tuberosum L. Totally, 44 StKFB members were identified and were classified into 5 groups. The chromosomal localization analysis showed that the 44 StKFB genes were located on 12 chromosomes of potato. Among these genes, two pairs of genes (StKFB15/16 and StKFB40/41) were predicted to be tandemly duplicated genes, and one pair of genes (StKFB15/29) was segmentally duplicated genes. The syntenic analysis showed that the KFBs in potato were closely related to the KFBs in tomato and pepper. Expression profiles of the StKFBs in 13 different tissues and in potato plants with different treatments uncovered distinct spatial expression patterns of these genes and their potential roles in response to various stresses, respectively. Multiple StKFB genes were differentially expressed in yellow- (cultivar 'Jin-16'), red- (cultivar 'Red rose-2') and purple-fleshed (cultivar 'Xisen-8') potato tubers, suggesting that they may play important roles in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports the structure, evolution and expression characteristics of the KFB family in potato. These findings pave the way for further investigation of functional mechanisms of StKFBs, and also provide candidate genes for potato genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 183: 105056, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430060

RESUMO

Pesticides can seriously affect the respiratory chain of the mitochondria of many crops, reducing the intensity of plant growth and its yield. Studying the effect of pesticides on the bioenergetic parameters of intact plant mitochondria is a promising approach for assessing their toxicity. In this study, we investigated the effect of some pesticides on isolated potato mitochondria, which used exogenous NADH as a substrate for respiration. We showed that succinate is the most preferred substrate for phosphorylating respiration of intact potato tubers mitochondria. Potato mitochondria poorly oxidize exogenous NADH, despite of the presence of external NADH dehydrogenases. Permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane with alamethicin increased the availability of exogenous NADH to complex I. However, the pathway of electrons through complex I to complex IV makes intact potato mitochondria susceptible to a number of pesticides such as difenoconazole, fenazaquin, pyridaben and tolfenpyrad, which strongly inhibit the rate of mitochondrial respiration. However, these pesticides only slightly inhibited the rate of oxygen consumption during succinate-supported respiration. Dithianon, the inhibitor of Complex II, is the only pesticide which significantly increased the respiratory rate of NADH-supported respiration of permeabilized mitochondria of potato. Thus, it can be assumed that the alternative NADH dehydrogenases for electron flow represent a factor responsible for plant resistance to xenobiotics, such as mitochondria-targeted pesticides.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Solanum tuberosum , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias , NAD/metabolismo , NAD/farmacologia , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Respiração , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Ácido Succínico/farmacologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409411

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential redox-signaling molecule operating in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, evidence on putative NO engagement in plant immunity by affecting defense gene expressions, including histone modifications, is poorly recognized. Exploring the effect of biphasic NO generation regulated by S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GNSOR) activity after avr Phytophthora infestans inoculation, we showed that the phase of NO decline at 6 h post-inoculation (hpi) was correlated with the rise of defense gene expressions enriched in the TrxG-mediated H3K4me3 active mark in their promoter regions. Here, we report that arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 catalyzing histone H4R3 symmetric dimethylation (H4R3sme2) is necessary to ensure potato resistance to avr P. infestans. Both the pathogen and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) altered the methylation status of H4R3sme2 by transient reduction in the repressive mark in the promoter of defense genes, R3a and HSR203J (a resistance marker), thereby elevating their transcription. In turn, the PRMT5-selective inhibitor repressed R3a expression and attenuated the hypersensitive response to the pathogen. In conclusion, we postulate that lowering the NO level (at 6 hpi) might be decisive for facilitating the pathogen-induced upregulation of stress genes via histone lysine methylation and PRMT5 controlling potato immunity to late blight.


Assuntos
Phytophthora infestans , Solanum tuberosum , Histonas/metabolismo , Metilação , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Phytophthora infestans/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
6.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(4)2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448299

RESUMO

Each year, unwanted plant pests and diseases, such as Hendel or potato soft rot, cause damage to crops and ecosystems all over the world. To continue to feed the growing population and protect the global ecosystems, the surveillance and management of the spread of these pests and diseases are crucial. Traditional methods of detection are often expensive, bulky and require expertise and training. Therefore, inexpensive, portable, and user-friendly methods are required. These include the use of different gas-sensing technologies to exploit volatile organic compounds released by plants under stress. These methods often meet these requirements, although they come with their own set of advantages and disadvantages, including the sheer number of variables that affect the profile of volatile organic compounds released, such as sensitivity to environmental factors and availability of soil nutrients or water, and sensor drift. Furthermore, most of these methods lack research on their use under field conditions. More research is needed to overcome these disadvantages and further understand the feasibility of the use of these methods under field conditions. This paper focuses on applications of different gas-sensing technologies from over the past decade to detect plant pests and diseases more efficiently.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema
7.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 275: 121117, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364411

RESUMO

Potato is one of the most important food crops worldwide in terms of human consumption. However, potato farmers employ a variety of pesticides to protect crops from harmful insects and illnesses, and difenoconazole is a commonly used one that has severe effects on human health and the environment. Therefore, detecting difenoconazole quickly and correctly is critical. In this work, we fabricated AgNPs/cicada wing substrates using natural cicada segments, decorated with silver nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements to detect trace amounts of difenoconazole in potatoes. Results indicated that a linear relationship with the coefficient of detection (R2) of 0.987 and the detection limit (LOD) of 0.016 ppm was observed by targeting a distinctive peak at 808 cm-1 and logarithmic difenoconazole concentrations of 0.1 to 100 ppm. In addition, difenoconazole LODs in potatoes were 63 µg/kg, lower than those specified by the EU (0.1 mg/kg) and Vietnam (4 mg/kg) utilizing this new technique. Therefore, this proposed SERS method could be used to detect difenoconazole in potatoes at trace levels.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Solanum tuberosum , Animais , Dioxolanos , Humanos , Prata , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Triazóis
8.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458108

RESUMO

Poor diet quality influences cardiometabolic risk. Although potatoes are suggested to adversely affect cardiometabolic health, controlled trials that can establish causality are limited. Consistent with potatoes being rich in micronutrients and resistant starch, we hypothesized that their inclusion in a Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA)-based dietary pattern would improve cardiometabolic and gut health in metabolic syndrome (MetS) persons. In a randomized cross-over trial, MetS persons (n = 27; 32.5 ± 1.3 year) consumed a DGA-based diet for 2 weeks containing potatoes (DGA + POTATO; 17.5 g/day resistant starch) or bagels (DGA + BAGEL; 0 g/day resistant starch) prior to completing oral glucose and gut permeability tests. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, and insulin resistance decreased (p < 0.05) from baseline regardless of treatment without any change in body mass. Oral glucose-induced changes in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, nitric oxide homeostasis, and lipid peroxidation did not differ between treatment arms. Serum endotoxin AUC0-120 min and urinary lactulose/mannitol, but not urinary sucralose/erythritol, were lower in DGA + POTATO. Fecal microbiome showed limited between-treatment differences, but the proportion of acetate was higher in DGA + POTATO. Thus, short-term consumption of a DGA-based diet decreases cardiometabolic risk, and the incorporation of resistant starch-containing potatoes into a healthy diet reduces small intestinal permeability and postprandial endotoxemia.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Síndrome Metabólica , Solanum tuberosum , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Glucose , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Sobrepeso , Permeabilidade , Amido Resistente , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458652

RESUMO

The present study aimed to determine changes in the properties of starch triggered by its long-lasting (1, 2, 4, 7, 10, or 14 days) retention with citric acid (5 g/100 g) at a temperature of 40 °C. The starch citrates obtained under laboratory conditions had a low degree of substitution, as confirmed via NMR and HPSEC analyses. The prolonging time of starch retention with citric acid at 40 °C contributed to its increased esterification degree (0.05-0.11 g/100 g), swelling power (30-38 g/g), and solubility in water (19-35%) as well as to decreased viscosity of the starch pastes. Starch heating with citric acid under the applied laboratory conditions did not affect the course of DSC thermal characteristics of starch pasting. The low-substituted starch citrates exhibited approximately 15% resistance to amylolysis.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Ácido Cítrico/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solubilidade , Amido/química , Viscosidade
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(17): 5339-5348, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467346

RESUMO

Potato common scab is caused by Streptomyces, which resides in soil and has become a serious disease in potato planting areas worldwide. In this study, we obtained a Bacillus subtilis YPS-32 strain by natural screening, and atmospheric and room-temperature plasma (ARTP) mutagenesis and field trial results showed that B. subtilis YPS-32 has a control efficacy of 83.70% against potato common scab. The complete genome of B. subtilis YPS-32 was sequenced, and multiple genes related to the synthesis of antibiotics and plant growth promoters were detected. Based on the genomic information for B. subtilis YPS-32, the sfp gene-inactivated (related to the synthesis of secondary metabolites) mutant strain B. subtilis YPS-32Δsfp was constructed. Analysis of crude extract metabolites using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) techniques revealed that strain YPS-32 encodes antagonists, such as surfactin and fengycin, which have antimicrobial effects. This study clarifies the mode of action by which B. subtilis YPS-32 antagonizes Streptomyces scabies and provides a reference for further research on antibacterial genes in the future.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis , Solanum tuberosum , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Análise de Sequência , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Euro Surveill ; 27(15)2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426363

RESUMO

BackgroundWhile human-to-human transmission of Clostridioides difficile occurs often, other infection sources, including food, animals and environment, are under investigation.AimWe present a large study on C. difficile in a food item in Europe, encompassing 12 European countries (Austria, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Romania and the United Kingdom).MethodsPotato was selected because of availability, ease of sampling and high C. difficile positivity rates. Identical protocols for sampling and isolation were used, enabling a direct comparison of the C. difficile positivity rate.ResultsFrom C. difficile-positive potato samples (33/147; 22.4%), we obtained 504 isolates, grouped into 38 PCR ribotypes. Positivity rates per country varied (0-100%) and were at least 10% in 9/12 countries. No geographical clustering of samples with high positivity rates or in PCR ribotype distribution was observed. The most frequently detected PCR ribotypes (014/020, 078/126, 010 and 023) are also commonly reported in Europe among human clinically relevant isolates, in animal isolates and in the environment. Whole genome sequencing revealed several genetically related strain pairs (Spain/RT126, France/RT010, Austria and Sweden/RT276) and a cluster of very similar strains in RT078/126.ConclusionOur results suggest, the high potato contamination rates could have public health relevance. They indicate potatoes can serve as a vector for introducing C. difficile spores in the household environment, where the bacterium can then multiply in sensitive hosts with disrupted or unmature microbiota. Potato contamination with PCR ribotypes shared between humans, animals and soil is supportive of this view.


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile , Infecções por Clostridium , Solanum tuberosum , Animais , Clostridioides , Clostridioides difficile/genética , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ribotipagem , Solanum tuberosum/genética
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 289: 119439, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483852

RESUMO

In this work, UV-B irradiation, an environmentally friendly modification method, was applied to corn and potato carbohydrates. The influence of irradiation on starch properties was compared with that observed for starch oxidation with NaClO. The changes in the structures of starch carbohydrates were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and chromatographic methods. Functional properties such as viscosity, water binding capacity and solubility as well as pasting characteristics and thermodynamic parameters of gelatinization, resulting from structural changes were determined. UV-B irradiation was found to be a milder modification method than chemical oxidation. The potato carbohydrates, especially amylose, appeared to be more susceptible to changes upon irradiation, whereas corn ones, particularly amylopectin, were more stable and their properties changed to a smaller extent. Similarly, functional properties were not significantly influenced by UV-B treatment. EPR studies revealed the mechanism of depolymerization of starch carbohydrates via formation of stable carbon-centered radicals.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Zea mays , Amilose/química , Carboidratos , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
13.
Plant Mol Biol ; 109(1-2): 13-28, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380408

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We demonstrate a new regulatory mechanism in the jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) mediated crosstalk in potato defense response, wherein, miR160 target StARF16 (a gene involved in growth and development) binds to the promoter of StNPR1 (a defense gene) and negatively regulates its expression to suppress the SA pathway. Overall, our study establishes the importance of StARF16 in regulation of StNPR1 during JA mediated defense response upon necrotrophic pathogen interaction. Plants employ antagonistic crosstalk between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) to effectively defend them from pathogens. During biotrophic pathogen attack, SA pathway activates and suppresses the JA pathway via NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1). However, upon necrotrophic pathogen attack, how JA-mediated defense response suppresses the SA pathway, is still not well-understood. Recently StARF10 (AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR), a miR160 target, has been shown to regulate SA and binds to the promoter of StGH3.6 (GRETCHEN HAGEN3), a gene proposed to maintain the balance between the free SA and auxin in plants. In the current study, we investigated the role of StARF16 (a miR160 target) in the regulation of the defense gene StNPR1 in potato upon activation of the JA pathway. We observed that a negative correlation exists between StNPR1 and StARF16 upon infection with the pathogen. The results were further confirmed through the exogenous application of SA and JA. Using yeast one-hybrid assay, we demonstrated that StARF16 binds to the StNPR1 promoter through putative ARF binding sites. Additionally, through protoplast transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, we showed that StARF16 could bind to the StNPR1 promoter and regulate its expression. Co-transfection assays using promoter deletion constructs established that ARF binding sites are present in the 2.6 kb sequence upstream to the StNPR1 gene and play a key role in its regulation during infection. In summary, we demonstrate the importance of StARF16 in the regulation of StNPR1, and thus SA pathway, during JA-mediated defense response upon necrotrophic pathogen interaction.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos , Solanum tuberosum , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(4)2022 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456372

RESUMO

HSP40 (also known as DnaJ), HSP70, and HSP90 are major heat shock protein (HSP) families that play critical roles in plant growth and development and stress adaption. Recently, several members of the three HSP families were reported to be widely involved in the plant host-virus interactions. However, their global expression profiles and core members recruited by viruses are largely unknown. In this study, a total of 89 StDnaJs were identified from a genome-wide survey, and their classification, phylogenetic relationships, chromosomal locations, and gene duplication events were further analyzed. Together with 20 StHSP70s and 7 StHSP90s previously identified in the potato genome, the global expression patterns of the members in 3 HSP families were investigated in 2 potato cultivars during Potato virus Y (PVY) infection using RNA-seq data. Of them, 16 genes (including 8 StDnaJs, 6 StHSP70s, and 2 StHSP90s) were significantly up- or downregulated. Further analysis using qRT-PCR demonstrated that 7 of the 16 genes (StDnaJ06, StDnaJ17, StDnaJ21, StDnaJ63, StHSP70-6, StHSP70-19, and StHSP90.5) were remarkably upregulated in the potato cultivar 'Eshu 3' after PVY infection, implying their potential roles in the potato-PVY compatible interaction. Subsequent virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assays showed that silencing of the homologous genes of StDnaJ17, StDnaJ21, StHSP70-6, and StHSP90.5 in Nicotiana. benthamiana plants dramatically reduced the accumulation of PVY, which indicated the four genes may function as susceptibility factors in PVY infection. This study provides candidate genes for exploring the mechanism of potato-PVY compatible interaction and benefits breeding work aiming to produce new cultivars with the ability to grow healthily under PVY infection.


Assuntos
Potyvirus , Solanum tuberosum , Humanos , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Potyvirus/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Tabaco/genética
15.
Food Chem ; 386: 132764, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366634

RESUMO

Investigation into oven baked sweet potato and carrot fries at various temperatures and times demonstrated the in situ formation of acrylamide in an exponential manner. High levels of acrylamide were found in these food items: up to 327 µg/kg for sweet potato baked at 190 °C for 14 min, and 99 µg/kg for carrot baked at 190 °C for 13 min. Risk assessment via Margin of Exposures estimation showed that consumption of these fries might pose adverse health effects to consumers from toddlers to adults, especially when the fries were prepared at high temperatures above 175 °C and for a long time. Raw ingredient blanching and immersion in acetic acid prior to preparation have been proven to greatly reduce acrylamide formation, up to 99%. It is recommendable to apply these techniques either at industrial or domestic cooking scales to ensure minimal health risk from dietary exposure to acrylamide.


Assuntos
Daucus carota , Ipomoea batatas , Solanum tuberosum , Acrilamida/análise , Culinária/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Verduras
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409157

RESUMO

Glutathione is a metabolite that plays an important role in plant response to biotic stress through its ability to remove reactive oxygen species, thereby limiting the degree of potential oxidative damage. It can couple changes in the intracellular redox state to the development, especially the defense responses, of plants. Several studies have focused on measuring glutathione levels in virus infected plants, but have not provided complete information. Therefore, we analyzed, for the first time, the content of glutathione as well as its ultrastructural distribution related to susceptible and hypersensitive potato-Potato virus Y NTN (PVYNTN) interaction, with an aim of providing new insight into interactive responses to PVYNTN stress. Our findings reported that the inoculation of PVYNTN caused a dynamic increase in the content of glutathione, not only in resistance but also in susceptible reaction, especially at the first steps of plant-virus interaction. Moreover, the increase in hypersensitive response was much more dynamic, and accompanied by a significant reduction in the content of PVYNTN. By contrast, in susceptible potato Irys, the content of glutathione decreased between 7 and 21 days after virus inoculation, which led to a significant increase in PVYNTN concentration. Additionally, our findings clearly indicated the steady induction of two selected potato glutathione S-transferase StGSTF1 and StGSTF2 genes after PVYNTN inoculation, regardless of the interaction type. However, the relative expression level of StGSTF1 did not significantly differ between resistant and susceptible plants, whereas the relative expression levels of StGSTF2 differed between susceptible and resistant reactions. Therefore, we proposed that StGSTF2 can act as a marker of the type of response to PVYNTN. Our observations indicated that glutathione is an important component of signaling as well as the regulatory network in the PVYNTN-potato pathosystem. In resistance responses to PVYNTN, this metabolite activates plant defenses by reducing potential damage to the host plant cell, causing a reduction in virus concentration, while it can also be involved in the development of PVYNTN elicited symptoms, as well as limiting oxidative stress, leading to systemic infection in susceptible potato plants.


Assuntos
Vírus de Plantas , Potyvirus , Solanum tuberosum , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Glutationa/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Potyvirus/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética
17.
Planta ; 255(5): 97, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380306

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Tuber-omics in potato with the T- and D-types of cytoplasm showed different sets of differentially expressed genes and proteins in response to cold storage. For the first time, we report differences in gene and protein expression in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers possessing the T- or D-type cytoplasm. Two F1 diploid reciprocal populations, referred to as T and D, were used. The pooling strategy was applied for detection of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in tubers consisting of extreme chip colour after cold storage. RNA and protein bulks were constructed from contrasting phenotypes. We recognized 48 and 15 DEGs for the T and D progenies, respectively. DEPs were identified in the amyloplast and mitochondrial fractions. In the T-type cytoplasm, only 2 amyloplast-associated and 5 mitochondria-associated DEPs were detected. Of 37 mitochondria-associated DEPs in the D-type cytoplasm, there were 36 downregulated DEPs in the dark chip colour bulks. These findings suggest that T- and D-type of cytoplasm might influence sugar accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers in different ways. We showed that the mt/nucDNA ratio was higher in D-possessing tubers after cold storage than in T progeny. For the D-type cytoplasm, the pt/nucDNA ratio was higher for tubers characterized by dark chip colour than for those with light chip colour. Our findings suggest that T- and D-type cytoplasm might influence sugar accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers in different ways.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Temperatura Baixa , Citoplasma/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Proteômica , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
18.
Biomolecules ; 12(4)2022 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454154

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is characterized as an age-related loss of muscle mass that results in negative health consequences such as decreased strength, insulin resistance, slowed metabolism, increased body fat mass, and a substantially diminished quality of life. Additionally, conditions such as high blood sugar are known to further exacerbate muscle degeneration. Skeletal muscle development and regeneration following injury or disease are based on myoblast differentiation. Bioactive peptides are biologically active peptides found in foods that could have pharmacological functions. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of decapeptide DI-10 from the potato alcalase hydrolysate on myoblast differentiation, muscle protein synthesis, and mitochondrial biogenesis in vitro. The treatment of C2C12 myoblasts with DI-10 (10 µg/mL) did not induce cell death. DI-10 treatment in C2C12 myoblast cells accelerates the phosphorylation of promyogenic kinases such as ERK, Akt and mTOR proteins in a dose-dependent manner. DI-10 improves myotubes differentiation and upregulates the expression of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein in myoblast cells under differentiation medium with high glucose. DI-10 effectively increased the phosphorylation of promyogenic kinases Akt, mTOR, and mitochondrial-related transcription factors AMPK and PGC1α expression under hyperglycemic conditions. Further, decapeptide DI-10 decreased the expression of Murf1 and MAFbx proteins, which are involved in protein degradation and muscle atrophy. Our reports support that decapeptide DI-10 could be potentially used as a therapeutic candidate for preventing muscle degeneration in sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Solanum tuberosum , Diferenciação Celular , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Biogênese de Organelas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
19.
Food Res Int ; 155: 111022, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400422

RESUMO

Successful salt (NaCl) reduction strategies are required to reduce the salt content of snacks while maintaining saltiness perception and consumer acceptance. Previous research suggests that particle physicochemical design rules (small particle size, low density, low hydrophobicity, optimised particle shape) can be leveraged to produce salt particles that enhance saltiness perception. This study aimed to validate these design rules by applying optimised model salts to unsalted potato crisps at a 30% reduced salt content to produce prototype products. A selection of commercial products were also chosen to represent the salt content and crisp style of the broader market, with the aim to investigate the potential of other salt reduction strategies including; direct salt removal without compensation for loss of salt content and increasing time in mouth, while exploring the impact of consumer mouth behaviour type on consumer product preference. Nine products varying in salt content (6 standard, 1 crinkle-cut, 1 thick-cut batch-fried, 1 baked reconstituted potato) were subject to descriptive sensory analysis with a trained panel (n = 11). A subset (seven products) were assessed for consumer acceptance (n = 93). A salt reduction of 30% was achieved while maintaining saltiness perception and consumer acceptance using model salts, while direct removal of salt without perceptual impact was only achievable by 15%. To investigate key drivers of liking, consumers were segmented based on product liking and mouth behaviour. Results suggested that whilst salt content was the primary driver, specific texture profiles were polarising. However, mouth behaviour had minimal influence on preference. These results validate previously described physicochemical design rules for developing novel salt particles for salt reduction and inform ingredient design for the food and flavour industries.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio , Solanum tuberosum , Sais , Lanches , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Solanum tuberosum/química , Percepção Gustatória
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 206, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plant homeodomain (PHD)-finger gene family that belongs to zinc-finger genes, plays an important role in epigenetics by regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. However, inaccurate annotation of PHD-finger genes hinders further downstream comparative, evolutionary, and functional studies. RESULTS: We performed genome-wide re-annotation in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), Oryza sativa (rice), Capsicum annuum (pepper), Solanum tuberosum (potato), and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) to better understand the role of PHD-finger genes in these species. Our investigation identified 875 PHD-finger genes, of which 225 (26% of total) were newly identified, including 57 (54%) novel PHD-finger genes in pepper. The PHD-finger genes of the five plant species have various integrated domains that may be responsible for the diversification of structures and functions of these genes. Evolutionary analyses suggest that PHD-finger genes were expanded recently by lineage-specific duplication, especially in pepper and potato, resulting in diverse repertoires of PHD-finger genes among the species. We validated the expression of six newly identified PHD-finger genes in pepper with qRT-PCR. Transcriptome analyses suggest potential functions of PHD-finger genes in response to various abiotic stresses in pepper. CONCLUSIONS: Our data, including the updated annotation of PHD-finger genes, provide useful information for further evolutionary and functional analyses to better understand the roles of the PHD-finger gene family in pepper.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Capsicum , Lycopersicon esculentum , Oryza , Solanum tuberosum , Arabidopsis/genética , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genômica , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Oryza/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
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