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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803511

RESUMO

Rhizoctonia solani is the causer of black scurf disease on potatoes and is responsible for high economical losses in global agriculture. In order to increase the limited knowledge of the plants' molecular response to this pathogen, we inoculated potatoes with R. solani AG3-PT isolate Ben3 and carried out RNA sequencing with total RNA extracted from potato sprouts at three and eight days post inoculation (dpi). In this dual RNA-sequencing experiment, the necrotrophic lifestyle of R. solani AG3-PT during early phases of interaction with its host has already been characterised. Here the potato plants' comprehensive transcriptional response to inoculation with R. solani AG3 was evaluated for the first time based on significantly different expressed plant genes extracted with DESeq analysis. Overall, 1640 genes were differentially expressed, comparing control (-Rs) and with R. solani AG3-PT isolate Ben3 inoculated plants (+Rs). Genes involved in the production of anti-fungal proteins and secondary metabolites with antifungal properties were significantly up regulated upon inoculation with R. solani. Gene ontology (GO) terms involved in the regulation of hormone levels (i.e., ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) at 3 dpi and salicylic acid (SA) and JA response pathways at 8 dpi) were significantly enriched. Contrastingly, the GO term "response to abiotic stimulus" was down regulated at both time points analysed. These results may support future breeding efforts toward the development of cultivars with higher resistance level to black scurf disease or the development of new control strategies.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Rhizoctonia/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Transcrição Genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799566

RESUMO

Potato virus X (PVX) belongs to genus Potexvirus. This study characterizes the cellular transcriptome responses to PVX infection in Russet potato at 2 and 3 days post infection (dpi). Among the 1242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 268 genes were upregulated, and 37 genes were downregulated at 2 dpi while 677 genes were upregulated, and 265 genes were downregulated at 3 dpi. DEGs related to signal transduction, stress response, and redox processes. Key stress related transcription factors were identified. Twenty-five pathogen resistance gene analogs linked to effector triggered immunity or pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity were identified. Comparative analysis with Arabidopsis unfolded protein response (UPR) induced DEGs revealed genes associated with UPR and plasmodesmata transport that are likely needed to establish infection. In conclusion, this study provides an insight on major transcriptional regulatory networked involved in early response to PVX infection and establishment.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Potexvirus/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/imunologia , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Potexvirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Potexvirus/patogenicidade , Transdução de Sinais , Solanum tuberosum/imunologia , Solanum tuberosum/virologia , Fatores de Transcrição/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806406

RESUMO

The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and play important roles in stress responses. However, little is known about the functions of potato NAC family members. Here we report the cloning of a potato NAC transcription factor gene StNAC053, which was significantly upregulated after salt, drought, and abscisic acid treatments. Furthermore, the StNAC053-GFP fusion protein was found to be located in the nucleus and had a C-terminal transactivation domain, implying that StNAC053 may function as a transcriptional activator in potato. Notably, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing StNAC053 displayed lower seed germination rates compared to wild-type under exogenous ABA treatment. In addition, the StNAC053 overexpression Arabidopsis lines displayed significantly increased tolerance to salt and drought stress treatments. Moreover, the StNAC053-OE lines were found to have higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) under multiple stress treatments. Interestingly, the expression levels of several stress-related genes including COR15A,DREB1A, ERD11, RAB18, ERF5, and KAT2, were significantly upregulated in these StNAC053-overexpressing lines. Taken together, overexpression of the stress-inducible StNAC053 gene could enhance the tolerances to both salt and drought stress treatments in Arabidopsis, likely by upregulating stress-related genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Catalase/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Peroxidase/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 162: 716-729, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799183

RESUMO

Four members of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) family StCDPK22/23/24 and StCDPK27, present three functional EF-hands motifs in their calmodulin-like domain (CLD). StCDPK22/23/24 are clustered in clade III-b1 with tomato and Arabidopsis CDPKs that lack the first EF-hand motif, while StCDPK27 is clustered in clade III-b3 with CDPKs that lack EF-hand 2. Members of each clade share similar intron-exon structures and acylation profiles. 3D model predictions suggested that StCDPK22 and StCDPK24 are active kinases that undergo a conformational switch in the presence of Ca2+ even when lacking one functional EF-hand motif; however, assays performed with recombinant proteins indicated that StCDPK24:6xHis was active in all the conditions tested, and its activity was enhanced in the presence of Ca2+, but StCDPK22:6xHis had scarce or null activity. Both kinases share with AtCPK8 the same autophosphorylation pattern in the autoinhibitory (AD) and C-terminal variable (CTV) domains, suggesting that it could be a characteristic of clade III-b1. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that StCDPK22 is mainly expressed in early stages of tuberization, but not limited to, while StCDPK24 expression is more ubiquitous. In silico analysis predicted several abiotic stress-responsive elements in its promoters. Accordingly, StCDPK24 expression peaked at 10 h in in vitro plants exposed to salt shock and then declined. Moreover, a significant increase was observed at 2 h in stems of salt-treated greenhouse plants, suggesting that this CDPK could participate in the early events of the signaling cascade triggered in response to salt.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Solanum tuberosum , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Clonidina/análogos & derivados , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804597

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to analyse vegetables, potatoes and their products as sources of energy and nutrients in the average diet in Poland. Representative data of the 2016 Household Budget Survey from 36,886 households were used. This is the largest study sample in Poland, so we generalized the conclusions to the whole population using the statement 'average diet'. We analysed three main product groups: vegetables, vegetable products, and potatoes and potatoes products, dividing them into 14 subgroups (e.g., tomatoes, cabbage, carrots, other vegetables, and mushrooms). The percentages of energy, protein, carbohydrates, total fat, nine vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin E), seven minerals (calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iron, magnesium and zinc), and fibre from the analysed food subgroups are presented. Additionally, the influence of household characteristics on the supply of energy and nutrients from each subgroup of vegetables, potatoes, and their products was evaluated using cluster analysis. In the analysis, R programme and Kohonen neural networks were applied. Our study showed that vegetables, potatoes, and their products provide 7.3% of daily dietary energy supply. Vegetables contribute more than 20% of the supply of six nutrients: vitamin C (51.8%), potassium (32.5%), folate (31.0%), vitamin A (30.6%), vitamin B6 (27.8%), and magnesium (20.2%), as well as fibre (31.8%). Cluster analysis distinguished three clusters that differed in nutritional supply from vegetables, potatoes, and their products. Educational level, income measured by quintile groups, village size, socio-economic characteristics, urbanization degree, and land use were the most important factors determining differences between clusters.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Verduras , Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Nutrientes , Valor Nutritivo , Polônia
6.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112351, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735673

RESUMO

Intensive agricultural farming systems have negative impacts on the ecosystem. Therefore, the use of crop rotation emerges as an opportunity to improve the environmental sustainability of agricultural systems. In the region of Galicia in north-western Spain, potato and wheat are important commodities and essential foods in the diet. Hence, it is interesting to investigate the environmental profile of these crops to improve the understanding of local agrosystems. This study evaluated three agricultural crops managed under a crop rotation system and following a conventional arable farming: the main rotation crop, which is the potato in the first year (cP), followed by a second year of commercial wheat (cW) and autochthonous Galician wheat (GcW) in the third year. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was performed using four types of functional units: in terms of productivity (kg-1); land management (ha-1∙year-1); a financial function (euros €-1 of income from sales) and energetic value (MJ-1). The environmental indicators selected are Climate Change (CC), Particulate Matter (PM), Terrestrial Acidification (TA), Freshwater Eutrophication (FE), Marine Eutrophication (ME), Human Toxicity (HT), Land Use (LU) and Fossil Depletion (FD). The figures show that the GcW has the lowest environmental impact when the functional units refer to land management, financial function and energetic value. However, if analysed in terms of productivity, cP is presented as the best crop due to its comparatively higher yield, reaching a production ratio 10 times higher than wheat. In the specific case of wheat, compared to a previous study in the same region, the environmental impacts are lower when grown in a crop rotation system in contrast to monoculture. This article demonstrates the relevance of using LCA for diverse stakeholders (e.g., farmers, consumers and researchers) to understand the environmental impacts of regional agricultural systems. In addition, it serves as a basis for future work aimed at comparing rotational agricultural systems in this region, integrating economic and social aspects.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Triticum , Agricultura , Produção Agrícola , Ecossistema , Humanos , Espanha
7.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(6): 1384-1398, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767044

RESUMO

Adsorption of direct red 80 (DR 80) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions on potato peels (PP) has been compared. The use of peels in decontamination technology is very promising given the near zero-cost for the synthesis of those adsorbents. The selected potato peels were first analyzed by scanning using electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Then the adsorption behavior was studied in a batch system. The adsorption process is affected by various parameters such as the solution pH (2-11), the initial concentration of the dye (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg L-1), the adsorbent dose (0.1-3%), the temperature (303.16 K, 313.16 K, and 323.16 K), agitation (up to 250 rpm), as well as the contact time. Adsorption isotherms of the studied dye on the adsorbent were determined and compared with the Langmiur, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption models. The results show that the data was most similar to the Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.99). The maximum adsorption capacities (Qmax) of MB and DR 80 by the PP at temperatures 303.16 K, 313.16 K and 323.16 K were found to be approximately 97.08 mg g-1; 45.87 mg g-1; 61.35 mg g-1 and 27.778 mg g-1; 45.45 mg g-1; and 32.258 mg g-1. The kinetic data was compared to the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models. This revealed that adsorption of methylene blue onto PP abided mostly to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Calculations of various thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (ΔH), entropy change (ΔS), and free energy change (ΔG) display the endothermic and spontaneous nature of the adsorption process.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Compostos Azo , Corantes , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Azul de Metileno , Soluções , Termodinâmica
8.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 116, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Correlation network analysis has become an integral tool to study metabolite datasets. Networks are constructed by omitting correlations between metabolites based on two thresholds-namely the r and the associated p-values. While p-value threshold settings follow the rules of multiple hypotheses testing correction, guidelines for r-value threshold settings have not been defined. RESULTS: Here, we introduce a method that allows determining the r-value threshold based on an iterative approach, where different networks are constructed and their network topology is monitored. Once the network topology changes significantly, the threshold is set to the corresponding correlation coefficient value. The approach was exemplified on: (i) a metabolite and morphological trait dataset from a potato association panel, which was grown under normal irrigation and water recovery conditions; and validated (ii) on a metabolite dataset of hearts of fed and fasted mice. For the potato normal irrigation correlation network a threshold of Pearson's |r|≥ 0.23 was suggested, while for the water recovery correlation network a threshold of Pearson's |r|≥ 0.41 was estimated. For both mice networks the threshold was calculated with Pearson's |r|≥ 0.84. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis corrected the previously stated Pearson's correlation coefficient threshold from 0.4 to 0.41 in the water recovery network and from 0.4 to 0.23 for the normal irrigation network. Furthermore, the proposed method suggested a correlation threshold of 0.84 for both mice networks rather than a threshold of 0.7 as applied earlier. We demonstrate that the proposed approach is a valuable tool for constructing biological meaningful networks.


Assuntos
Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Irrigação Agrícola , Animais , Correlação de Dados , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Camundongos
9.
Arch Virol ; 166(5): 1427-1431, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682071

RESUMO

Potato aucuba mosaic virus (PAMV), a positive single-strand RNA virus, has one of the longest genomes of the viruses in the genus Potexvirus. In 2019, potato samples with mottle and crinkling symptoms from Huzhou, Zhejiang province, China, were identified to be infected with PAMV, potato virus X (PVX), and potato virus Y (PVY) by transcriptome sequencing. To study the effects of single infection by PAMV, the full-length sequence of PAMV from Huzhou (MT193476) was determined and an infectious full-length cDNA clone was constructed. This cDNA clone was infectious by agro-infiltration, leading to systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana, tomato, pepper, and potato.


Assuntos
Potexvirus/genética , Potexvirus/patogenicidade , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar , Genoma Viral/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/virologia , Potexvirus/classificação , Potexvirus/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , Genética Reversa , Solanum tuberosum/virologia
10.
Plant Sci ; 306: 110854, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775360

RESUMO

Many tuber and storage root crops owing to their high nutritional values offer high potential to overcome food security issues. The lack of information regarding molecular mechanisms that govern belowground storage organ development (except a tuber crop, potato) has limited the application of biotechnological strategies for improving storage crop yield. Phytohormones like gibberellin and cytokinin are known to play a crucial role in governing potato tuber development. Another phytohormone, auxin has been shown to induce tuber initiation and growth, and its crosstalk with gibberellin and strigolactone in a belowground modified stem (stolon) contributes to the overall potato tuber yield. In this review, we describe the crucial role of auxin biology in development of potato tubers. Considering the emerging reports from commercially important storage root crops (sweet potato, cassava, carrot, sugar beet and radish), we propose the function of auxin and related gene regulatory network in storage root development. The pattern of auxin content of stolon during various stages of potato tuber formation appears to be consistent with its level in various developmental stages of storage roots. We have also put-forward the potential of three-way interaction between auxin, strigolactone and mycorrhizal fungi in tuber and storage root development. Overall, we propose that auxin gene regulatory network and its crosstalk with other phytohormones in stolons/roots could govern belowground tuber and storage root development.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organogênese Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Tubérculos/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Solanum tuberosum/genética
11.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 97(4)2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674848

RESUMO

Ralstonia solanacearum biovar2-race3 (Rs r3b2) is an epidemic soil-borne bacterial phytopathogen causing brown rot disease in potato. In this study, we assessed how three soil types stored at the same field site influenced the proportion and diversity of bacterial isolates with in vitro antagonistic activity towards Rs in bulk soil and different potato plant spheres (rhizosphere, endorhiza and endocaulosphere; ecto- and endosphere of seed and yield tubers). In general, the plate counts observed for each sample type were not significantly different. A total of 96 colonies per sample type was picked and screened for in vitro antagonistic activity against Rs. Antagonists were obtained from all bulk soils and plant spheres with the highest proportion obtained from the endorhiza and endocaulosphere of potato plants. BOX-PCR fingerprints of antagonists showed that some were specific for particular plant spheres independent of the soil type, while others originated from different plant spheres of a particular soil type. The majority of antagonists belonged to Pseudomonas. A high proportion of antagonists produced siderophores, and interestingly antagonists from potato tubers frequently carried multiple antibiotic production genes. Our data showed an enrichment of bacteria with genes or traits potentially involved in biocontrol in the rhizosphere and in endophytic compartments. We report that the proportion and diversity of in vitro antagonists towards Rs isolated from bulk soil and different spheres of potato plants grown under field conditions in three different soil types was mainly shaped by the plant sphere and to a lesser extent by the soil type. Bacteria with antagonistic activity towards Ralstonia solanacearum were isolated from all plant spheres and bulk soils but their proportion was highest in endophytic compartments.


Assuntos
Ralstonia solanacearum , Solanum tuberosum , Doenças das Plantas , Pseudomonas , Solo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669030

RESUMO

Potato tuber dormancy is critical for the post-harvest quality. Snakin/Gibberellic Acid Stimulated in Arabidopsis (GASA) family genes are involved in the plants' defense against pathogens and in growth and development, but the effect of Snakin-2 (SN2) on tuber dormancy and sprouting is largely unknown. In this study, a transgenic approach was applied to manipulate the expression level of SN2 in tubers, and it demonstrated that StSN2 significantly controlled tuber sprouting, and silencing StSN2 resulted in a release of dormancy and overexpressing tubers showed a longer dormant period than that of the control. Further analyses revealed that the decrease expression level accelerated skin cracking and water loss. Metabolite analyses revealed that StSN2 significantly down-regulated the accumulation of lignin precursors in the periderm, and the change of lignin content was documented, a finding which was consistent with the precursors' level. Subsequently, proteomics found that cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) and peroxidase (Prx), the key proteins for lignin synthesis, were significantly up-regulated in silencing lines, and gene expression and enzyme activity analyses also supported this effect. Interestingly, we found that StSN2 physically interacts with three peroxidases catalyzing the oxidation and polymerization of lignin. In addition, SN2 altered the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). These results suggest that StSN2 negatively regulates lignin biosynthesis and H2O2 accumulation, and ultimately inhibits the sprouting of potato tubers.


Assuntos
Cisteína/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lignina/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Inativação Gênica , Lignina/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Caules de Planta/citologia , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Tubérculos/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Proteômica , Plântula/citologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/enzimologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo
13.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672898

RESUMO

The research concerns the use of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer to track real-time emissions of volatile secondary oxidation products released from rapeseed oil as a result of deep-frying of potato cubes. Therefore, it was possible to observe a sudden increase of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions caused by immersion of the food, accompanied by a sudden release of steam from a potato cube and a decrease of the oil temperature by more than 20 °C. It was possible to identify and monitor the emission of major secondary oxidation products such as saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, namely acrolein, pentanal, 2-hexenal, hexanal, 2-nonenal and 2-decenal. Each of them has an individual release characteristic. Moreover, the impact of different initial frying temperatures on release kinetics was investigated. Subsequently, it was possible to approximate the cumulative emission by a second-degree polynomial (R2 ≥ 0.994). Using the proposed solution made it possible for the first time to observe the impact of the immersion of food in vegetable oil on the early emission of thermal degradation products oil.


Assuntos
Culinária , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Cinética , Oxirredução , Solanum tuberosum/química , Temperatura
14.
Food Chem ; 352: 129305, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691208

RESUMO

The effect of potato tuber composition, frying time and temperature on acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated and a mathematical model of the kinetics of acrylamide formation is provided. Moisture-temperature-time profiles were obtained for potato slices during frying to enable the determination of the 'effective' reaction time by identifying the critical moisture content (6% dwb) for acrylamide formation to commence and using dehydration curves to calculate subsequent frying time to finished product moisture content. The chemical kinetic model conformed to the following rate equation over a one hundred-fold range of acrylamide concentrations: d[acryl]dt=k1glucoseasn+k6[fructose][asn][TAA] where [TAA] represents total amino acid concentration. The timescale of the frying process meant that the chemical reactions were all in their initial rate phase. Kinetic parameters confirm that the fructose-dependent reaction (caramelization) contributes twice as much acrylamide as the reaction of glucose (Maillard reaction).


Assuntos
Acrilamida/química , Culinária , Modelos Químicos , Solanum tuberosum/química , Acrilamida/análise , Temperatura Alta , Cinética , Reação de Maillard , Tubérculos/química
15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 260: 117801, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712149

RESUMO

Slowly digestible starches have received interest due to their lower increase of postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels and, hence, modification of starches towards slower digestibility has commercial interest. However, chemical characteristics driving enzymatic (digestive) degradation are not fully unraveled. The digestion properties of starches have been linked to their crystalline type, chain length distribution, amylose content or degree of branching, but content and length of relatively long side-chains in amylopectin has not been paid attention to. Therefore, this research focusses on the unique content and length of amylopectin side-chains from conventional and new starch sources (potato, corn, pea, and tulip) correlated to the enzymatic digestion. The rate of hydrolysis was found to be correlated with the crystalline type of starch, as previously suggested, however, the complete hydrolysis of all starches, independent of the crystalline type and source, was shown to be governed by the content of longer amylopectin chains.


Assuntos
Gelatina/química , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Cristalização , Digestão , Hidrólise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Amido/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 351: 129215, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639428

RESUMO

This study describes a turn-on upconversion fluorescence sensor for the detection of acrylamide (AA) based on glutathione (GSH) modulated turn-on fluorescence strategy. Polyethyleneimine-modified upconversion nanoparticles were first prepared by the hydrothermal method and then Rhodamine B derivative (RBD) was loaded on their surface through non-covalent bonding. The GSH coupled with RBD and strongly quenched the upconversion fluorescence via fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Upon addition of tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine, the thiol-ene Michael addition reaction between GSH and AA was efficiently catalyzed, resulted in the quenched fluorescence triggered on. Under the optimum conditions, a linear detection range from 0.1 to 104 µM was implemented for AA with a limit of detection of 0.68 nM and great sensitivity was observed. Importantly, the proposed sensor was evaluated for spiked potato chips samples with a satisfactory result in contrast to high-performance liquid chromatography, confirmed its applicability for the rapid detection of AA.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/análise , Acrilamida/química , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Solanum tuberosum/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas/química
17.
Food Chem ; 350: 129060, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610846

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three Lebanese wild plant extracts on acrylamide (AA) content in French fries, and to investigate the impact of air frying (AF) and deep frying (DF) techniques against AA formation. HPLC showed higher level of AA in DF (1384.79 ng/g) than in AF (163.1 ng/g). Indeed, the plant extracts of ginger, borage and fennel succeeded to decrease AA (59.67, 67.99, and 73.36% in (AF) and 21.91, 66.29 and 29.15% in (DF) respectively)in both fryers. Accordingly, borage fennel and ginger with their high scavenging activity (86.09%, 89.11% 93.67% respectively) and total phenolic contents (298.61, 117.79 and 97.36 of GAE respectively) can act as healthy beneficial pre-treatment, overall reducing AA in potato fries particularly in AF. This study was the first to reveal the importance of using plant extract in reducing AA in potato fries, a staple Lebanese food.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/química , Borago/química , Culinária/métodos , Foeniculum/química , Gengibre/química , Temperatura Alta , Solanum tuberosum/química , Acrilamida/análise , Eletricidade , Extratos Vegetais/química
18.
Food Chem ; 349: 129168, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548882

RESUMO

Insight into the structure and conformation characteristics of starch that influence its enzyme susceptibility is import for its potential application. In this study, the capacity of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled online with multi-angle light scatting (MALS) and differential refractive index (dRI) detectors (AF4-MALS-dRI) for monitoring of change in structure and conformation of potato starch during enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. The dissolution behavior of potato resistant starch (type 2) (PRS) was investigated. The effect of incubation time and amyloglucosidase concentration on the structure and conformation of potato starch was studied. The apparent density and the ratio of Rg (radius of gyration) to Rh (hydrodynamic radius) obtained from AF4-MALS-dRI were proven to be important parameters as they offer an insight into conformation of PRS at molecular level. Results suggested that gelatinization process made potato amylose molecules have a loose and random coil conformation which could contribute to an acceleration of enzymatic hydrolysis of potato starch. Furthermore, an intermediate with an elongated branched conformation was found between amylose and amylopectin populations, which may play a role in digestion property of potato starch. The results demonstrated that AF4-MALS-dRI is a powerful tool for better understanding of conformation of PRS.


Assuntos
Fracionamento por Campo e Fluxo/métodos , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Hidrólise , Peso Molecular , Refratometria
19.
Food Chem ; 349: 129170, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548887

RESUMO

In this study, potato, lotus seed and wheat starch samples with different degree of gelatinization (DG) were prepared and their in vitro digestibility at low α-amylase activity evaluated by measuring the release of reducing sugar. The hydrolysis rate (k) and the final equilibrium concentration (C∞) of the three starches increased with increasing DG. Kinetic analyses showed that the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) increased with increasing DG, indicative of the increasing affinity and catalytic efficiency of α-amylase with all three starch samples. Of the three starches, lotus seed starch showed a much greater increase in k and kcat/Km than potato and wheat starches as the DG of starch increased. From this study, we concluded that at low activity of α-amylase, DG is a major determinant for the binding affinity and catalytic efficiency of α-amylase to starch and in turn the digestion rate of starch.


Assuntos
Digestão , Amido/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Catálise , Cristalização , Gelatina/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Lotus/embriologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/química , Especificidade por Substrato
20.
Food Chem ; 348: 129132, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524691

RESUMO

Enzymatic browning is considered a critical factor that adversely decreases the quality of fresh-cut products. Although many individual physical or chemical methods have been explored to control browning, there are few approaches combining these technologies. In the present study, Sonchus oleraceus L. extract (SOLE) and ultrasound treatment efficiently controlled the activities of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lipoxygenase, soluble quinones, and intermediate and advanced products, and a lower malondialdehyde content and higher antioxidant capacity were observed in fresh-cut potato slices. More than 50 phenolics and flavonoids were identified in SOLE by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In conclusion, the combined SOLE and ultrasound treatment could serve as a promising method for attenuating enzymatic browning.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Sonchus/química , Sonicação , Antioxidantes/química , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Reação de Maillard , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Sonchus/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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