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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11542-11552, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538781

RESUMO

Two field trials were conducted to investigate the influence of fungicide and fertilization management on the potato tubers' metabolome (Solanum tuberosum L.). Thereby, fungicides and conventional fertilizers were varied in terms of quantities, number and date of applications, physical state, and product composition. Following a water-methanol-based extraction, samples were analyzed using an UPLC-IMS-QToF and multivariate data analysis. Fungicide application led to significant changes in the tubers' metabolome. Flavonoids were increasingly expressed as a natural response to impending fungal or viral infections in an untreated group, while the phytoalexin rishitinol was highly abundant in groups with fungicide application. In contrast to fungicides, the application of conventional fertilizers did not cause significant alterations in the tubers' compound composition. Consequently, the impact of fungicide application could be rated as more important than the fertilization-derived influence, which might be because of a gentler adaption to fertilization than to the acute stress of fungicide applications.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Tubérculos/química , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Metaboloma , Tubérculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8725-8734, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295997

RESUMO

Texture perception is conceptualized as an emergent cognitive response to food characteristics that comprise several physical and chemical properties. Contemporary oral processing research focuses on revealing the relationship between the sensory perceptions and food properties, with the goal of enabling rational product design. One major challenge is associated with revealing the complex molecular and biocolloidal interactions underpinning even simple texture percepts. Here, we introduce in vitro oral processing, which considers oral processing in terms of discrete units of operation (first bite, comminution, granulation, bolus formation, and tribology). Within this framework, we systematically investigate the material properties that govern each specific oral processing unit operation without being impacted by the biological complexity of the oral environment. We describe how this framework was used to rationally design a low-fat potato chip with improved sensory properties by investigating the impact from adding back, to a low-fat potato chip, a small amount of oil mixed with the surface-active agent polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR). The relevance of instrumental measures is validated by sensory assessment, whereby panelists ranked the perceived oiliness of three different types of potato chips. The sensory results indicate that perceived oiliness was higher when a low-fat potato chip was supplemented with an additional 0.5% (w/w) topical coating (the coating comprised 15%, w/w, PGPR in oil) compared to the unaltered low-fat potato chip. The perceived difference in oiliness is hypothesized to correspond to the dynamic friction measured in vitro with a saliva-coated substrate in the presence and absence of PGPR. The study illustrates how dividing oral processing into distinct units provides a rational approach to food product design focused on controlling key sensory attributes.


Assuntos
Gorduras/análise , Boca/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Gorduras/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Reologia , Saliva/metabolismo , Lanches , Solanum tuberosum/química
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6227-6233, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250922

RESUMO

BACKGOUND: Potato peels are usually discarded before consumption of the tubers. However, it could be expected that red- and purple-fleshed potato peels contain more minerals. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the proximate and mineral composition in flesh and peels of six coloured potato cultivars. Five proximate compositions (dry matter, total soluble solids, protein, fibre, and ash) and nine minerals [phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), Boron (B), manganese (Mn)] content were determined. The data obtained were evaluated employing the multivariate analysis techniques: principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS: The results show that proximate and mineral composition depends on potato tissue and cultivar. Potato peels have significantly higher levels of protein, fibre, ash and minerals (except Mg) than the flesh. However, flesh contains the highest contents of dry matter and total soluble solids. Of the studied elements, K has the highest content in both parts of the potato tuber followed by P, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu. Violetta peels had the highest contents of ash, K and Mg, and Highland Burgundy Red peels had the highest protein, fibre, Ca, Mn contents. The flesh of the Highland Burgundy Red cultivar shows the highest contents of dry matter and total soluble solids. CONCLUSION: Based on the present study, it can be concluded that the investigated red and purple potato peels showed significantly higher protein, fibre, ash and element (K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B) contents compared to the flesh. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Minerais/química , Tubérculos/química , Cor , Cobre/análise , Ferro/análise , Magnésio/análise , Manganês/análise , Fósforo/análise , Potássio/análise , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Zinco/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 296: 116-122, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202295

RESUMO

Oca (Oxalis tuberosa) is an underutilized species and represents a novel starch source. Composition and structure of starches from tubers of two commercial oca varieties grown in New Zealand were compared to those of normal maize and potato starches. The phosphorus content of oca starch was ∼60% of that of potato starch. The amylose content of oca starch (∼21%) was lower than that of maize and potato starches (concanavalin A precipitation method). The fine structure of oca amylopectin was much more similar to that of potato amylopectin than to that of maize amylopectin. Oca amylopectin had a shorter internal chain length and less fingerprint B-chains than potato amylopectin. The two oca starches were structurally and compositionally similar. Oca starch granules had a volume moment mean size of 34.5 µm and B-type polymorph. Comparative analysis suggested that oca starch has the potential to be developed as a novel starch source.


Assuntos
Oxalidaceae/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Amido/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Amilopectina/análise , Amilose/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nova Zelândia , Fósforo/análise , Difração de Raios X
5.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 485(1): 33-36, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197590

RESUMO

The brassinosteroid (BS) profiles in shoots and roots of the potato plants were shown to be organ-specific and dependent on the term of variety ripening. The amount of all studied groups of steroid phytohormones proved to be an order of magnitude higher in roots than in shoots. In roots, the brassinosteroid lactones predominated, while in shoots, their biogenetic precursors, 6-ketones, were prevailing. The early-ripening variety Zhukovsky Early is characterized by a high content of almost all BS groups (first of all, brassinolide group) and a relatively high content of B-lactones in shoots. With aging, the content of B-lactones in plants decreases, while that of B-ketones grows up.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Food Chem ; 297: 124991, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253316

RESUMO

Plant species differ greatly in their ability to acclimatise to and survive, cold stress. Normally, potato tubers are stored at low temperatures (below 10 °C) to delay sprouting. In this research, combined transcriptomic and proteomic analysis was conducted on potato tubers stored at 15 °C, 4 °C and 0 °C to investigate the mechanism of cold responses during postharvest storage. Results showed that soluble sugars were accumulated under low temperatures, regulating by granule-bound starch synthase 1, beta-amylase, invertase inhibitor and fructokinase. In addition, fifteen heat shock proteins (Hsps), including three Hsp70s, two Hsp80s, one Hsp90, one Hsp100 and eight small Hsps, were induced by low temperatures, which may act individually or synergistically to prevent physiological or cellular damage from cold stress in postharvest potato tubers. This research provided general information of sugar accumulation and defense response in potato tuber under cold storage.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Proteômica , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Sintase do Amido/metabolismo , beta-Amilase/metabolismo
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 262, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stored potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are sensitive to wet conditions that can cause rotting in long-term storage. To study the effect of water on the tuber surface during storage, microarray analysis, RNA-Seq profiling, qRT-PCR and phytohormone measurements were performed to study gene expression and hormone content in wet tubers incubated at two temperatures: 4 °C and 15 °C. The growth of the plants was also observed in a greenhouse after the incubation of tubers in wet conditions. RESULTS: Wet conditions induced a low-oxygen response, suggesting reduced oxygen availability in wet tubers at both temperatures when compared to that in the corresponding dry samples. Wet conditions induced genes coding for heat shock proteins, as well as proteins involved in fermentative energy production and defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are transcripts that have been previously associated with low-oxygen stress in hypoxic or anoxic conditions. Wet treatment also induced senescence-related gene expression and genes involved in cell wall loosening, but downregulated genes encoding protease inhibitors and proteins involved in chloroplast functions and in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Many genes involved in the production of phytohormones and signaling were also affected by wet conditions, suggesting altered regulation of growth by wet conditions. Hormone measurements after incubation showed increased salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) concentrations as well as reduced production of jasmonate 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in wet tubers. After incubation in wet conditions, the tubers produced fewer stems and more roots compared to controls incubated in dry conditions. CONCLUSIONS: In wet conditions, tubers invest in ROS protection and defense against the abiotic stress caused by reduced oxygen due to excessive water. Changes in ABA, SA and IAA that are antagonistic to jasmonates affect growth and defenses, causing induction of root growth and rendering tubers susceptible to necrotrophic pathogens. Water on the tuber surface may function as a signal for growth, similar to germination of seeds.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo Secundário , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma , Água
8.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(5): 509-519, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234765

RESUMO

Microorganisms residing within a biofilm become more tolerant to antibiotics and other types of adverse impact, and biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria is an important problem of current medicine. Polysaccharides that prevent biofilm formation are among the promising candidates to help tackle this problem. Earlier we demonstrated the ability of a potato polysaccharide galactan to inhibit biofilm formation by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. Here we investigate the effect of potato galactan on P. aeruginosa biofilms in more detail. Microscopic analysis indicated that the galactan did not interfere with the adhesion of bacterial cells to the substrate but prevented the build-up of bacterial biomass. Moreover, the galactan not only inhibited biofilm formation, but partially destroyed pre-formed biofilms. Presumably, this activity of the galactan was due to the excessive aggregation of bacterial cells, which prohibited the formation and maintenance of proper biofilm architecture, or due to some other mechanisms of biofilm structure remodeling. This led to an unexpected effect, i.e., P. aeruginosa biofilms treated with an antibiotic and the galactan retained more viable bacterial cells compared to biofilms treated with the antibiotic alone. Galactan is the first polysaccharide demonstrated to exert such effect on bacterial biofilms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Galactanos/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
9.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 123, 2019 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cold stress can greatly affect plant growth and development. Plants have developed special systems to respond to and tolerate cold stress. While plant scientists have discovered numerous genes involved in responses to cold stress, few studies have been dedicated to investigation of genome-wide chromatin dynamics induced by cold or other abiotic stresses. RESULTS: Genomic regions containing active cis-regulatory DNA elements can be identified as DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs). We develop high-resolution DHS maps in potato (Solanum tuberosum) using chromatin isolated from tubers stored under room (22 °C) and cold (4 °C) conditions. We find that cold stress induces a large number of DHSs enriched in genic regions which are frequently associated with differential gene expression in response to temperature variation. Surprisingly, active genes show enhanced chromatin accessibility upon cold stress. A large number of active genes in cold-stored tubers are associated with the bivalent H3K4me3-H3K27me3 mark in gene body regions. Interestingly, upregulated genes associated with the bivalent mark are involved in stress response, whereas downregulated genes with the bivalent mark are involved in developmental processes. In addition, we observe that the bivalent mark-associated genes are more accessible than others upon cold stress. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results suggest that cold stress induces enhanced chromatin accessibility and bivalent histone modifications of active genes. We hypothesize that in cold-stored tubers, the bivalent H3K4me3-H3K27me3 mark represents a distinct chromatin environment with greater accessibility, which may facilitate the access of regulatory proteins required for gene upregulation or downregulation in response to cold stress.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Código das Histonas , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Desoxirribonuclease I/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo
10.
Plant Mol Biol ; 100(4-5): 511-525, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037600

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: In response to an ultrasound pulse, several hundred DEGs, including in response to stress, were up- or down-regulated in in vitro potato plantlets. Despite this abiotic stress, plantlets survived. Ultrasound (US) can influence plant growth and development. To better understand the genetic mechanism underlying the physiological response of potato to US, single-node segments of four-week-old in vitro plantlets were subjected to US at 35 kHz for 20 min. Following mRNA purification, 10 cDNA libraries were assessed by RNA-seq. Significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were categorized by gene ontology or Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes identifiers. The expression intensity of 40,430 genes was studied. Several hundred DEGs associated with biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and catabolism, cellular protein modification, and response to stress, and which were expressed mainly in the extracellular region, nucleus, and plasma membrane, were either up- or down-regulated in response to US. RT-qPCR was used to validate RNA-seq data of 10 highly up- or down-regulated DEGs, and both Spearman and Pearson correlations between SeqMonk LFC and RT-qPCR LFC were highly positive (0.97). This study examines how some processes evolved over time (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 1 week and 4 weeks) after an abiotic stress (US) was imposed on in vitro potato explants, and provides clues to the temporal dynamics in DEG-based enzyme functions in response to this stress. Despite this abiotic stress, plantlets survived.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos da radiação , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos da radiação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 588-599, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132554

RESUMO

Past studies have already determined that selenium (Se) is very effective in alleviating cell oxidative damage caused by various abiotic stresses in plants. Past studies have also indicated other physiological pathways by which Se may benefit plants. In order to better understand the full array of potential applications for Se in agriculture, this study investigated the influence of Se on carbohydrate and nitrogen (N) metabolism in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Sante) grown under cadmium (Cd) and/or arsenic (As) toxicity. Potato plants were grown in a growth chamber and fertigated with Hoagland nutrient solution with or without Se (9 µM). After 48-d of growth under Cd (40 µM) and/or As (40 µM) stress, carbohydrate and N metabolism in leaves, roots and stolons were measured. For carbohydrate metabolism, various sugars-i.e., sucrose, starch, glucose, fructose, and total soluble sugar contents (TSSC)-and the activities of enzymes associated with sucrose metabolism and glycolysis-i.e., acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI), sucrose-synthetase (SS), sucrose phosphatesynthetase (SPS), fructokinase (FK), hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and pyruvatekinase (PK)-were measured. For N metabolism, NO3-, NO2- and NH4+ contents along with the enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NRA), nitrite reductase (NiRA), glutamine-synthetase (GS), and glutamate-synthetase (GOGAT) were measured. Overall, Cd and/or As treatments had reduced plant growth relative to those plants grown without heavy metal toxicity, due to hindered photosynthesis and alterations in N metabolism and glycolysis. Regarding N metabolism, heavy metal toxicity caused a reduction in NO3- and NO2- content and NRA and NiRA enzymatic activity and enhanced NH4+ content and GDH activity in leaves, roots and stolons. Regarding glycolysis, the activity of enzymes of glycolysis-i.e., FK, HK, PFK, and PK-were also reduced. In the C metabolism study, plants combatted Cd and As toxicity naturally by an adaptation mechanism which caused an increase in soluble sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose) by increasing NI, SS and SSP enzymatic activity. Supplementation with Se in the Cd and/or As treatments in the carbohydrate and N metabolism studies improved plant growth. Selenium supplementation in the Cd and As treatments decreased Cd and/or As content in the plant tissue and alleviating the Cd- and/or As-induced toxicity by enhancing the C-metabolism adaptation mechanism. Applying Se to Cd and As treatments also decreased nitrogen losses by hindering Cd- and As-induced changes in the N-metabolism. Se also limited Cd and As accumulation in the plant tissue by the antagonistic effect between Cd/Se and As/Se in the roots. The results of this study indicate that in the presence of Cd and/or As. soil toxicity, Se may be a powerful tool for promoting plant growth.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Sacarose/metabolismo
12.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 375, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small, basic proteins that are abundant in higher plants. They have been reported to play an important role in various plant physiological processes, such as lipid transfer, signal transduction, and pathogen defense. To date, a comprehensive analysis of the potato nsLTP gene family is still lacking after the completion of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genome sequencing. A genome-wide characterization, classification and expression analysis of the StnsLTP gene family was performed in this study. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 83 nsLTP genes were identified and categorized into eight types based on Boutrot's method. Multiple characteristics of these genes, including phylogeny, gene structures, conserved motifs, protein domains, chromosome locations, and cis-elements in the promoter sequences, were analyzed. The chromosome distribution and the collinearity analyses suggested that the expansion of the StnsLTP gene family was greatly enhanced by the tandem duplications. Ka/Ks analysis showed that 47 pairs of duplicated genes tended to undergo purifying selection during evolution. Moreover, the expression of StnsLTP genes in various tissues was analyzed by using RNA-seq data and verified by quantitative real-time PCR, revealing that the StnsLTP genes were mainly expressed in younger tissues. These results indicated that StnsLTPs may played significant and functionally varied roles in the development of different tissues. CONCLUSION: In this study, we comprehensively analyzed nsLTPs in potato, providing valuable information to better understand the functions of StnsLTPs in different tissues and pathways, especially in response to abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Seleção Genética , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
13.
Food Chem ; 292: 350-358, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054687

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess potato omics profiles of new varieties for meaningful differences from analogous profiles of commercial varieties through the SIMCA one-class classification model. Analytical profiles of nine commercial potato varieties, eleven experimental potato varieties, one GM potato variety that had acquired Phytophtora resistance based on a single insert with potato-derived DNA sequences, and its non-GM commercial counterpart were generated. The ten conventional varieties were used to construct the one-class model. Omics profiles from experimental non-GM and GM varieties were assessed using the one-class SIMCA models. No potential unintended effects were identified in the case of the GM variety. The model showed that varieties that were genetically more distant from the commercial varieties were recognized as aberrant, highlighting its potential in determining whether additional evaluation is required for the risk assessment of materials produced from any breeding technique, including genetic modification.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metabolômica , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Solanum tuberosum/genética
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5293-5302, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing challenges of resource depletion, food security and environmental protection are putting stress on the development of biorefinery processes for bioprocessing of residues from food and agro-industry into value-added products. In this study, the simultaneous production of lactic acid (LA) and livestock feed on a combined substrate based on molasses and potato stillage by Lactobacillus paracasei NRRL B-4564 immobilized onto sunflower seed hull (SSH), brewer's spent grain (BSG) and sugar beet pulp (SBP) was studied. RESULTS: The highest total LA concentration of 399 g L-1 with overall productivity of 1.27 g L-1  h-1 was achieved in repeated batch fermentation by SBP-immobilized biocatalyst, followed by BSG- and SSH-immobilized cells. Fermentation improved the content of proteins and ash, and decreased the content of fibers in all three support materials. In addition, the fermentation had favorable effect on in vitro dry matter digestibility and energy values of SSH and BSG. According to assessment of probiotic potential, L. paracasei demonstrated a favorable probiotic profile, exhibiting high resistance to simulated ruminant digestive tract and significant antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed strategy enables valorization of agro-industrial residues as value-added ruminant feed and simultaneous LA production. Following principles of circular economy, the developed process combines different raw materials and integrates them into a biorefinery process, improving the overall profitability and productivity. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus paracasei/metabolismo , Probióticos/análise , Agricultura , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Fermentação , Lactobacillus paracasei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melaço/análise , Melaço/microbiologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ruminantes , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(4): e1007729, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002734

RESUMO

The use of host nutrients to support pathogen growth is central to disease. We addressed the relationship between metabolism and trophic behavior by comparing metabolic gene expression during potato tuber colonization by two oomycetes, the hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans and the necrotroph Pythium ultimum. Genes for several pathways including amino acid, nucleotide, and cofactor biosynthesis were expressed more by Ph. infestans during its biotrophic stage compared to Py. ultimum. In contrast, Py. ultimum had higher expression of genes for metabolizing compounds that are normally sequestered within plant cells but released to the pathogen upon plant cell lysis, such as starch and triacylglycerides. The transcription pattern of metabolic genes in Ph. infestans during late infection became more like that of Py. ultimum, consistent with the former's transition to necrotrophy. Interspecific variation in metabolic gene content was limited but included the presence of γ-amylase only in Py. ultimum. The pathogens were also found to employ strikingly distinct strategies for using nitrate. Measurements of mRNA, 15N labeling studies, enzyme assays, and immunoblotting indicated that the assimilation pathway in Ph. infestans was nitrate-insensitive but induced during amino acid and ammonium starvation. In contrast, the pathway was nitrate-induced but not amino acid-repressed in Py. ultimum. The lack of amino acid repression in Py. ultimum appears due to the absence of a transcription factor common to fungi and Phytophthora that acts as a nitrogen metabolite repressor. Evidence for functional diversification in nitrate reductase protein was also observed. Its temperature optimum was adapted to each organism's growth range, and its Km was much lower in Py. ultimum. In summary, we observed divergence in patterns of gene expression, gene content, and enzyme function which contribute to the fitness of each species in its niche.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Phytophthora/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Phytophthora/classificação , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubérculos/parasitologia , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/parasitologia
16.
Food Funct ; 10(4): 1846-1855, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942789

RESUMO

Potatoes are rich in phenolic compounds which have been reported to impact starch digestion and intestinal glucose transport in model systems through phenolic-starch interactions. While these effects are well documented for pigmented potatoes and in model systems, the relevance of phenolics to the glycemic properties of processed colorless potato-based foods under naturalistic conditions remains unclear. This study assessed impacts of processing on phenolic concentrations, resistant starch content and glycemic properties of Russet Burbank and Shepody potatoes. Product forms included French fries, shredded (hash browns) and diced (home fries) produced through commercial processing as well as parallel in-home techniques. Commercial products had significantly higher concentrations of resistant starch (p < 0.05, 1.48-6.57 vs. 1.23-2.22 g per 100 fresh weight) and resistant starch/total starch ratio (5.42-18.3% vs. 3.58-7.62%) compared to freshly prepared counterparts, while statistically lower total caffeoylquinic acid content (2.94-10.9 vs. 11.5-25.2 g per 100 fresh weight). Glucose release and intestinal transport assessed using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell monolayers model demonstrated a reduction in d7-glucose intestinal transport from commercially processed products relative to fresh prepared counterparts (p < 0.05, 31.3-61.2% vs. 79.3-110% at 60 min). Commercial Russet Burbank potato products including French fries, home fries and hash browns were then selected for clinical assessment of glycemic response and appetite rating by 23 participants (11 male and 12 female). The three products presented a subtle but discernable ascending trend (French fry ≥ home fry ≥ hash browns) for incremental area under the curve (IAUC, 95.2 ± 12 vs. 105 ± 10 vs. 107 ± 14 mM min, p < 0.05) at 2 h post breakfast and for appetite rating (45.2 ± 6.3 vs. 52.4 ± 4.1 vs. 57.7 ± 7.2 for hunger) at 4 h post breakfast with no significant difference from the control (whole wheat pancake). These results suggest that potato phenolics have only a modest influence on acute glycemic responses.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Adulto , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Fast Foods/análise , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Fenóis/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999555

RESUMO

The role of the protein phosphorylation mechanism in the mobilization of vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) is totally unknown. Patatin is the major VSP of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber that encompasses multiple differentially phosphorylated isoforms. In this study, temporal changes in the phosphorylation status of patatin isoforms and their involvement in patatin mobilization are investigated using phosphoproteomic methods based on targeted two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). High-resolution 2-DE profiles of patatin isoforms were obtained in four sequential tuber life cycle stages of Kennebec cultivar: endodormancy, bud break, sprouting and plant growth. In-gel multiplex identification of phosphorylated isoforms with Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein-specific stain revealed an increase in the number of phosphorylated isoforms after the tuber endodormancy stage. In addition, we found that the phosphorylation status of patatin isoforms significantly changed throughout the tuber life cycle (P < 0.05) using the chemical method of protein dephosphorylation with hydrogen fluoride-pyridine (HF-P) coupled to 2-DE. More specifically, patatin phosphorylation increased by 32% from endodormancy to the tuber sprouting stage and subsequently decreased together with patatin degradation. Patatin isoforms were not randomly mobilized because highly phosphorylated Kuras-isoforms were preferably degraded in comparison to less phosphorylated non-Kuras isoforms. These results lead us to conclude that patatin is mobilized by a mechanism dependent on the phosphorylation status of specific isoforms.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/análise , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Fosforilação , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Tubérculos/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/análise , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/química
18.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 484(1): 19-22, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016499

RESUMO

Potato plant tolerance to chloride salinity rose after short-term exposure to blue light, which has been first shown in this study. The protective effect of blue light was based on its ability to stimulate the accumulation of low-molecular weight organic compounds with antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Sal , Solanum tuberosum/fisiologia , Luz Solar , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos da radiação
19.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987324

RESUMO

Alcalase- generated potato protein hydrolysate (APPH) is a potential bioactive peptide against diabetes mellitus (DM) and DM-associated secondary effects in animal models. The aim of the present study was to find the efficiency of a deca-peptide DIKTNKPVIF (DF) from APPH against DM. Six-week-old male ICR mice were divided into the following groups: Control, Control+DF (received 50 mg/kg DF), streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM group, DM+Acarbose group (20 mg/kg of acarbose), DM+DF-L (25 mg/kg of DF), DM+DF-H (50 mg/kg of DF), and DM+APPH (50 mg/kg of APPH). Comparable to APPH, treatment with DF effectively regulated blood glucose level and also controlled plasma total glycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), insulin, and HbA1c levels in DM animals. DF treatment also showed evidence of ameliorating DM-associated damages in the pancreatic islets and in the liver, heart, and kidney tissues. Therefore, the results demonstrate that the short synthetic peptide-DF may effectively provide protection against DM-associated damages.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Estreptozocina , Subtilisinas/metabolismo
20.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 484(1): 88-91, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012023

RESUMO

The role of the nuclear protein coilin in the mechanisms of resistance of potato Solanum tuberosum cultivar Chicago to biotic and abiotic stresses was studied using the CRISPR-Cas9 technology. For the coilin gene editing, a complex consisting of the Cas9 endonuclease and a short guide RNA was immobilized on gold or chitosan microparticles and delivered into apical meristem cells by bioballistics or vacuum infiltration methods, respectively. Editing at least one allele of the coilin gene considerably increased the resistance of the edited lines to infection with the potato virus Y and their tolerance to salt and osmotic stress.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Meristema , Proteínas Nucleares , Pressão Osmótica , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas de Plantas , Rhabdoviridae/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Meristema/genética , Meristema/metabolismo , Meristema/virologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/virologia
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