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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068175

RESUMO

Low phosphorus (P) availability is a major limiting factor for potatoes. P fertilizer is applied to enhance P availability; however, it may become toxic when plants accumulate at high concentrations. Therefore, it is necessary to gain more knowledge of the morphological and biochemical processes associated with P deficiency and toxicity for potatoes, as well as to explore an alternative approach to ameliorate the P deficiency condition. A comprehensive study was conducted (I) to assess plant morphology, mineral allocation, and metabolites of potatoes in response to P deficiency and toxicity; and (II) to evaluate the potency of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in improving plant biomass, P uptake, and metabolites at low P levels. The results revealed a reduction in plant height and biomass by 60-80% under P deficiency compared to P optimum. P deficiency and toxicity conditions also altered the mineral concentration and allocation in plants due to nutrient imbalance. The stress induced by both P deficiency and toxicity was evident from an accumulation of proline and total free amino acids in young leaves and roots. Furthermore, root metabolite profiling revealed that P deficiency reduced sugars by 50-80% and organic acids by 20-90%, but increased amino acids by 1.5-14.8 times. However, the effect of P toxicity on metabolic changes in roots was less pronounced. Under P deficiency, PGPR significantly improved the root and shoot biomass, total root length, and root surface area by 32-45%. This finding suggests the potency of PGPR inoculation to increase potato plant tolerance under P deficiency.


Assuntos
Fósforo/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Rhizobiaceae/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/anatomia & histologia , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia
2.
Food Chem ; 359: 129939, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957333

RESUMO

Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-potato (ToLCNDV-potato) causes potato apical leaf curl disease which severely affects nutritional parameters such as carbohydrate, protein, and starch biosynthesis thereby altering glycemic index (GI) and resistant starch (RS) of potato. ToLCNDV-potato virus was inoculated on potato cultivars (Kufri Pukhraj [susceptible]; Kufri Bahar [resistant]) and various quality parameters of potato tuber were studied. There was a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in starch, amylose and resistant starch contents in the infected tubers. However, carbohydrate and amylopectin increased significantly (P < 0.01) which contributes to increased starch digestibility reflected with high GI and glycemic load values. Besides, ToLCNDV-potato infection leads to a significant increase in reducing sugar, sucrose, amino acid and protein in potato tubers. This is a first-ever study that highlights the impact of biotic stress on GI, RS and nutritional quality parameters of potato which is a matter of concern for consumers.


Assuntos
Begomovirus/patogenicidade , Índice Glicêmico , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Amido Resistente/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Solanum tuberosum/virologia , Estresse Fisiológico
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 938-949, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878362

RESUMO

The continuing increase in the global saline-alkali land area has made saline-alkali stress the principal abiotic stress limiting plant growth. Potato is the most important non-grain crop, and its production is also severely limited by saline-alkali stress. However, few studies have addressed the mechanism of saline-alkali tolerance of potato with a focus on its response to neutral salt NaCl stress, or its response to alkali stress. Recently, miRNA-mRNA analyses have helped advance our understanding of how plants respond to stress. Here, we have characterized the morphological, physiological, and transcriptome changes of tissue culture seedlings of potato variety "Qingshu No. 9" treated with NaHCO3 (for 0, 2, 6, and 24 h). We found that the leaves of tissue culture seedlings wilted and withered under alkali stress, and the contents of ABA, BRs, trehalose, and lignin in roots increased significantly. The contents of GAs decreased significantly. Subsequently, miRNA-seq analysis results identified 168 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMIs) under alkali stress, including 21 exist miRNAs and 37 known miRNAs from 47 families and 110 novel miRNAs. The mRNA-seq results identified 5731 differentially expressed mRNAs (DEMs) under alkali stress. By miRNA-mRNA integrated analysis, were obtained 33 miRNA-target gene pairs composed of 20 DEMIs and 33 DEMs. Next, we identified the "phenylpropanoid biosynthesis", "plant hormone signal transduction", and "starch and sucrose metabolism" pathways as necessary for potato to respond to alkali stress. miR4243-x and novel-m064-5p were involved in the response of potato to alkali stress by their negative regulatory effects on shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) genes, respectively. The expression results of miRNA and mRNA were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results clarify the mechanism of potato response to alkali stress at the miRNA level, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of potato's response to alkali stress. We report many candidate miRNAs and mRNAs for molecular-assisted screening and salt-alkali resistance breeding.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Álcalis/toxicidade , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
4.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801283

RESUMO

Potatoes of six cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.) with red, purple, and yellow flesh were stored at 2 and 5 °C for 3 and 6 months, and the influence of these factors on the content of free amino acids was determined. The potato cultivar and storage time had the greatest impact on the free amino acid content. The tubers of red-fleshed (Rote Emma) and purple-fleshed (Blue Congo) potatoes contained over 28 mg/g DM of free amino acids, and the Blaue Annelise cultivar with purple flesh had over 18 mg/g DM. After 6 months, the highest increase in their content (by 36%) was recorded in tubers of the Fresco cultivar (yellow-fleshed). In the analysed potatoes, the content of alanine, proline, serine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and α-aminoadipic acid increased, while that of asparagine, aspartic acid, and glutamine decreased. Asparagine decreased to the greatest extent in "Blaue Annelise" potatoes (by 24%) and that of glutamine in tubers of Rote Emma and Vineta by 18%.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Temperatura
5.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922183

RESUMO

With a growing world population, accelerating climate changes, and limited arable land, it is critical to focus on plant-based resources for sustainable food production. In addition, plants are a cornucopia for secondary metabolites, of which many have robust antioxidative capacities and are beneficial for human health. Potato is one of the major food crops worldwide, and is recognized by the United Nations as an excellent food source for an increasing world population. Potato tubers are rich in a plethora of antioxidants with an array of health-promoting effects. This review article provides a detailed overview about the biosynthesis, chemical and health-promoting properties of the most abundant antioxidants in potato tubers, including several vitamins, carotenoids and phenylpropanoids. The dietary contribution of diverse commercial and primitive cultivars are detailed and document that potato contributes much more than just complex carbohydrates to the diet. Finally, the review provides insights into the current and future potential of potato-based systems as tools and resources for healthy and sustainable food production.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Estrutura Molecular , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/farmacologia
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 162: 716-729, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799183

RESUMO

Four members of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) family StCDPK22/23/24 and StCDPK27, present three functional EF-hands motifs in their calmodulin-like domain (CLD). StCDPK22/23/24 are clustered in clade III-b1 with tomato and Arabidopsis CDPKs that lack the first EF-hand motif, while StCDPK27 is clustered in clade III-b3 with CDPKs that lack EF-hand 2. Members of each clade share similar intron-exon structures and acylation profiles. 3D model predictions suggested that StCDPK22 and StCDPK24 are active kinases that undergo a conformational switch in the presence of Ca2+ even when lacking one functional EF-hand motif; however, assays performed with recombinant proteins indicated that StCDPK24:6xHis was active in all the conditions tested, and its activity was enhanced in the presence of Ca2+, but StCDPK22:6xHis had scarce or null activity. Both kinases share with AtCPK8 the same autophosphorylation pattern in the autoinhibitory (AD) and C-terminal variable (CTV) domains, suggesting that it could be a characteristic of clade III-b1. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that StCDPK22 is mainly expressed in early stages of tuberization, but not limited to, while StCDPK24 expression is more ubiquitous. In silico analysis predicted several abiotic stress-responsive elements in its promoters. Accordingly, StCDPK24 expression peaked at 10 h in in vitro plants exposed to salt shock and then declined. Moreover, a significant increase was observed at 2 h in stems of salt-treated greenhouse plants, suggesting that this CDPK could participate in the early events of the signaling cascade triggered in response to salt.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Solanum tuberosum , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Clonidina/análogos & derivados , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
7.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(2): 383-387, mar.-abr. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201883

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: dada la carencia de fuentes documentales históricas sobre el inicio del consumo efectivo de patata en Vitoria (Álava, España), su introducción en la dieta urbana se estima a partir de los datos de cultivo y producción. Ello solo permite aseverar la introducción del cultivo a finales del siglo XVIII, el reconocimiento de dos saltos cuantitativos durante las guerras de independencia y primera carlista, y que era el segundo cultivo en cantidad en 1857. Objetivo/método: desde la hipótesis de una buena correspondencia entre la dieta hospitalaria y la dieta ordinaria urbana, evidenciada en otros estudios para Vitoria, se propone documentar la cronología de la introducción de la patata en la dieta urbana a partir de su análisis en el hospital de la ciudad, así como contextualizar los acontecimientos históricos concurrentes mediante la revisión y el análisis de fuentes documentales primarias y secundarias. RESULTADOS: el hospital conserva el registro de alimentos adquiridos desde 1743. La primera compra de patatas se abona el 17 de septiembre de 1834. Se continúa con adquisiciones en cantidades y fechas muy variables que se normalizan a partir de 1844. Contextualmente, existe una crisis mayor de subsistencia con el cólera como causa más inmediata y necesaria en sinergia con la primera guerra carlista y la devastación de cultivos en una tormenta veraniega. En 1854 la patata está asentada en la dieta urbana. CONCLUSIONES: la primera adquisición de patatas se realizó en septiembre de 1834 en el contexto inmediato del cólera junto a la guerra carlista y efectos catastróficos meteorológicos


INTRODUCTION: given the lack of historical documentary sources about the beginning of potato effective consumption in Vitoria (Alava, Spain), its introduction in the urban diet is estimated from cultivation and production data. This only allows asserting the introduction of the cultivation at the end of the 18th century, the recognition of two quantitative jumps during the Independence and First Carlist Wars, and that it was the second cultivation in quantity by 1857. Objective/method: from the hypothesis of a good correspondence between hospital diet and ordinary urban diet, evidenced in other studies for Vitoria, it is proposed to document the chronology of potato introduction in the urban diet from its analysis in the city hospital, as well as to contextualize concurrent historical events, through the review and analysis of primary and secondary documentary sources. RESULTS: the hospital keeps a record of food acquisitions since 1743. The first purchase of potatoes was paid on September 17, 1834. Acquisitions continue in very variable quantities and dates, which are normalized from 1844. Contextually, there is a major subsistence crisis with cholera as the most immediate and necessary cause in synergy with the first carlist war and the devastation of crops in a summer storm. In 1854 the potato was established in the urban diet. CONCLUSIONS: the first acquisition of potatoes was made in September 1834 in the immediate context of cholera together with the carlist war and catastrophic weather effects


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Dietoterapia/história , Serviço Hospitalar de Nutrição , Solanum tuberosum/história , Dietoterapia/métodos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Espanha
8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 260: 117801, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712149

RESUMO

Slowly digestible starches have received interest due to their lower increase of postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels and, hence, modification of starches towards slower digestibility has commercial interest. However, chemical characteristics driving enzymatic (digestive) degradation are not fully unraveled. The digestion properties of starches have been linked to their crystalline type, chain length distribution, amylose content or degree of branching, but content and length of relatively long side-chains in amylopectin has not been paid attention to. Therefore, this research focusses on the unique content and length of amylopectin side-chains from conventional and new starch sources (potato, corn, pea, and tulip) correlated to the enzymatic digestion. The rate of hydrolysis was found to be correlated with the crystalline type of starch, as previously suggested, however, the complete hydrolysis of all starches, independent of the crystalline type and source, was shown to be governed by the content of longer amylopectin chains.


Assuntos
Gelatina/química , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Cristalização , Digestão , Hidrólise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Amido/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
9.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 116, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Correlation network analysis has become an integral tool to study metabolite datasets. Networks are constructed by omitting correlations between metabolites based on two thresholds-namely the r and the associated p-values. While p-value threshold settings follow the rules of multiple hypotheses testing correction, guidelines for r-value threshold settings have not been defined. RESULTS: Here, we introduce a method that allows determining the r-value threshold based on an iterative approach, where different networks are constructed and their network topology is monitored. Once the network topology changes significantly, the threshold is set to the corresponding correlation coefficient value. The approach was exemplified on: (i) a metabolite and morphological trait dataset from a potato association panel, which was grown under normal irrigation and water recovery conditions; and validated (ii) on a metabolite dataset of hearts of fed and fasted mice. For the potato normal irrigation correlation network a threshold of Pearson's |r|≥ 0.23 was suggested, while for the water recovery correlation network a threshold of Pearson's |r|≥ 0.41 was estimated. For both mice networks the threshold was calculated with Pearson's |r|≥ 0.84. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis corrected the previously stated Pearson's correlation coefficient threshold from 0.4 to 0.41 in the water recovery network and from 0.4 to 0.23 for the normal irrigation network. Furthermore, the proposed method suggested a correlation threshold of 0.84 for both mice networks rather than a threshold of 0.7 as applied earlier. We demonstrate that the proposed approach is a valuable tool for constructing biological meaningful networks.


Assuntos
Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Irrigação Agrícola , Animais , Correlação de Dados , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Camundongos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669030

RESUMO

Potato tuber dormancy is critical for the post-harvest quality. Snakin/Gibberellic Acid Stimulated in Arabidopsis (GASA) family genes are involved in the plants' defense against pathogens and in growth and development, but the effect of Snakin-2 (SN2) on tuber dormancy and sprouting is largely unknown. In this study, a transgenic approach was applied to manipulate the expression level of SN2 in tubers, and it demonstrated that StSN2 significantly controlled tuber sprouting, and silencing StSN2 resulted in a release of dormancy and overexpressing tubers showed a longer dormant period than that of the control. Further analyses revealed that the decrease expression level accelerated skin cracking and water loss. Metabolite analyses revealed that StSN2 significantly down-regulated the accumulation of lignin precursors in the periderm, and the change of lignin content was documented, a finding which was consistent with the precursors' level. Subsequently, proteomics found that cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) and peroxidase (Prx), the key proteins for lignin synthesis, were significantly up-regulated in silencing lines, and gene expression and enzyme activity analyses also supported this effect. Interestingly, we found that StSN2 physically interacts with three peroxidases catalyzing the oxidation and polymerization of lignin. In addition, SN2 altered the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). These results suggest that StSN2 negatively regulates lignin biosynthesis and H2O2 accumulation, and ultimately inhibits the sprouting of potato tubers.


Assuntos
Cisteína/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lignina/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Inativação Gênica , Lignina/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Caules de Planta/citologia , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Tubérculos/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Proteômica , Plântula/citologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/enzimologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo
11.
Plant Sci ; 306: 110854, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775360

RESUMO

Many tuber and storage root crops owing to their high nutritional values offer high potential to overcome food security issues. The lack of information regarding molecular mechanisms that govern belowground storage organ development (except a tuber crop, potato) has limited the application of biotechnological strategies for improving storage crop yield. Phytohormones like gibberellin and cytokinin are known to play a crucial role in governing potato tuber development. Another phytohormone, auxin has been shown to induce tuber initiation and growth, and its crosstalk with gibberellin and strigolactone in a belowground modified stem (stolon) contributes to the overall potato tuber yield. In this review, we describe the crucial role of auxin biology in development of potato tubers. Considering the emerging reports from commercially important storage root crops (sweet potato, cassava, carrot, sugar beet and radish), we propose the function of auxin and related gene regulatory network in storage root development. The pattern of auxin content of stolon during various stages of potato tuber formation appears to be consistent with its level in various developmental stages of storage roots. We have also put-forward the potential of three-way interaction between auxin, strigolactone and mycorrhizal fungi in tuber and storage root development. Overall, we propose that auxin gene regulatory network and its crosstalk with other phytohormones in stolons/roots could govern belowground tuber and storage root development.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organogênese Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Tubérculos/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Solanum tuberosum/genética
12.
J Food Sci ; 86(3): 1022-1032, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615480

RESUMO

The effect of the flavor enhancers monoammonium glutamate (MAG), monosodium glutamate (MSG), disodium guanylate (GMP), and disodium inosinate (IMP) on intensifying salty taste in food matrices (shoestring potatoes, requeijão cheese, and beef burgers) with a reduction in the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) present was evaluated. Experiments were conducted using a central composite rotational design with two variables: the concentrations of flavor enhancer and NaCl added in the food matrix. The effect of IMP was not significant (P > 0.05) on the intensity of salty taste in any of the matrices analyzed. GMP presented lower performance compared to MAG and MSG in intensifying the salty taste of the treatments, regardless of the reduction of NaCl. Compared to MSG and GMP, MAG showed greater efficiency in intensifying the salty taste in requeijão cheese and beef burger with a reduction of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of NaCl. MSG presented higher efficiency compared to MAG and GMP when applied in shoestring potatoes for all reductions of NaCl tested (25%, 50%, and 75%). The ability of flavor enhancers to improve the salty taste depends on the effect of the flavor enhancer, the complexity of the food matrix, and the reduction of NaCl in foods. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The complexity of the food matrix plays a significant role in the perception of salty taste in sodium-reduced products. In these products, sodium reduction may affect the taste enhancer's effect of enhancing salty taste. Therefore, this study broadens the knowledge of the effects of flavor enhancers on different foods, as well as the ability to enhance salty taste in food matrices with NaCl reduction. Moreover, it provides information on how to reduce the sodium content in these matrices while maintaining the same perception of salty taste as a conventional matrix.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Aromatizantes/farmacologia , Produtos da Carne/análise , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Solanum tuberosum/química , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/metabolismo , Glutamato de Sódio/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 348: 129132, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524691

RESUMO

Enzymatic browning is considered a critical factor that adversely decreases the quality of fresh-cut products. Although many individual physical or chemical methods have been explored to control browning, there are few approaches combining these technologies. In the present study, Sonchus oleraceus L. extract (SOLE) and ultrasound treatment efficiently controlled the activities of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lipoxygenase, soluble quinones, and intermediate and advanced products, and a lower malondialdehyde content and higher antioxidant capacity were observed in fresh-cut potato slices. More than 50 phenolics and flavonoids were identified in SOLE by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In conclusion, the combined SOLE and ultrasound treatment could serve as a promising method for attenuating enzymatic browning.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Sonchus/química , Sonicação , Antioxidantes/química , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Reação de Maillard , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Sonchus/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Plant Mol Biol ; 106(1-2): 85-108, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629224

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Overexpression of StCaM2 in tobacco promotes plant growth and confers increased salinity and drought tolerance by enhancing the photosynthetic efficiency, ROS scavenging, and recovery from membrane injury. Calmodulins (CaMs) are important Ca2+ sensors that interact with effector proteins and drive a network of signal transduction pathways involved in regulating the growth and developmental pattern of plants under stress. Herein, using in silico analysis, we identified 17 CaM isoforms (StCaM) in potato. Expression profiling revealed different temporal and spatial expression patterns of these genes, which were modulated under abiotic stress. Among the identified StCaM genes, StCaM2 was found to have the largest number of abiotic stress responsive promoter elements. In addition, StCaM2 was upregulated in response to some of the selected abiotic stress in potato tissues. Overexpression of StCaM2 in transgenic tobacco plants enhanced their tolerance to salinity and drought stress. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species was remarkably decreased in transgenic lines compared to that in wild type plants. Chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis suggested better performance of photosystem II in transgenic plants under stress compared to that in wild type plants. The increase in salinity stress tolerance in StCaM2-overexpressing plants was also associated with a favorable K+/Na+ ratio. The enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses correlated with the increase in the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes in transgenic tobacco plants. Overall, our results suggest that StCaM2 can be a novel candidate for conferring salt and drought tolerance in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Secas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Salinidade , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Calmodulina/genética , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma de Planta , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/genética , Íons , Membranas , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Prolina/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Tabaco/enzimologia , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111661, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396171

RESUMO

NRAMP family genes participate in the absorption and transport of heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) and play an important role in the response to heavy metal stress. There is an abundance of research on these genes in bacteria, plants and fungi, although not in S. tuberosum. A total of 48 members(potato(5), Arabidopsis(7), Tomato(9), pepper(9), rice(12) and tobacco(6)) were identified from 6 species (potato (Solanum tuberosum), Arabidopsis thaliana, Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), rice (Oryza sativa) and tobacco (Nicotiana attenuate)) and were classified into four subgroups. Across NRAMP gene family members, there are 15 highly conserved motifs that have similar genetic structures and characteristics. In addition, a total of 16 pairs of colinear genes were found in eight species. Analysis of cis-elements indicated that, in response to abiotic stress, NRAMPs are mainly regulated by phytohormones and transcription factors. In addition, analysis of expression profiles indicated that StNRAMP4 is mainly expressed in the roots. According to a qRT-PCR-based analysis of the StNRAMP family, with the exception of Pb2+ stress, StNRAMPs positively responded to stress from Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ and The expression patterns is similar of StNRAMP2, under Pb2+, and Cu2+ treatment, the relative expression peaked at 24 h. the relative expression peaked at 12 h and was upregulated 428-fold in the roots under Ni2+ stress. Under Cd2+ stress, StNRAMP3 was upregulated 28-fold in the leaves. StNRAMP1, StNRAMP4 and StNRAMP5 showed significant upregulation under Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ stress, respectively. Expression of StNRAMPs could be specifically induced by heavy metals, implying their possible role in the transport and absorption of heavy metals. This research explains the colinear characteristics of NRAMPs in several food crop species, which is useful for providing important genetic resources for cultivating food crop that accumulate low amounts of heavy metals and for explaining the biological functions of NRAMPs in plants.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Família Multigênica , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111873, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418157

RESUMO

Food availability represents a major worldwide concern due to population growth, increased demand, and climate change. Therefore, it is imperative to identify compounds that can improve crop performance. Plant biostimulants have gained prominence because of their potentials to increase germination, productivity and quality of a wide range of horticultural and agronomic crops. Phosphite (Phi), an analog of orthophosphate, is an emerging biostimulant used in horticulture and agronomy. The aim of this study was to uncover the molecular mechanisms through which Phi acts as a biostimulant with potential effects of overall plant growth. Field and greenhouse experiments, using 4 potato cultivars, showed that following Phi applications, plant performance, including several physio-biochemical traits, crop productivity, and quality traits, were significantly improved. RNA sequencing of control and Phi-treated plants of cultivar Xingjia No. 2, at 0 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h after the Phi application for 24 h revealed extensive changes in the gene expression profiles. A total of 2856 differentially expressed genes were identified, suggesting that multiple pathways of primary and secondary metabolism, such as flavonoids biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, were strongly influenced by foliar applications of Phi. GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) enrichment analyses associated with defense responses revealed significant effects of Phi on a plethora of defense mechanisms. These results suggest that Phi acted as a biostimulant by priming the plants, that was, by triggering dynamic changes in gene expression and modulating metabolic fluxes in a way that allowed plants to perform better. Therefore, Phi usage has the potential to improve crop yield and health, alleviating the challenges posed by the need of feeding a growing world population, while minimizing the agricultural impact on human health and environment.


Assuntos
Fosfitos/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Food Chem ; 348: 129150, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513529

RESUMO

Selenium-enriched potato is a good supplement for selenium-deficient populations. This study evaluated the influence of two most common cooking methods, including boiling and frying, on selenium content, speciation, and in vitro bioaccessibility of selenium-biofortified potato tubers. After foliar application of 200 µg/mL sodium selenite, potato tubers with 1.33 µg Se/g were obtained. Peeling resulted in 53.4%-69.9% loss of selenium in tubers. The total selenium content decreased by approximately 43.3% after boiling, among which up to 38.5% of the lost selenium is found in the boiling water. Nearly 31.7% of selenium was lost via volatilization during frying. Both cooking methods significantly enhanced the bioaccessibility of Se(IV) in tubers. Whereas SeMeCys became less bioaccessible after boiling. SeMet and SeCys2 in fired tubers were not accessible after digestion. This study suggested that boiling is more appropriate for cooking selenium-enriched potatoes.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Selênio/análise , Solanum tuberosum/química , Digestão , Tubérculos/química , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Selenito de Sódio/química , Selenito de Sódio/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Atômica
18.
Food Chem ; 347: 129080, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508586

RESUMO

Vegetable oils are increasingly replacing animal fats in diets, but malondialdehyde (MDA), a peroxidation product of these oils, has been regarded as toxic; this necessitated investigation of MDA formation during consumption. This study investigated MDA formation in four vegetable oils during frying French fries (FF) and fried chicken breast meat (FCBM) at 180 °C for 7 h. Results showed that MDA contents were lower in oils used for frying foods than in control oils, mainly because MDA was incorporated into the foods. MDA content was lower in FF, but higher in FCBM, due to the different food components. Model oil and food system analyses yielded similar results. MDA bound the hydrophobic helical structure in starch-based FF, but was exhibited greater reactivity with nucleophilic groups in protein-based FCBM, resulting in stronger interaction with FCBM than with FF. Our results indicated the existence of distinct mechanisms underlying MDA migration in different food matrixes.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Lipídeos/química , Malondialdeído/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Adsorção , Animais , Galinhas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Carne/análise , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Amido/química
19.
Food Chem ; 342: 128526, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223300

RESUMO

Aqueous extracts from seven coloured potato varieties (three red-fleshed, three-purple fleshed, and one marble-fleshed) were studied for their anthocyanin content, in vitro biological activities, colouring properties and their potential application in the food industry. Acylated glycosides or pelargonidin and petunidin aglycones were identified as the main anthocyanin forms in the red and purple varieties, respectively. The total anthocyanin content among varieties ranged from 478.3 to 886.2 mg/100 g extract. All the extracts presented in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities, whereas no toxic effects were detected. Finally, two selected extracts were tested as colourants in a soft drink formulation and presented suitable sensory profiles as well as high colour stability during a 30-day shelf-life when compared with the commercial colourant E163. Therefore, the tested extracts could be used as natural food colourants and considered for substituting the existing synthetic colouring agents.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Corantes de Alimentos/química , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Paladar
20.
Food Chem ; 343: 128401, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228966

RESUMO

Enzymatic browning is one of the major difficulties for the preservation and commercial value of fresh-cut products. To research more healthy and inexpensive anti-browning methods, we investigated the effect of ultrasonic coupling purslane extract on the browning resistance of fresh-cut potato during 8d storage at 4 °C. Firstly, the optimal ultrasonic time (10 min) was obtained. Then, the results showed that the combined application with lower purslane extract concentration (0.02%, w/w) could achieve a better anti-browning effect than the optimal concentration of alone purslane extract (0.05%, w/w). The combined application not only significantly inhibited the key enzyme activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), but also effectively reduced the damage to cell membrane, maintained its integrity and permeability. Meanwhile, it also improved antioxidant capacity during storage. Overall, the ultrasonic cavitation combined with purslane extract would be a promising method for fresh-cut industry.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Portulaca/química , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Ultrassom , Antioxidantes/química , Catecol Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Cor , Condutividade Elétrica , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Portulaca/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos
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