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1.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111036, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620440

RESUMO

Like in mammals, the plant immune system has evolved to perceive damage. Damaged-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are endogenous signals generated in wounded or infected tissue after pathogen or insect attack. Although extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a DAMP signal that induces immune responses, plant responses after eDNA perception remain largely unknown. Here, we report that signaling defenses but not direct defense responses are induced after eDNA applications enhancing broad-range plant protection. A screening of defense signaling and hormone biosynthesis marker genes revealed that OXI1, CML37 and MPK3 are relevant eDNA-Induced Resistance markers (eDNA-IR). Additionally, we observed that eDNA from several Arabidopsis ecotypes and other phylogenetically distant plants such as citrus, bean and, more surprisingly, a monocotyledonous plant such as maize upregulates eDNA-IR marker genes. Using 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) and aniline blue staining methods, we observed that H2O2 but not callose was strongly accumulated following self-eDNA treatments. Finally, eDNA resulted in effective induced resistance in Arabidopsis against the pathogens Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, Pseudomonas syringae, and Botrytis cinerea and against aphid infestation, reducing the number of nymphs and moving forms. Hence, the unspecificity of DNA origin and the wide range of insects to which eDNA can protect opens many questions about the mechanisms behind eDNA-IR.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , DNA/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Zea mays/genética , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Brassica/genética , Brassica/imunologia , Brassica/microbiologia , Citrus/genética , Citrus/imunologia , Citrus/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/imunologia , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Phaseolus/genética , Phaseolus/imunologia , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Solanum/genética , Solanum/imunologia , Solanum/microbiologia , Spinacia oleracea/genética , Spinacia oleracea/imunologia , Spinacia oleracea/microbiologia , Zea mays/imunologia , Zea mays/microbiologia
2.
Planta ; 254(5): 96, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655339

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: NB-LRR genes in the three Solanum species showed specific constitution characteristics and evolved multiple clusters and duplicates. Some genes could respond to biotic stresses such as tomato bacterial wilt. Nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR, NLR) is a largest resistance gene family in plants, which plays a key role in response to biotic stresses. In this study, NB-LRR genes in cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum (Sl) and its wild relatives S. pennellii (Spe) and S. pimpinellifolium (Spi) were analyzed using bioinformatics approaches. In total, 238, 202 and 217 NB-LRR genes of 8 different types were found in Sl, Spe and Spi, respectively. The three species showed similar genomic characteristics. The NB-LRR genes were mainly distributed on chromosomes 4, 5 and 11 and located at the distal zones, forming multiple clusters and tandem duplicates. A large number of homologs appeared through gene expansion, with most Ka/Ks values being less than 1, indicating that purifying selection had occurred in evolution. These genes were mainly expressed in root and could respond to different biotic stresses. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that SlNLR genes could respond to tomato bacterial wilt, with SlNLR1 probably involved in the resistance response, whereas others being the opposite. The transcription factors (TFs) and interaction proteins that regulate target genes were mainly Dof, NAC and MYB families and kinases. The results provide a basis for the isolation and application of related genes in plant disease resistance breeding.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Ralstonia solanacearum , Solanum , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Solanum/genética
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 5879-5894, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471354

RESUMO

Purpose: The importance of studying polyphenolic compounds as natural antioxidants has encouraged the search for new methods of analysis that are quick and simple. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using plant extracts has been presented as an alternative to determine the total polyphenolic content and its antioxidant activity. Methods: In this study, aqueous leaf extract of Solanum mammosum, a species of plant endemic to South America, was used to produce AgNPs. The technique of oxygen radical absorption capacity using fluorescein (ORAC-FL) was used to measure antioxidant activity. The oxidation of the 2´,7´-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH2-DA) as fluorescent probe was used to measure cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). Electrochemical behavior was also examined using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Total polyphenolic content (TPH) was analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the major polyphenolic compound was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC/DAD). Finally, a microbial analysis was conducted using Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp. Results: The average size of nanoparticles was 5.2 ± 2.3 nm measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The antioxidant activity measured by ORAC-FL in the extract and nanoparticles were 3944 ± 112 and 637.5 ± 14.8 µM ET/g of sample, respectively. Cellular antioxidant activity was 14.7 ± 0.2 for the aqueous extract and 12.5 ± 0.2 for the nanoparticles. The electrochemical index (EI) was 402 µA/V for the extract and 324 µA/V for the nanoparticles. Total polyphenolic content was 826.6 ± 20.9 and 139.7 ± 20.9 mg EGA/100 g of sample. Gallic acid was the main polyphenolic compound present in the leaf extract. Microbiological analysis revealed that although leaf extract was not toxic for Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp., minor toxic activity for AgNPs was detected for both strains. Conclusion: It is concluded that the aqueous extract of the leaves of S. mammosum contains nontoxic antioxidant compounds capable of producing AgNPs. The methods using AgNPs can be used as a fast analytical tool to monitor the presence of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds from plant origin. Analysis and detection of new antioxidants from plant extracts may be potentially applicable in biomedicine.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Solanum , Antioxidantes , Fluoresceína , Capacidade de Absorbância de Radicais de Oxigênio , Extratos Vegetais , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Prata , Água
4.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110589, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507734

RESUMO

Chronic high-glucose levels induce the generation of reactive oxygen species leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is one of the pathological triggers in the development of diabetes. This study investigated the alkaloid composition of two fruits of the genus Solanum, fruta-do-lobo (Solanum lycocarpum) and juá-açu (Solanum oocarpum), and their capacity to protect against oxidative damage and defective insulin secretion induced by chronic high-glucose levels. LC-MS and molecular network of fruit crude extracts reveals that juá-açu and fruta-do-lobo contain kukoamines and glycoalkaloids, respectively. Two purification processes were used to enrich those alkaloids. Fruta-do-lobo extract rich in glycoalkaloids showed a strong cytotoxicity effect, however the juá-açu enriched extract was able to protect mitochondrial functionality against glucotoxicity and stimulate insulin secretion even under conditions of hyperglycemia. These results are promising and suggest that juá-açu is a potential source of bioactive compounds for adjuvant/co-adjuvant therapy for diabetes.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Solanum , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Frutas , Secreção de Insulina , Mitocôndrias
5.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(10)2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568923

RESUMO

Genetic diversity is the raw material for germplasm enhancement. Landraces and wild species relatives of potato, which contain a rich gene pool of valuable agronomic traits, can provide insights into the genetic diversity behind the adaptability of the common potato. The diploid plant, Solanum stenotomum (Sst), is believed to have an ancestral relationship with modern potato cultivars and be a potential source of resistance against disease. Sequencing of the Sst genome generated an assembly of 852.85 Mb (N50 scaffold size, 3.7 Mb). Pseudomolecule construction anchored 788.75 Mb of the assembly onto 12 pseudochromosomes, with an anchor rate of 92.4%. Genome annotation yielded 41,914 high-confidence protein-coding gene models and comparative analyses with closely related Solanaceae species identified 358 Sst-specific gene families, 885 gene families with expansion along the Sst lineage, and 149 genes experiencing accelerated rates of protein sequence evolution in Sst, the functions of which were mainly associated with defense responses, particularly against bacterial and fungal infection. Insights into the Sst genome and the genomic variation of cultivated potato taxa are valuable in elaborating the impact of potato evolution in early landrace diploid and facilitate modern potato breeding.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Solanum , Diploide , Genoma de Planta , Humanos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Solanum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética
6.
Am J Bot ; 108(9): 1808-1815, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590302

RESUMO

PREMISE: Plant domestication can be detected when transport, use, and manipulation of propagules impact reproductive functionality, especially in species with self-incompatible breeding systems. METHODS: Evidence for human-caused founder effect in the Four Corners potato (Solanum jamesii Torr.) was examined by conducting 526 controlled matings between archaeological and non-archaeological populations from field-collected tubers grown in a greenhouse. Specimens from 24 major herbaria and collection records from >160 populations were examined to determine which produced fruits. RESULTS: Archaeological populations did not produce any fruits when self-crossed or outcrossed between individuals from the same source. A weak ability to self- or outcross within populations was observed in non-archaeological populations. Outcrossing between archaeological and non-archaeological populations, however, produced fully formed, seed-containing fruits, especially with a non-archaeological pollen source. Fruit formation was observed in 51 of 162 occurrences, with minimal evidence of constraint by monsoonal drought, lack of pollinators, or spatial separation of suitable partners. Some archaeological populations (especially those along ancient trade routes) had records of fruit production (Chaco Canyon), while others (those in northern Arizona, western Colorado, and southern Utah) did not. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that archaeological populations could have different origins at different times-some descending directly from large gene pools to the south and others derived from gardens already established around occupations. The latter experienced a chain of founder events, which presumably would further reduce genetic diversity and mating capability. Consequently, some archaeological populations lack the genetic ability to sexually reproduce, likely as the result of human-caused founder effect.


Assuntos
Solanum , Efeito Fundador , Geografia , Humanos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polinização , Reprodução , Solanum/genética
7.
Environ Res ; 202: 111918, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419465

RESUMO

Nowadays world deals with a lot of environmental troubles out of which water pollution is very dangerous. Water gets contaminated by heavy metal ions is a universal problem which needs suitable consideration to keep up the quality of the water. It will be advantageous that an easy device can be detecting the concentration of heavy metal ions in water. Here, a contaminant, cadmium from industrial affluent into water is considered and focused. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been synthesized by Solanum trilobatum leaf extract and its applications of antifungal and sensing activity was reported here. The influences of different concentration of these reducing agent on the synthesis of AuNPs (G5 and G10) have been evaluated. The structural, optical, vibrational, morphological and compositional properties of the AuNPs were studied through XRD, UV-vis spectra, FTIR, HRTEM and EDAX analysis. The optical studies showed surface plasmon absorbance peak at 526 nm. It shows that the absorbance of the peak becomes narrow with a higher concentration of leaf extract. XRD results showed the average size of the AuNPs was 8 nm. It also confirmed the high crystallinity of nanoparticles. FTIR exposes that amine and carboxyl groups may be involved in the stabilization and reduction mechanism. TEM pictures of both G10 and G5 demonstrate merely spherical nanoparticles. This morphology control is taken place owing to the adsorbed amine and carboxyl groups onto the gold nanoparticles cap the particles and improve the stability. The presence of gold elements in the sample was identified with the help of EDAX. The sensitivity of the system towards various Cd2+ concentrations was measured as 0.058/mM for G5 and 0.095/mM for G10. The prepared nanoparticles produced highest zone of inhibition (ZOI) of 17.5 mm and 19 mm against human being pathogenic fungi Aspergillus Flavus and Candida albicans respectively. Here, small sized spherical nanoparticles showed good antifungal activity.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Solanum , Cádmio , Ouro , Química Verde , Humanos , Fotoquímica , Extratos Vegetais , Água
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9362-9375, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342975

RESUMO

Glycosidically bound volatiles (GBVs) are flavorless compounds in fruits and may undergo hydrolysis during fruit maturation, storage, and processing, releasing free aglycones that are odor active. However, the contribution of glycosidic aglycones to the sensory attributes of fruits remains unclear. Herein, the key odor-active aglycones in tamarillo fruits were elucidated through the molecular sensory approach. We extracted GBVs from three cultivars of tamarillo fruits using solid-phase extraction and subsequently prepared aglycone isolates by enzymatic hydrolysis of GBVs. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) coupled with odor activity value (OAV) calculation, comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA), and omission tests were used to identify key aromatic aglycones. A total of 42 odorants were determined by GC-MS-O analysis. Among them, trans-2,cis-6-nonadienal, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF), linalool, 4-vinylguaiacol, geraniol, and α-terpineol showed high OAVs. The cultivar Amber had more aglycones with flavor dilution (FD) factors >16 than the Mulligan cultivar (27 vs 21, respectively), and the Laird's Large fruit showed the highest FD of 1024 for glycosidic DMHF. Omission tests indicated 14 aglycones as essential odorants related to GBVs in tamarillo fruits. Moreover, the enzymatic liberation of aglycones affected the sensory attributes of the tamarillo juice, resulting in an intensified odor profile with noticeable fruity and sweet notes. This study gives insights into the role of endogenous aroma during tamarillo-flavor perception, which lays the groundwork for developing tamarillo-based products with improved sensory properties.


Assuntos
Solanum , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
9.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439770

RESUMO

Climate change is a pressing matter of anthropogenic nature to which agriculture contributes by abusing production inputs such as inorganic fertilizers and fertigation water, thus degrading land and water sources. Moreover, as the increase in the demand of food in 2050 is estimated to be 25 to 70% more than what is currently produced today, a sustainable intensification of agriculture is needed. Biostimulant substances are products that the EU states work by promoting growth, resistance to plant abiotic stress, and increasing produce quality, and may be a valid strategy to enhance sustainable agricultural practice. Presented in this review is a comprehensive look at the scientific literature regarding the widely used and EU-sanctioned biostimulant substances categories of silicon, seaweed extracts, protein hydrolysates, and humic substances. Starting from their origin, the modulation of plants' hormonal networks, physiology, and stress defense systems, their in vivo effects are discussed on some of the most prominent vegetable species of the popular plant groupings of cucurbits, leafy greens, and nightshades. The review concludes by identifying several research areas relevant to biostimulant substances to exploit and enhance the biostimulant action of these substances and signaling molecules in horticulture.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/tendências , Cucurbita/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum/efeitos dos fármacos , Verduras , Mudança Climática , Cucurbita/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Húmicas , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Alga Marinha , Silicatos , Silício/química
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15961, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354211

RESUMO

Cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum (Slyc) is sensitive to water shortages, while its wild relative Solanum peruvianum L. (Sper), an herbaceous perennial small shrub, can grow under water scarcity and soil salinity environments. Plastic Sper modifies the plant architecture when suffering from drought, which is mediated by the replacement of leaf organs, among other changes. The early events that trigger acclimation and improve these morphological traits are unknown. In this study, a physiological and transcriptomic approach was used to understand the processes that differentiate the response in Slyc and Sper in the context of acclimation to stress and future consequences for plant architecture. In this regard, moderate (MD) and severe drought (SD) were imposed, mediating PEG treatments. The results showed a reduction in water and osmotic potential during stress, which correlated with the upregulation of sugar and proline metabolism-related genes. Additionally, the senescence-related genes FTSH6 protease and asparagine synthase were highly induced in both species. However, GO categories such as "protein ubiquitination" or "endopeptidase inhibitor activity" were differentially enriched in Sper and Slyc, respectively. Genes related to polyamine biosynthesis were induced, while several cyclins and kinetin were downregulated in Sper under drought treatments. Repression of photosynthesis-related genes was correlated with a higher reduction in the electron transport rate in Slyc than in Sper. Additionally, transcription factors from the ERF, WRKY and NAC families were commonly induced in Sper. Although some similar responses were induced in both species under drought stress, many important changes were detected to be differentially induced. This suggests that different pathways dictate the strategies to address the early response to drought and the consequent episodes in the acclimation process in both tomato species.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Secas , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Osmose/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Salinidade , Solanum/genética , Solanum/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
11.
Am J Bot ; 108(6): 993-1005, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196392

RESUMO

PREMISE: Plants can mitigate the fitness costs associated with pollen consumption by floral visitors by optimizing pollen release rates. In buzz-pollinated plants, bees apply vibrations to remove pollen from anthers with small pores. These poricidal anthers potentially function as mechanism staggering pollen release, but this has rarely been tested across plant species differing in anther morphology. METHODS: In Solanum Section Androceras, three pairs of buzz-pollinated species have undergone independent evolutionary shifts between large- and small-flowers, which are accompanied by replicate changes in anther morphology. We used these shifts in anther morphology to characterize the association between anther morphology and pollen dispensing schedules. We applied simulated bee-like vibrations to anthers to elicit pollen release, and compared pollen dispensing schedules across anther morphologies. We also investigated how vibration velocity affects pollen release. RESULTS: Replicate transitions in Solanum anther morphology are associated with consistent changes in pollen dispensing schedules. We found that small-flowered taxa release their pollen at higher rates than their large-flowered counterparts. Higher vibration velocities resulted in quicker pollen dispensing and more total pollen released. Finally, both the pollen dispensing rate and the amount of pollen released in the first vibration were negatively related to anther wall area, but we did not observe any association between pore size and pollen dispensing. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first empirical demonstration that the pollen dispensing properties of poricidal anthers depend on both floral characteristics and bee vibration properties. Morphological modification of anthers could thus provide a mechanism to exploit different pollination environments.


Assuntos
Polinização , Solanum , Animais , Abelhas , Evolução Biológica , Flores , Pólen
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 315, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-produced specialised metabolites are a powerful part of a plant's first line of defence against herbivorous insects, bacteria and fungi. Wild ancestors of present-day cultivated tomato produce a plethora of acylsugars in their type-I/IV trichomes and volatiles in their type-VI trichomes that have a potential role in plant resistance against insects. However, metabolic profiles are often complex mixtures making identification of the functionally interesting metabolites challenging. Here, we aimed to identify specialised metabolites from a wide range of wild tomato genotypes that could explain resistance to vector insects whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). We evaluated plant resistance, determined trichome density and obtained metabolite profiles of the glandular trichomes by LC-MS (acylsugars) and GC-MS (volatiles). Using a customised Random Forest learning algorithm, we determined the contribution of specific specialised metabolites to the resistance phenotypes observed. RESULTS: The selected wild tomato accessions showed different levels of resistance to both whiteflies and thrips. Accessions resistant to one insect can be susceptible to another. Glandular trichome density is not necessarily a good predictor for plant resistance although the density of type-I/IV trichomes, related to the production of acylsugars, appears to correlate with whitefly resistance. For type VI-trichomes, however, it seems resistance is determined by the specific content of the glands. There is a strong qualitative and quantitative variation in the metabolite profiles between different accessions, even when they are from the same species. Out of 76 acylsugars found, the random forest algorithm linked two acylsugars (S3:15 and S3:21) to whitefly resistance, but none to thrips resistance. Out of 86 volatiles detected, the sesquiterpene α-humulene was linked to whitefly susceptible accessions instead. The algorithm did not link any specific metabolite to resistance against thrips, but monoterpenes α-phellandrene, α-terpinene and ß-phellandrene/D-limonene were significantly associated with susceptible tomato accessions. CONCLUSIONS: Whiteflies and thrips are distinctly targeted by certain specialised metabolites found in wild tomatoes. The machine learning approach presented helped to identify features with efficacy toward the insect species studied. These acylsugar metabolites can be targets for breeding efforts towards the selection of insect-resistant cultivars.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Metaboloma/genética , Solanum/genética , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Ecótipo , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
14.
Science ; 372(6546): 1041-1042, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083476
15.
Planta ; 254(1): 11, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160697

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Cultivated tomatoes harboring the plastid-derived sesquiterpenes from S. habrochaites have altered type-VI trichome morphology and unveil additional genetic components necessary for piercing-sucking pest resistance. Arthropod resistance in the tomato wild relative Solanum habrochaites LA1777 is linked to specific sesquiterpene biosynthesis. The Sesquiterpene synthase 2 (SsT2) gene cluster on LA1777 chromosome 8 controls plastid-derived sesquiterpene synthesis. The main genes at SsT2 are Z-prenyltransferase (zFPS) and Santalene and Bergamotene Synthase (SBS), which produce α-santalene, ß-bergamotene, and α-bergamotene in LA1777 round-shaped type-VI glandular trichomes. Cultivated tomatoes have mushroom-shaped type-VI trichomes with much smaller glands that contain low levels of monoterpenes and cytosolic-derived sesquiterpenes, not presenting the same pest resistance as in LA1777. We successfully transferred zFPS and SBS from LA1777 to cultivated tomato (cv. Micro-Tom, MT) by a backcrossing approach. The trichomes of the MT-Sst2 introgressed line produced high levels of the plastid-derived sesquiterpenes. The type-VI trichome internal storage-cavity size increased in MT-Sst2, probably as an effect of the increased amount of sesquiterpenes, although it was not enough to mimic the round-shaped LA1777 trichomes. The presence of high amounts of plastid-derived sesquiterpenes was also not sufficient to confer resistance to various tomato piercing-sucking pests, indicating that the effect of the sesquiterpenes found in the wild S. habrochaites can be insect specific. Our results provide for a better understanding of the morphology of S. habrochaites type-VI trichomes and paves the way to obtain insect-resistant tomatoes.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Lycopersicon esculentum , Sesquiterpenos , Solanum , Animais , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Solanum/genética , Tricomas
16.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072383

RESUMO

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy remains one of the core analytical platforms for metabolomics, providing complementary chemical information to others, such as mass spectrometry, and offering particular advantages in some areas of research on account of its inherent robustness, reproducibility, and phenomenal dynamic range [...].


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Indústria Alimentícia , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Carne/análise , Metaboloma , Análise Multivariada , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solanum
17.
Elife ; 102021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165082

RESUMO

Invasive species represent one of the foremost risks to global biodiversity. Here, we use population genomics to evaluate the history and consequences of an invasion of wild tomato-Solanum pimpinellifolium-onto the Galápagos Islands from continental South America. Using >300 archipelago and mainland collections, we infer this invasion was recent and largely the result of a single event from central Ecuador. Patterns of ancestry within the genomes of invasive plants also reveal post-colonization hybridization and introgression between S. pimpinellifolium and the closely related Galápagos endemic Solanum cheesmaniae. Of admixed invasive individuals, those that carry endemic alleles at one of two different carotenoid biosynthesis loci also have orange fruits-characteristic of the endemic species-instead of typical red S. pimpinellifolium fruits. We infer that introgression of two independent fruit color loci explains this observed trait convergence, suggesting that selection has favored repeated transitions of red to orange fruits on the Galápagos.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Frutas/fisiologia , Introgressão Genética , Espécies Introduzidas , Solanum/genética , Solanum/fisiologia , Equador , Variação Genética , Pigmentos Biológicos , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(7): e10240, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008751

RESUMO

Dengue is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide. Infection with any of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes can be asymptomatic or lead to disease with clinical symptoms ranging from undifferentiated and self-limiting fever to severe dengue disease, which can be fatal in some cases. Currently, no specific antiviral compound is available for treating DENV. The aim of this study was to identify compounds in plants from Paraguayan folk medicine with inhibitory effects against DENV. We found high virucidal activity (50% maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of 24.97 µg/mL) against DENV-2 in the ethanolic extract of the roots of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Solanaceae) without an evident cytotoxic effect on Vero E6 cells. Three saponins isolated from the root extract showed virucidal effects (EC50 values ranging from 24.9 to 35.1 µg/mL) against DENV-2. Additionally, the saponins showed inhibitory activity against yellow fever virus (EC50 values ranging from 126 to 302.6 µg/mL), the prototype virus of the Flavivirus genus, suggesting that they may also be effective against other members of this genus. Consequently, these saponins may be lead compounds for the development of antiviral agents.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Saponinas , Solanum , Antivirais/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Replicação Viral , Vírus da Febre Amarela
19.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e237575, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978077

RESUMO

Resource allocation to reproduction can change depending on size, as predicted by the size-dependent sex allocation. This theory is based on the fact that small individuals will invest in the allocation of sex with lower cost of production, usually male gender. In plants, there are some andromonoecy species, presence of hermaphrodite and male flowers in the same individual. Andromonoecy provides a strategy to optimally allocate resources to male and female function, evolving a reproductive energy-saving strategy. Thus, our objective was to investigate the size-dependent sex allocation in Solanum lycocarpum St. Hil. We tested the hypothesis that plants with larger size will invest in the production of hermaphrodite flowers, because higher individuals have greater availability of resources to invest in more complex structures involving greater energy expenditure. The studied species was S. lycocarpum, an andromonoecious species. From June 2016 to March 2017 the data were collected in 38 individuals, divided in two groups: the larger plant group (n=18; height=3-5 m) and the smaller plant group (n=20; height=1-2 m).Our data show that there was effect of plant size on the flower production and the sexual gender allocation. The larger plants showed more flowers and higher production of hermaphrodite flowers. Furthermore, in the flower scale, we observed allometric relationship among the flower's traits with proportional investments in biomass, anther size and gynoecium size. Our results are in agreement with size-dependent sex allocation theory and andromonoecy hypothesis related to mechanisms for optimal resource allocation to male and female function.


Assuntos
Solanum , Feminino , Flores , Humanos , Fenótipo , Reprodução
20.
Plant Sci ; 308: 110911, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034868

RESUMO

Drought-sensitive crops are threatened as a consequence of limited available water due to climate change. The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) is susceptible to drought and within its wild relative species, Solanum kurtzianum is the Argentinian wild potato species best adapted to arid conditions. However, its physiological responses to water deficit (WD) are still missing. Within the distribution of S. kurtzianum, genotypes could be adapted to differential precipitation regimes. The aim of this work was to evaluate responses of three S. kurtzianum genotypes collected at 1100 (G1), 1900 (G2) and 2100 m a.s.l. (G3) to moderate and severe WD. Treatments were imposed since flowering and lasted 36 days. Yield components, morpho-physiological and biochemical responses; and phenotypic plasticity were evaluated. The three genotypes presented mechanisms to tolerate both WD treatments. G1 presented the lowest yield reduction under moderate WD, mainly through a rapid stomatal closure and a modest vegetative growth. The differences among genotypes suggest that local adaptation is taking place within its natural habitat. Also, G2 presented environmentally induced shifts in plasticity for stomatal length and carotenoids, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity has a role in acclimation of plants to WD until selection works.


Assuntos
Altitude , Secas , Genótipo , Solanum/fisiologia , Água/fisiologia , Argentina , Solanum/genética
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