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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 204: 111819, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062388

RESUMO

Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. is a common plant in much of Brazil. Despite containing metabolites with a wide range of pharmacological applications, there are few tissue culture reports for this plant. The possibility of large-scale in vitro production of this material has significant biotechnological potential. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of light conditions on the growth of cells in suspension, observing the production and yield of biomass and bioactive compounds and the enzymatic behavior. Calli obtained from leaf segments were cultured in solid medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 of 2,4-D, 2.5 mg L-1 kinetin, pH 5.7, in the dark. After 110 days of subculture, the calli were transferred to liquid medium. Cells were kept in the dark under agitation at 110 rpm and 25 °C and subcultured every 30 days. After 90 days of culture, 20 mL aliquots of cell suspension were added to flasks containing approximately 20 mL of medium (1:1) and cultured at different wavelengths (white, green, blue, red, and blue/red) under a photoperiod of 16 h with irradiance of 50 µmol m-2 s-1) and in the absence of light. The experiment was performed in a 6 × 6 factorial design (light condition × culture time). The cell cultures showed viability throughout the entire cycle, and chlorogenic and ferulic acids, orientin, quercitrin and, in higher amounts, quercetin, were detected in the first 7 days of culture. There was an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase and a decrease in ascorbate peroxidase after exposure to different light conditions; for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, no differences were observed. The different light conditions were not sufficient to trigger responses in the concentrations of bioactive compounds, despite the detection of increased levels of the enzymes involved in cellular homeostasis.


Assuntos
Luz , Solanum/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Ácido Clorogênico/metabolismo , Condutividade Elétrica , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/metabolismo , Solanum/citologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
2.
Plant Dis ; 104(4): 1113-1117, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040390

RESUMO

Host-pathogen interactions of a new species of Phytophthora, causal agent of late blight of tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.), identified as Phytophthora betacei, were investigated with four different cultivars. Thirty-six P. betacei isolates, collected from southern Colombia between 2008 and 2009, were used to inoculate common tree tomato cultivars, Común, Híbrido, Injerto, and Holandés. Data on incubation and latent periods as well as infection efficiency, lesion development, and total sporulation were collected via detached leaf assays. Significant differences in susceptibility, based on the parameters measured, were observed. Común was the most susceptible cultivar, followed by Injerto, Híbrido, and Holandés. The mean incubation period was lowest for Común at 125.6 h post-inoculation (hpi) and highest for Híbrido at 139.4 hpi. No significant differences in latent period were observed. All 36 isolates produced necrotic lesions on Común, and 33, 24, and 21 caused infection on Injerto, Híbrido, and Holandés, respectively. Two isolates were able to cause infection only on Común, and 13 isolates were able to infect all four cultivars. Infection efficiency was significantly higher for the cultivar Común, followed by Injerto, Híbrido, and Holandés. Average lesion size was larger on Común than on any other cultivar. An inverse relationship of lesion size and total sporulation was observed. Común had significantly lower total sporulation than Híbrido and Holandés, which had the smallest average lesion sizes. These data show variation in pathogenicity of P. betacei isolates, under controlled conditions, and differential susceptibility of four distinct S. betaceum cultivars.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Phytophthora , Solanum , Colômbia , Doenças das Plantas , Árvores
3.
Food Chem ; 312: 126030, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911353

RESUMO

This study developed comprehensive quantification methods for major nutritive and antinutritive phytochemical aglycones in edible African nightshade leaves, an underutilized food resource in the sub-Saharan area. A simultaneous hydrolysis and extraction method was developed using methanol with 2 M sulfuric acid with incubation at 65 °C for 60 min. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS methods were developed and validated for hydrolysis optimization and for quantification of eight major aglycones of polyphenols, alkaloids and sapogenins in 20 differently sourced nightshade leaves, comprising two African species Solanum scabrum and S. nigrum, and from two distinct cultivation sites, one in New Jersey, US and the other in Kenya Eldoret. Variation in species, accessions and cultivation environment played an important role in affecting the phytochemical profile. Total antinutritive alkaloids and sapogenins in all nightshade leaves were evaluated and found to be safe for consumption. This work provides evidence that the consumption of African nightshade leaves as a nutrient rich leafy green vegetable is safe and can contribute to food security and nutritional improvement in the sub-Saharan area.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Saponinas/análise , Solanum/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Glicosilação , Hidrólise , Quênia , Análise Multivariada , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227422, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923250

RESUMO

Studies of the interactions between plants and their microbiome have been conducted worldwide in the search for growth-promoting representative strains for use as biological inputs for agriculture, aiming to achieve more sustainable agriculture practices. With a focus on the isolation of plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria with ability to alleviate N stress, representative strains that were found at population densities greater than 104 cells g-1 and that could grow in N-free semisolid media were isolated from soils under different management conditions and from the roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and lulo (Solanum quitoense) plants that were grown in those soils. A total of 101 bacterial strains were obtained, after which they were phylogenetically categorized and characterized for their basic PGP mechanisms. All strains belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum in the classes Alphaproteobacteria (61% of isolates), Betaproteobacteria (19% of isolates) and Gammaproteobacteria (20% of isolates), with distribution encompassing nine genera, with the predominant genus being Rhizobium (58.4% of isolates). Strains isolated from conventional horticulture (CH) soil composed three bacterial genera, suggesting a lower diversity for the diazotrophs/N scavenger bacterial community than that observed for soils under organic management (ORG) or secondary forest coverture (SF). Conversely, diazotrophs/N scavenger strains from tomato plants grown in CH soil comprised a higher number of bacterial genera than did strains isolated from tomato plants grown in ORG or SF soils. Furthermore, strains isolated from tomato were phylogenetically more diverse than those from lulo. BOX-PCR fingerprinting of all strains revealed a high genetic diversity for several clonal representatives (four Rhizobium species and one Pseudomonas species). Considering the potential PGP mechanisms, 49 strains (48.5% of the total) produced IAA (2.96-193.97 µg IAA mg protein-1), 72 strains (71.3%) solubilized FePO4 (0.40-56.00 mg l-1), 44 strains (43.5%) solubilized AlPO4 (0.62-17.05 mg l-1), and 44 strains produced siderophores (1.06-3.23). Further, 91 isolates (90.1% of total) showed at least one PGP trait, and 68 isolates (67.3%) showed multiple PGP traits. Greenhouse trials using the bacterial collection to inoculate tomato or lulo plants revealed increases in plant biomass (roots, shoots or both plant tissues) elicited by 65 strains (54.5% of the bacterial collection), of which 36 were obtained from the tomato rhizosphere, 15 were obtained from the lulo rhizosphere, and 14 originated from samples of soil that lacked plants. In addition, 18 strains showed positive inoculation effects on both Solanum species, of which 12 were classified as Rhizobium spp. by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, the strategy adopted allowed us to identify the variability in the composition of culturable diazotroph/N-scavenger representatives from soils under different management conditions by using two Solanum species as trap plants. The present results suggest the ability of tomato and lulo plants to enrich their belowground microbiomes with rhizobia representatives and the potential of selected rhizobial strains to promote the growth of Solanum crops under limiting N supply.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fixação de Nitrogênio/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Solanum/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Microbiota , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Solanum/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Am J Bot ; 107(2): 286-297, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944272

RESUMO

PREMISE: Plant maternal effects on offspring phenotypes are well documented. However, little is known about how herbivory on maternal plants affects offspring fitness. Furthermore, while inbreeding is known to reduce plant reproductive output, previous studies have not explored whether and how such effects may extend across generations. Here, we addressed the transgenerational consequences of herbivory and maternal plant inbreeding on the reproduction of Solanum carolinense offspring. METHODS: Manduca sexta caterpillars were used to inflict weekly damage on inbred and outbred S. carolinense maternal plants. Cross-pollinations were performed by hand to produce seed from herbivore-damaged outbred plants, herbivore-damaged inbred plants, undamaged outbred plants, and undamaged inbred plants. The resulting seeds were grown in the greenhouse to assess emergence rate and flower production in the absence of herbivores. We also grew offspring in the field to examine reproductive output under natural conditions. RESULTS: We found transgenerational effects of herbivory and maternal plant inbreeding on seedling emergence and reproductive output. Offspring of herbivore-damaged plants had greater emergence, flowered earlier, and produced more flowers and seeds than offspring of undamaged plants. Offspring of outbred maternal plants also had greater seedling emergence and reproductive output than offspring of inbred maternal plants, even though all offspring were outbred. Moreover, the effects of maternal plant inbreeding were more severe when plant offspring were grown in field conditions. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that both herbivory and inbreeding have fitness consequences that extend across generations even in outbred progeny.


Assuntos
Manduca , Solanum , Animais , Herbivoria , Endogamia , Reprodução
6.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 50(2): 204-214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935152

RESUMO

Biotechnology through plant cell cultures in bioreactors is a tool that allows increasing the production of secondary metabolites of commercial interest. The hydrodynamic characterization, in addition to the transfer (OTR) and uptake (OUR) of oxygen through the dynamic method with different aeration rate, were used to see their influence on the production of biomass and saponins. The culture poisoning technique was used to determine the antifungal activity of the SC-2 and SC-3 saponins in vitro. Likewise, the shear or hydrodynamic stress of 273.6 mN/m2 were calculated based on the Reynolds Number. The oxygen supply (OTR) was always greater than the demand (OUR) for all the aeration rate evaluated. Dry weight values of 8.6 gDW/L and a concentration of 2.7 mg/L and 187.3 mg/L of the saponins SC-2 and SC-3 respectively were obtained with an air flow of 0.1 vvm. In addition, it was possible to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro by up to 93%, while in vivo it was possible to reduce the infections of strawberry seeds inoculated with phytopathogens, obtaining up to 94% of germinated seeds. This information will facilitate the rational operation of the bioreactor culture system that produces secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/síntese química , Reatores Biológicos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Saponinas/síntese química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Solanum/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Transformada
7.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(4-5): 431-445, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907707

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Iron deficiency conditions as well as iron supplied as a Fe(III)-mimosine complex induced a number of strategy I and strategy II genes for iron uptake in leucaena. Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is a tree-legume that can grow in alkaline soils, where metal-cofactors like Fe(III) are sparingly available. Mimosine, a known chelator of Fe(III), may facilitate Fe(III) uptake in leucaena by serving as a phytosiderophore. To test if mimosine can serve as a phytosiderophore, three sets of experiments were carried out. First, the binding properties and solubility of metal-mimosine complexes were assessed through spectrophotometry. Second, to study mimosine uptake in plants, pole bean, common bean, and tomato plants were supplied with mimosine alone and metal-mimosine complexes. Third, the expression of strategy I (S1) and strategy II (S2) genes for iron uptake from the soil was studied in leucaena plants exposed to different Fe(III) complexes. The results of this study show that (i) mimosine has high binding affinity for metallic cations at alkaline pH, Fe(III)-mimosine complexes are water soluble at alkaline pH, and that mimosine can bind soil iron under alkaline pH; (ii) pole bean, common bean, and tomato plants can uptake mimosine and transport it throughout the plant; and (iii) a number of S1 and S2 genes were upregulated in leucaena under iron-deficiency condition or when Fe(III) was supplied as a Fe(III)-mimosine complex. These findings suggest that leucaena may utilize both S1 and S2 strategies for iron uptake; and mimosine may play an important role in both strategies.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Mimosina/farmacocinética , Transporte Biológico , Tampões (Química) , Cátions , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ferro/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Nitrogênio , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Solo , Solanum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum/metabolismo , Solubilidade
8.
Phytopathology ; 110(3): 574-581, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725349

RESUMO

Clavibacter michiganensis is the Gram-positive causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato, an economically devastating disease with a worldwide distribution. C. michiganensis colonizes the xylem, leading to unilateral wilt, stem canker, and plant death. C. michiganensis can also infect developing tomato fruit through splash dispersal, forming exterior bird's eye lesions. There are no documented sources of qualitative resistance in Solanum spp.; however, quantitative trait loci conferring tolerance in Solanum arcanum and Solanum habrochaites have been identified. Mechanisms of tolerance and C. michiganensis colonization patterns in wild tomato species remain poorly understood. This study describes differences in symptom development and colonization patterns of the wild type (WT) and a hypervirulent bacterial expansin knockout (ΔCmEXLX2) in wild and cultivated tomato genotypes. Overall, WT and ΔCmEXLX2 cause less severe symptoms in wild tomato species and are impeded in spread and colonization of the vascular system. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe preferential colonization of protoxylem vessels and reduced intravascular spread in wild tomatoes. Differences in C. michiganensis in vitro growth and aggregation were determined in xylem sap, which may suggest that responses to pathogen colonization are occurring, leading to reduced colonization density in wild tomato species. Finally, wild tomato fruit was determined to be susceptible to C. michiganensis through in vivo inoculations and assessing lesion numbers and size. Fruit symptom severity was in some cases unrelated to severity of symptoms during vascular infection, suggesting different mechanisms for colonization of different tissues.


Assuntos
Actinomycetales , Lycopersicon esculentum , Solanum , Actinobacteria , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 88-96, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826619

RESUMO

Solanum rostratum is a worldwide malignant invasive weed, causing serious harm to the ecological environment and biodiversity. Strong chemical defense against herbivorous insects is supposed to be one of the successful invasive mechanisms of this exotic plant. However, the real defense components and their action mechanisms and distributions are still unknown. To address these problems, we bioassay-guided isolated compounds from the aerial part of S. rostratum and determined their structures using high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electronic circular dichroism calculation. One new and seven known compounds were identified, and all of the isolates exhibited different levels of antifeedant activities, especially compounds 1 and 4. Consistently, compounds 1 and 4 displayed potent inhibitory effects on antifeedant-related enzymes (AchE and CarE). The action mechanisms of active compounds 1 and 4 were revealed by molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation studies. Furthermore, the distributions of the active compounds in leaves, stems, and flowers were also analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Daninhas/química , Solanum/química , Animais , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Mariposas/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Solanum/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
10.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 22 Suppl 1: 133-142, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597710

RESUMO

Among wild species used in potato breeding, Solanum commersonii displays the highest tolerance to low temperatures under both acclimated (ACC) and non-acclimated (NACC) conditions. It is also the first wild potato relative with a known whole genome sequence. Recent studies have shown that abiotic stresses induce changes in the expression of many small non-coding RNA (sncRNA). We determined the small non-coding RNA (sncRNAome) of two clones of S. commersonii contrasting in their cold response phenotypes via smRNAseq. Differential analysis provided evidence that expression of several miRNAs changed in response to cold stress conditions. Conserved miR408a and miR408b changed their expression under NACC conditions, whereas miR156 and miR169 were differentially expressed only under ACC conditions. We also report changes in tasiRNA and secondary siRNA expression under both stress conditions. Our results reveal possible roles of sncRNA in the regulatory networks associated with tolerance to low temperatures and provide useful information for a more strategic use of genomic resources in potato breeding.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , MicroRNAs , Solanum tuberosum , Solanum , Temperatura Baixa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA/genética , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas , Solanum/genética
11.
Phytopathology ; 110(3): 666-673, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850831

RESUMO

Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are important contributors to yield reduction in tomato. Though resistant cultivars to common species (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica) are available, they are not effective against other major species of root-knot nematodes. Cultivars or lines of Solanum sisymbriifolium were examined to assess the presence and level of resistance to five major species: M. arenaria race 1, M. incognita race 3, M. haplanaria, M. javanica, and M. enterolobii. Differences in S. sisymbriifolium response to the nematode infection were apparent when susceptibility or resistance was classified by the egg counts per gram fresh weight of root and the multiplication rate of the nematodes. The cultivar Diamond was highly susceptible, Quattro and White Star were susceptible, while Sis Syn II was resistant to M. arenaria. Quattro, White Star, and Sis Syn II exhibited a moderate to high level of resistance to M. incognita but the nematode increased 2.5-fold from the initial population of the M. incognita on Diamond. All S. sisymbriifolium cultivars were highly resistant to both M. haplanaria and M. enterolobii, while highly susceptible to M. javanica. A microplot study under field conditions using Sis Syn II confirmed that M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. haplanaria were not pathogenic on the plant. Likewise, an examination on cross-sections of galled root tissues confirmed the susceptibility and resistance of S. sisymbriifolium lines to Meloidogyne spp. Using S. sisymbriifolium as a resistant rootstock or a new source of resistance may result in the development of nonchemical and sustainable management strategies to protect the tomato crop.


Assuntos
Solanum , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Variação Genética , Doenças das Plantas , Raízes de Plantas
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(7): 7120-7129, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883078

RESUMO

In this study, farmland and mining ecotypes of Solanum photeinocarpum (a potential cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator plant) were reciprocally hybridized each other, and the Cd accumulation characteristics of the F1 hybrids were studied. In pot experiments, higher biomasses and Cd extraction abilities were found for two S. photeinocarpum F1 hybrids than for the parents, but the Cd contents in various organs were lower in the hybrids than the parents. However, the differences between the Cd contents in the two hybrids were not significant. The antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) activities were higher for the S. photeinocarpum F1 hybrids than the parents. Less DNA methylation was found in the hybrids than the parents because more demethylation occurred in the hybrids than the parents. The biomass, Cd content, and Cd extraction ability effects in field experiments were similar to the effects in the pot experiments. It was concluded that reciprocally hybridizing different S. photeinocarpum ecotypes improved the ability of S. photeinocarpum to be used to phytoremediate contaminated land.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Poluentes do Solo , Solanum , Biomassa , Ecótipo , Solanum/química
13.
Plant Sci ; 290: 110274, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779908

RESUMO

Plants are exposed to a vast array of pathogens. The interaction between them may be classified in compatible and incompatible. Polyamines (PAs) are involved in defense responses, as well as salicylic acid (SA), gentisic acid (GA) and nitric oxide (NO), which can increase the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), creating a harsh environment to the pathogen. ROS can also damage the host cell and they can be controlled by ascorbate and glutathione. Among phytopathogens, one of the major threats to tomato crops is tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV). Resistance against this virus probably involves the Tm-22 gene. This work aimed to analyze signaling and antioxidant molecules in the defense response against ToMMV in Solanum pimpinellifolium and in S. lycopersicum 'VFNT'. In S. pimpinellifolium plants inoculated with ToMMV, an increase in NO, SA, GA, ascorbate and oxidized glutathione and a decrease in the content of PAs were observed. Characteristic symptoms of diseased plants and high absorbance values in PTA-ELISA indicated a compatible interaction. In VFNT-inoculated plants, less significant differences were noticed. Symptoms and viral concentration were not detected, indicating an incompatible interaction, possibly associated with the effector-triggered immunity (ETI) response.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Solanum/metabolismo , Tobamovirus/fisiologia , Gentisatos/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Solanum/microbiologia
14.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 22(1): 13-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529608

RESUMO

Signalling events through small peptides are essential in multiple aspects of plant reproduction. The ScRALF3 Solanum chacoense Rapid Alkalinization Factor (RALF) peptide was previously shown to regulate multiple aspects of cell-cell communication between the surrounding sporophytic tissue and the female gametophyte during ovule development. We analysed the global expression pattern of ScRALF3 with GUS reporter gene under control of the ScRALF3 promoter and validated it with in situ hybridisation. To better understand the role of ScRALF3 we used three different RNA interference (RNAi) lines that reduced the expression of ScRALF3 during pollen development. Both expression methods showed the presence of ScRALF3 in different tissues, including stigma, style, vascular tissues and during stamen development. Down-regulation of ScRALF3 expression through RNAi showed drastic defects in early stages of pollen development, mainly on the first mitosis. These results suggest that the ScRALF3 secreted peptide regulates the transition from sporogenesis to gametogenesis in both male and female gametophytes.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Células Germinativas Vegetais , Mitose , Proteínas de Plantas , Pólen , Transdução de Sinais , Solanum , Mitose/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/citologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Solanum/citologia , Solanum/genética , Solanum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20190149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721922

RESUMO

This work aimed to study the inheritance of resistance to Phytophthora infestans in tomato plants, using the maximum likelihood estimation function. The susceptible cultivar Santa Clara (Solanum lycopersicum) was used as the female genitor and the P. infestans resistant S. habrochaites f. glabratum accession (BGH 6902) as the male genitor. F1 plants from the crossing were self-pollinated to produce F2 progenies, and also backcrossed with PR and PS to produce BC1:R and BC1:S generations, respectively. The tomato plants were inoculated 50 days after transplanting. Disease severity was evaluated via a diagrammatic scale. Comparison of the genetic models created using the maximum likelihood function revealed that the inheritance of resistance to P. infestans in S. habrochaites is conferred by a major gene with additive and dominance effects, polygenes with additive effects, plus the environmental effect. Vertical resistance can be explored using genes with major effects. Programs of recurrent and maker-assisted selection are considered efficient strategies with which to select genotypes that hold P. infestans resistance conferred by polygenes.


Assuntos
Phytophthora infestans/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Solanum/microbiologia , Genótipo , Solanum/genética
16.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104411, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705951

RESUMO

Eleven sesquiterpenoids including four new eudesmane sesquiterpenoids, solanoids A-D (1-4), and seven known compounds (5-11) were isolated from the herbs of Solanum lyratum. By analyzing the UV, MS and NMR data, the gross structures of all isolates were established. The absolute configurations of these new compounds were determined by comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. The in vitro cytotoxicity of all isolates against the hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines was evaluated. Among them, compounds 7 and 11 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against two cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos de Eudesmano/farmacologia , Solanum/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , China , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos de Eudesmano/isolamento & purificação
17.
Planta ; 250(5): 1781-1787, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562541

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Copia/Ale is the youngest lineage in both Solanum tuberosum and S. commersonii. Within it, we identified nightshade, a new LTR element active in the cultivated potato. From an evolutionary perspective, long-terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RT) activity during stress may be viewed as a mean by which organisms can keep up rates of genetic adaptation to changing conditions. Potato is one of the most important crop consumed worldwide, but studies on LTR-RT characterization are still lacking. Here, we assessed the abundance, insertion time and activity of LTR-RTs in both cultivated Solanum tuberosum and its cold-tolerant wild relative S. commersonii genomes. Gypsy elements were more abundant than Copia ones, suggesting that the former was somehow more successful in colonizing potato genomes. However, Copia elements, and in particular, the Ale lineage, are younger than Gypsy ones, since their insertion time was in average ~ 2 Mya. Due to the ability of LTR-RTs to be circularized by the host DNA repair mechanisms, we identified via mobilome-seq a Copia/Ale element (called nightshade, informal name used for potato family) active in S. tuberosum genome. Our analyses represent a valuable resource for comparative genomics within the Solanaceae, transposon-tagging and for the design of cultivar-specific molecular markers in potato.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica , Retroelementos/ética , Solanum/genética , Sequências Repetidas Terminais/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Evolução Molecular , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Solanum/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
18.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 693-707, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367970

RESUMO

Crop domestication and selective breeding have altered plant defense mechanisms, influencing insect-plant interactions. A reduction in plant resistance/tolerance against herbivory is generally expected in domesticated species, however, limited efforts have been made to compare inducibility of plant defenses between wild and domesticated genotypes. In the present study, the inducibility of several plant defense mechanisms (e.g. defensive chemicals, trichomes, plant volatiles) were investigated, and the performance and preference of the herbivore Helicoverpa zea were measured in three different tomato genotypes; a) wild tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium L. (accession LA 2093), b) cherry tomato, S. lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme (accession Matts Wild Cherry), and c) cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum L. var. Better Boy). Enhanced inducibility of defensive chemicals, trichomes, and plant volatiles in the cultivated tomato, and a higher level of constitutive plant resistance against herbivory in the wild genotype was observed. When comparing the responses of damaged vs. undamaged leaves, the percent reduction in larval growth was higher on damaged leaves from cultivated tomato, suggesting a higher induced resistance compared to other two genotypes. While all tomato genotypes exhibited increased volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions in response to herbivory, the cultivated variety responded with generally higher levels of VOCs. Differences in VOC patterns may have influenced the ovipositional preferences, as H. zea female moths significantly preferred laying eggs on the cultivated versus the wild tomato genotypes. Selection of traits during domestication and selective breeding could alter allocation of resources, where plants selected for higher yield performance would allocate resources to defense only when attacked.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Mariposas/fisiologia , Solanum/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Herbivoria , Larva/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Solanum/genética , Solanum/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 334, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitic plants engage in a complex molecular dialog with potential host plants to identify a host and overcome host defenses to initiate development of the parasitic feeding organ, the haustorium, invade host tissues, and withdraw water and nutrients. While one of two critical signaling events in the parasitic plant life cycle (germination via stimulant chemicals) has been relatively well-studied, the signaling event that triggers haustorium formation remains elusive. Elucidation of this poorly understood molecular dialogue will shed light on plant-plant communication, parasitic plant physiology, and the evolution of parasitism in plants. RESULTS: Here we present an experimental framework that develops easily quantifiable contrasts for the facultative generalist parasitic plant, Triphysaria, as it feeds across a broad range of diverse flowering plants. The contrasts, including variable parasite growth form and mortality when grown with different hosts, suggest a dynamic and host-dependent molecular dialogue between the parasite and host. Finally, by comparing transcriptome datasets from attached versus unattached parasites we gain insight into some of the physiological processes that are altered during parasitic behavior including shifts in photosynthesis-related and stress response genes. CONCLUSIONS: This work sheds light on Triphysaria's parasitic life habit and is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms of haustorium initiation factor perception, a unique form of plant-plant communication.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Magnoliopsida/parasitologia , Orobanchaceae/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/parasitologia , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Medicago/parasitologia , Oryza/parasitologia , Solanum/parasitologia , Zea mays/parasitologia
20.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900334, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448497

RESUMO

Cernumidine (CER) is a guanidinic alkaloid isolated from Solanum cernuum leaves. In this work, we investigated the cytotoxicity, chemosensitizing effect of cernumidine to cisplatin (cDDP) and the possible mechanism of action of the combination on bladder cancer cells. Cernumidine showed cytotoxicity and could sensitize bladder cancer cells to cisplatin. The combination of CER+cDDP inhibited cell migration on T24 cells. CER+cDDP down-regulated MMP-2/9 and p-ERK1/2, while it increased EGFR activity corroborating the observed cell migration inhibition. Down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation pro-apoptotic Bax and further depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) indicates that mitochondria play a central role in the combination treatment inducing the mitochondrial signaling pathway of apoptosis in T24 cells. Our data showed that the alkaloid cernumidine is worthy of further studies as a chemosensitizing agent to be used in complementary chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Solanum/química , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/isolamento & purificação , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Guanidinas/química , Guanidinas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
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