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1.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e8, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551011

RESUMO

In the midst of the COVID-19 epidemic, Spain was one of the countries with the highest number of infections and a high mortality rate. The threat of the virus and consequences of the pandemic have a discernible impact on the mental health of citizens. This study aims to (a) evaluate the levels of anxiety, depression and well-being in a large Spanish sample during the confinement, (b) identify potential predictor variables associated to experiencing both clinical levels of distress and well-being in a sample of 2,122 Spanish people. By using descriptive analyses and logistic regression results revealed high rates of depression, anxiety and well-being. Specifically, our findings revealed that high levels of anxiety about COVID-19, increased substance use and loneliness as the strongest predictors of distress, while gross annual incomes and loneliness were strongest predictors of well-being. Finding of the present study provide a better insight about psychological adjustment to a pandemic and allows us to identify which population groups are at risk of experiencing higher levels of distress and which factors contribute to greater well-being, which could help in the treatments and prevention in similar stressful and traumatic situations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Angústia Psicológica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Renda , Internet , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 15, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532922

RESUMO

This note introduces a framework incorporating multiple sources of evidence into the response to COVID-19 to overcome the neglect of social and psychological causes of illness. By using the example of psychological research on loneliness and its effects on physical and mental health with particular focus on aging and disability, I seek to open further inquiry into how relevant psychological and social aspects of health can be addressed at policy level.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Solidão/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406588

RESUMO

The restrictions enacted during lockdown to limit the spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have led to changes in people's lifestyle habits. In Italy, these restrictions have dramatically changed the way people work and spend their leisure time, also with repercussions on diet and physical activity. An anonymous survey was disseminated via websites and social media to a convenience sample of the Italian population during and immediately after the first lockdown (10 March-18 May 2020). Data collected on 1826 individuals show that lockdown might have worsened the quality of sleep of almost half of the participants in this cross-sectional study. This worsening was associated with a deterioration in crucial determinants of health, such as physical activity and diet (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.18-2.40 and OR 4.19; 95% CI 2.51-6.96, respectively), with symptoms of psychological distress, such as tension (OR 3.88; 95% CI 2.74-5.52) and loneliness (OR 3.27; 95% CI 2.23-4.79), and with the presence of financial problems (some OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.27-2.72; many OR 7.27; 95% CI 3.59-14.73). The multivariate regression analysis models confirmed these associations. This impact on sleep quality was seen especially among females, those with low education level, and those who experienced financial problems.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Sono , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Solidão , Masculino , Quarentena , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245057, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and loneliness in the general population. More specifically, the study focused on prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms, the extent to which individuals with existing symptoms recovered or not, the prevalence of subtypes of loneliness, and the extent to which loneliness before and during this pandemic was associated with anxiety and depression symptoms. METHODS: Data was extracted from the longitudinal LISS panel, based on a probability sample of the Dutch population, with assessments on loneliness in October 2019 (T1) and June 2020 (T4), and anxiety and depression symptoms in November 2019 (T2), March 2020 (T3) and June 2020 (T4; Ntotal = 4,084). Loneliness was examined with the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale and anxiety and depression symptoms with the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5). RESULTS: Repeated measures multivariate logistic regression analyses (RMMLRA) showed a statistical significant lower prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms after the outbreak (T4 = 15.3%) than before (T2 = 16.8%) and during the COVID-19 outbreak (T3 = 17.2%). According to the Reliable Change Index, the distribution of recovery categories (remission, improvement, unchanged and worsening symptoms) after the outbreak did not differ significantly from the distribution of these categories before the outbreak. RMMLRA revealed that the prevalence of emotional loneliness increased significantly after the outbreak (T1 = 18.4%, T4 = 24.8%). Among individuals who were not lonely before and after the outbreak the prevalence of symptoms decreased significantly (T2 = 7.0%, T4 = 4.4%) and, likewise, among those who were not lonely anymore after the outbreak (T2 = 21.5%, T4 = 14.5%). However, the prevalence of symptoms increased significantly among those who became lonely during the pandemic (T2 = 17.9%, T4 = 26.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that this pandemic did not negatively affect the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms nor the normal recovery of symptoms among the general population during the first four months, but that emotional loneliness increased.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , /psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113700, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422845

RESUMO

COVID-19 has transformed day-to-day functioning and exacerbated mental health concerns. The current study examines preliminary feasibility and acceptability of a VA CONNECT - a novel 10-session, manualized telehealth group intervention integrating skills training and social support to develop a Safety & Resilience Plan for Veterans experiencing COVID-related stress. Data from the first 20 participants support the intervention's feasibility and acceptability. Strengths, limitations, and suggestions for improvement of the intervention are noted. Collaboration with other VA researchers would aid in protocol dissemination and evaluation of VA CONNECT's utility for reducing COVID-19-related stress, loneliness, and mental health symptoms.


Assuntos
/terapia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Telemedicina , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Apoio Social , Veteranos
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043590, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468529

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a national lockdown in India from midnight on 25 March 2020, with conditional relaxation by phases and zones from 20 April. We evaluated the impact of the lockdown in terms of healthcare provisions, physical health, mental health and social well-being within a multicentre cross-sectional study in India. METHODS: The SMART India study is an ongoing house-to-house survey conducted across 20 regions including 11 states and 1 union territory in India to study diabetes and its complications in the community. During the lockdown, we developed an online questionnaire and delivered it in English and seven popular Indian languages (Hindi, Tamil, Marathi, Telegu, Kannada, Bengali, Malayalam) to random samples of SMART-India participants in two rounds from 5 May 2020 to 24 May 2020. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the overall impact on health and healthcare provision in phases 3 and 4 of lockdown in red and non-red zones and their interactions. RESULTS: A total of 2003 participants completed this multicentre survey. The bivariate relationships between the outcomes and lockdown showed significant negative associations. In the multivariable analyses, the interactions between the red zones and lockdown showed that all five dimensions of healthcare provision were negatively affected (non-affordability: OR 1.917 (95% CI 1.126 to 3.264), non-accessibility: OR 2.458 (95% CI 1.549 to 3.902), inadequacy: OR 3.015 (95% CI 1.616 to 5.625), inappropriateness: OR 2.225 (95% CI 1.200 to 4.126) and discontinuity of care: OR 6.756 (95% CI 3.79 to 12.042)) and associated depression and social loneliness. CONCLUSION: The impact of COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on health and healthcare was negative. The exaggeration of income inequality during lockdown can be expected to extend the negative impacts beyond the lockdown.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Modelos Logísticos , Solidão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042824, 2021 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472787

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19-related social isolation and stress may have significant mental health effects, including post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression. These factors are thought to disproportionately affect populations at risk of psychopathology, such as adolescents with a history of childhood adversity (CA). Therefore, examining which factors may buffer the impact of COVID-19-related stress and isolation in vulnerable adolescents is critical. The Resilience After the COVID-19 Threat (REACT) study assesses whether emotion regulation capacity, inflammation and neuroimmune responses to stress induced in the laboratory prior to the pandemic predict responses to COVID-19-related social isolation and stress in adolescents with CA. We aim to elucidate the mechanisms that enable vulnerable adolescents to maintain or regain good mental health when confronted with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We recruited 79 adolescents aged 16-26 with CA experiences from the Resilience After Individual Stress Exposure study in which we assessed emotion regulation, neural and immune stress responses to an acute stress task. Our sample completed questionnaires at the start of the UK lockdown ('baseline'; April 2020) and three (July 2020) and 6 months later (October 2020) providing crucial longitudinal information across phases of the pandemic progression and government response. The questionnaires assess (1) mental health, (2) number and severity of life events, (3) physical health, (4) stress perception and (5) loneliness and friendship support. We will use multilevel modelling to examine whether individual differences at baseline are associated with responses to COVID-19-related social isolation and stress. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Cambridge Psychology Research Ethics Committee (PRE.2020.037). Results of the REACT study will be disseminated in publications in scientific peer-reviewed journals, presentations at scientific conferences and meetings, publications and presentations for the general public, and through social media.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Resiliência Psicológica , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Humanos , Solidão , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419194

RESUMO

Loneliness is a pervasive problem recognised as a serious social issue, and the prevailing COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated loneliness to greater prominence and concern. We expect a rise of a massive group of 'lonely' consumers who are deeply entrenched in the social isolation caused by COVID-19. There is an urgent need to revisit the phenomenon of lonely consumers to better prepare academic researchers, public policy makers and commercial managers in the post-COVID-19 era. Thus, this study conducts a synthesised review on past studies of lonely consumers. Based on an inductive analysis of 56 articles, 74 key themes are identified. These key themes are further categorised into five major clusters by way of a co-occurrence network analysis. Respectively, the five clusters address the psychological implications related to the dynamics between nonhuman attachment and consumers' loneliness, the commercial implications related to the paradoxical motivations of affiliation and self-affirmation in product selection and the dual information processing mechanism in response to advertisement appeals, and the social implications related to consumers' well-being in an ageing society and the anthropomorphic companionship in a virtual world. A list of research questions is proposed that concludes the review study.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Solidão , Pandemias , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Humanos
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435368

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a challenge to global mental health. Loneliness and isolation may put people at higher risk for increased psychological distress. However, there is a lack of research investigating the development of COVID-19-related distress over time. Materials and Methods: We undertook an online survey among general population (N = 1903) in Germany throughout 6 months from the peak transmission period in April to the off-peak period by September 2020. Results: We found that the average prevalence of psychological distress caused by the COVID-19 pandemic significantly rose from 24% to 66% between the peak and off-peak transmission period, respectively. Unemployment rate and loneliness increased negative mental health outcomes, although the number of active COVID-19 cases decreased from April to September. Psychological distress scores increased mostly in female, young, and lonely people. Conclusions: Our results underline the importance of considering innovative alternatives to facilitate employment opportunities, distant contacts, and self-help over the course of the pandemic. Our study highlights the urgent need to pay attention to mental health services specifically targeting female, young, unemployed, and lonely people.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Solidão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Angústia Psicológica , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e25848, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Senior centers and other types of clubs provide activities for older adults to address boredom, social isolation, and loneliness. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, most of these activities have been cancelled. A limited range of web-based activities have been offered as alternatives. However, the effectiveness of these web-based group activities for older adults has scarcely been researched. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to understand the extent to which web-based activities for older adults provide an adequate substitute for in-person activities. METHODS: In this telephone survey, we interviewed 105 older adults in Israel who had been offered the opportunity to participate in web-based activities after routine activities closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the total sample, 49/105 (46.7%) participated in the activities and 56/105 (53.3%) did not. We inquired about the respondents' background characteristics, satisfaction with the activities, and reasons for participation or nonparticipation. RESULTS: The respondents who participated in the web-based activities tended to be highly satisfied with at least some of them. They rated the enjoyment derived from the content of the activity as the most important motivator, followed by maintaining a routine and by enjoying the group and the presence of others. Over 50% of the participants (28/49, 57%) wished to continue with the exercise programming after the end of the COVID-19 pandemic, and 41% (20/49) wished to continue with the web-based lectures. Participants were more likely to report partaking in alternative activities than nonparticipants (P=.04). The most common reasons cited by nonparticipants were being unaware of the web-based program (24/56, 43%) despite a notification having been sent to the entire sample, lack of interest in the content (18/56, 32%), and technical issues (13/56, 23%), such as not owning or being able to fully use a computer. Both participants and nonparticipants were interested in a wide range of topics, with many being very particular about the topics they wished to access. Approximately half expressed willingness to pay for access; those who were willing to pay tended to have more years of education (P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a need for web-based activities for countering boredom and feelings of isolation. The main factors that influence the use, efficacy, and sustainability of online activities are access, motivational and need-fulfilling factors, and whether the activities are sufficiently tailored to individuals' preferences and abilities. Challenges in substituting in-person services are promoting social relationships that are currently not sufficiently incorporated into most web-based programs, accommodating a wider range of topics, and increasing the accessibility of current programs to older adults, especially those who are homebound, both during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Internet , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tédio , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Solidão , Masculino , Motivação , Pandemias , Isolamento Social , Telefone
12.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e16, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461639

RESUMO

AIMS: It remains unclear whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having an impact on suicide rates (SR). Economic insecurity and mental disorders are risk factors for suicide, which may increase during the pandemic. METHODS: Data on suicide events in a major city in Germany, and the corresponding life years (LY) were provided by the local authorities. For the year 2020, periods without restrictions on freedom of movement and social contact were compared with periods of moderate and severe COVID-19 restrictions. To avoid distortions due to seasonal fluctuations and linear time trends, suicide risk during the COVID-19 pandemic was compared with data from 2010 to 2019 using an interrupted time series analysis. RESULTS: A total of 643 suicides were registered and 6 032 690 LY were spent between 2010 and 2020. Of these, 53 suicides and 450 429 LY accounted for the year 2020.In 2020, SR (suicides per 100 000 LY) were lower in periods with severe COVID-19 restrictions (SR = 7.2, χ2 = 4.033, p = 0.045) compared with periods without restrictions (SR = 16.8). A comparison with previous years showed that this difference was caused by unusually high SR before the imposition of restrictions, while SR during the pandemic were within the trend corridor of previous years (expected suicides = 32.3, observed suicides = 35; IRR = 1.084, p = 0.682). CONCLUSIONS: SR during COVID-19 pandemic are in line with the trend in previous years. Careful monitoring of SR in the further course of the COVID-19 crisis is urgently needed. The findings have regional reference and should not be over-generalised.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/tendências , /epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466341

RESUMO

As is already well known, demographic changes will presumably lead to a rising number of old aged individuals and loneliness is a tremendous concern in aging populations. Poor health can be a potential consequence of loneliness, as well as a determining factor. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine whether postponed dental appointments due to costs affect loneliness longitudinally. Focusing on Germany, data from two waves (waves 5 and 6) of the "Survey of Health Ageing, and Retirement in Europe" (SHARE) were analyzed (n = 7703). The three-item loneliness scale (modified version of the revised UCLA Loneliness scale) was used to quantify loneliness. The presence of postponed dental appointments due to costs in the past 12 months (no; yes) served as a key independent variable. Socioeconomic factors as well as health-related factors were adjusted in the longitudinal regression analysis. After adjusting for confounding variables, regression analyses revealed that loneliness increased with decreases in self-rated health among men. Among women, loneliness increased when self-rated health decreased, when fewer chronic diseases and postponed dental appointments due to costs were reported. Among older women, postponed dental appointments due to costs are associated with feelings of loneliness. The study results add evidence that proper dental care (i.e., regular and appropriate visits to the dentist) is vital not only to one's oral health, but also plays a role in one's physical and emotional health.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Serviços de Saúde Bucal/economia , Solidão , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Am J Nurs ; 121(2): 72, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497137

RESUMO

As stories of dying alone from COVID-19 pervade the news, a reminder of the intimacy and love that can surround a hospice patient's last moments.


Assuntos
/enfermagem , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/psicologia , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Morte , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia
16.
Psychol Trauma ; 13(1): 9-15, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382329

RESUMO

Objective: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic represents an acute worldwide public health crisis causing an immediate disruption to every demographic group. One group significantly affected both educationally and psychosocially is college students, as they experienced an abrupt cancellation of in-person courses, were forced to leave their dormitories, and witnessed a loss of social activities. Method: This study utilizes survey data from college students in the throes of COVID-19-based home schooling collected for a Belgium-based international study including more than 134,000 participants from 28 countries around the world. Two hundred fifty-seven college students from a U.S. university participated in this study. Results: Results indicate that college students are affected by COVID-19 on several levels, including fear of themselves or others in their social network contracting the virus, apprehension about the changes in coursework delivery and unclear instructional parameters, overall loneliness, compromised motivation, and sleep disturbances, as well as anxious and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Analyses reveal a positive relationship between academic frustrations and mental health symptoms, the latter also negatively related to trust in the government regarding the preventive measures being implemented. Worries about becoming infected were positively related to mental health symptoms and negatively related to trust in the government. Results and implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Saúde Mental , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113648, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348199

RESUMO

This study sought to examine if mental health issues, namely depression and anxiety symptoms, and loneliness were experienced differently according to various demographic groups during the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., a societal stressor). An online survey, comprising demographic questions and questionnaires on depression, anxiety and loneliness symptoms, was distributed in Canada during the height of social distancing restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Respondents (N=661) from lower income households experienced greater anxiety, depression and loneliness. Specifically, loneliness was greater in those with an annual income <$50,000/yr versus higher income brackets. Younger females (18-29yr) displayed greater anxiety, depressive symptoms and loneliness than their male counterparts; this difference did not exist among the other age groups (30-64yr, >65yr). Moreover, loneliness scores increased with increasing depression and anxiety symptom severity category. The relationship between loneliness and depression symptoms was moderated by gender, such that females experienced higher depressive symptoms when encountering greater loneliness. These data identify younger females, individuals with lower income, and those living alone as experiencing greater loneliness and mental health challenges during the height of the pandemic in Canada. We highlight the strong relationship between loneliness, depression and anxiety, and emphasize increased vulnerability among certain cohorts.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Canadá , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113658, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360428

RESUMO

This is the first study to examine the association between COVID-19 related variables and loneliness among young adults in South Africa during COVID-19. Participants (N=337) were university students who completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and five selected subscales of the WHO COVID-19 Behavioural Insights Tool. The mean loneliness scores were significantly higher than previous studies in other contexts as well as studies conducted in the time of COVID-19. Correlational analysis found that greater perceived risk of infection, limited perceived knowledge of COVID-19 and lower appraisals of resilience were associated with increased loneliness. In a regression analysis, when all COVID-19 variables were considered simultaneously, only resilience, self-rated knowledge, and risk perception emerged as significant correlates of loneliness. These findings suggest that loneliness is a significant public health concern in South Africa in the time of COVID-19. It also suggests that self-efficacy and resilience can potentially be reinforced by public health campaigns that focus on enhancing COVID-19-related knowledge and preparedness.


Assuntos
Solidão/psicologia , /psicologia , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoeficácia , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338556

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective is to conduct a longitudinal analysis of the effects of the pandemic and alarm situation on the mental health of the general population at three points in time: two weeks after beginning the confinement, after a month, and after two months, when the lockdown was lifted and the country returned to the new normality. METHODS: The evaluations were carried out by means of an online survey, with a sample of 3480 persons in the first data collection and 1041 and 569 persons in the successive evaluation periods. The presence of depressive symptoms, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was evaluated by means of screening tests. Sociodemographic data, Covid-19 variables, loneliness, psychological well-being, social support, discrimination and a sense of belonging, were collected. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms increased significantly throughout the confinement, decreasing at the last assessment but not dropping to previous levels. In anxiety, there are no significant changes between the three evaluations, but a downward trend can be seen over time. Regarding the symptomatology of PTSD, a downward trend is observed throughout the three evaluations, with significantly lower scores between the first and third assessments. The different regression models developed reveal the importance of perceived loneliness and spiritual well-being as the main predictors of mental health, as well as the importance of the lower age for depression and the female gender for anxiety and PSTD. CONCLUSIONS: This research shows that the pandemic has had a negative impact on our mental health, which still does not seem to be at pre-crisis levels, although it has improved as the emergency situation subsides. These results underline the importance of paying greater attention to mental health, and reveal key variables such as spiritual well-being and perceived loneliness in which to intervene from different care services, as well as younger people and women as vulnerable groups on which to focus more attention.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/tendências , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(1): 44-49, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To halt the spread of COVID-19, Austria implemented a 7-week 'lockdown' in March/April 2020. We assess whether the ensuing reduction in social contacts led to increased loneliness among older adults (60+). METHODS: Three analyses were conducted: (i) a comparison between pre-pandemic (SHARE: 2013-17) and pandemic (May 2020) levels of loneliness (UCLA-3 scale), (ii) an assessment of the cross-sectional correlation between being affected by COVID-19 restriction measures and loneliness (May 2020) and (iii) a longitudinal analysis of weekly changes (March-June 2020) in loneliness (Corona panel). RESULTS: We found (i) increased loneliness in 2020 compared with previous years, (ii) a moderate positive association between the number of restriction measures older adults were affected from and their loneliness and (iii) that loneliness was higher during 'lockdown' compared to the subsequent re-opening phase, particularly among those who live alone. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that COVID-19 restriction measures in Austria have indeed resulted in increased levels of loneliness among older adults. However, these effects seem to be short-lived, and thus no strong negative consequences for older adults' mental health are expected. Nonetheless, the effects on loneliness, and subsequent mental health issues, could be both more long-lasting and severe if future restriction measures are enacted repeatedly and/or over longer time periods.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Solidão/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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