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1.
Am J Psychother ; 72(4): 84, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854237
2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 860, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are arguments for and against the wellbeing effects of internet use, with evidence shifting from negative to positive over time, although the effects are partly dependent upon the population sub-group concerned. There are good grounds for anticipating that the internet could be beneficial to people living in deprived communities, but this group has rarely been studied. METHODS: Data are from a cross-sectional, face-to-face survey of adult householders (n = 3804) in 15 deprived communities in Glasgow, UK. Respondents were asked whether they used the internet and, if so, how they usually accessed it: at home, via a mobile phone, in a public venue, or other means. Data were also collected on social contact and support, use of amenities, sense of community, wellbeing, loneliness, and physical activity. RESULTS: There were inequalities in internet access within deprived communities, with use of the internet lowest among older people, those with a long-standing illness, and those with no educational qualifications. Some social benefits were associated with internet access, such as frequency of contact with neighbours, available financial social support, and greater use of social amenities and shops. Internet users were also less likely to report feeling lonely and had higher mental wellbeing scores. Respondents who used the internet were also more physically active. However, community cohesion and empowerment variables were very similar among internet users and non-users. Several of the positive associations with internet access were more marked for those who accessed the internet at home and for older people. These are new findings in respect of deprived communities. CONCLUSIONS: Extending internet access for people in deprived communities is worthy of further consideration in the context of government objectives for tackling social isolation and increasing wellbeing. The results also suggest that greater digitisation of public services may not result in greater cohesion and empowerment in deprived communities, as is often assumed, but rather has the potential to reinforce social inequalities.


Assuntos
Exercício , Acesso à Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Áreas de Pobreza , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 788, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is the leading cause of disability in young people (aged 15-25) globally. Loneliness is a major factor in the development and relapse of depression in young people, yet few interventions directly address loneliness. Groups 4 Health (G4H) - a novel, theoretically derived group psychotherapy intervention - may address this disconnect. Previous trials (Phase I and Phase II) have found G4H to be efficacious in reducing symptoms of depression. However, the efficacy of G4H compared to current evidence-based treatments (Phase III) has not been investigated. This protocol details the design and methodology of the Connecting Adolescents to Reduce Relapse (CARR) trial, a randomised control trial assessing the efficacy of G4H in young people relative to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). METHODS: The CARR trial is a two-arm non-inferiority randomised controlled trial that will compare the efficacy of G4H to the most widely used evidence-based treatment for depression, CBT, at program completion and 6- and 12-month follow up. Participants will be 200 young people (aged 15-25) with symptoms of depression and/or loneliness recruited from community and university mental health services. We hypothesise that the interventions will be comparable in reducing depression symptoms, but that G4H will be superior in reducing loneliness. Because loneliness is a primary risk factor for depression relapse in young people, we therefore expect the benefits of Groups 4 Health to be particularly apparent at 12-month follow up. DISCUSSION: This trial will be the first to evaluate an intervention that targets loneliness, in comparison to the current gold standard treatment approach - CBT. If found to be effective, this program offers a new approach to treatment and relapse prevention of depression among young people. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial prospectively registered on ANZCTR ( ACTRN12618000440224 ), registered on 27/03/2018.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Psicoterapia/métodos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 240, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Loneliness is individual's subjective sense of lacking familial or social contact to the degree that they wanted. It is responsible for reduced quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine loneliness and its association with year of study among University of Gondar students, 2018/19. Cross-sectional study design was used on 404 Medical and Health Sciences students selected by systematic random sampling. UCLA-R loneliness score was used. A person with a mean value of 42 and above was considered as lonely. After data were collected by self-administered questionnaire, Epi-Data was used for data entry and exported to SPSS version 20.1 for analysis. Variables with p-value of 0.05 and lower were treated as significant factors in multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Prevalence of loneliness was 49.5% (95% CI 44.6-54.4%). Year of study was significantly associated with loneliness [AOR = 2.47, 95% CI (1.65-3.70)]. First-year students were having 2.47 odds of loneliness as compared to second year and above students. Loneliness prevalence was higher in the current study. This must get the attention of higher education institutions, the government and all concerned stakeholders in the education sector to design strategy on preventing and treating loneliness.


Assuntos
Solidão/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Tamanho da Amostra , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 20, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loneliness is a major risk factor for mental and physical health worldwide. The Three-Item Loneliness Scale (TIL Scale; Hughes et al., 2004) has been widely applied to measure loneliness in a simplified format, but no validated Japanese version has been developed. This study adapted the TIL Scale into Japanese and tested its reliability and validity. METHODS: The original English version of the TIL Scale was translated into Japanese, and the expressions of the Japanese version were confirmed by a back translation procedure. The translated scale was then administered to Japanese respondents recruited from an online research panel (N = 1020) and an online crowdsourcing service (N = 500). To analyze the data containing polytomous responses to the items in the scale, this study used categorical Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the Generalized Partial Credit Model based on the Item Response Theory. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the scale, this study examined factorial validity, reliability, information curves, and the associations of the scale score with demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, and living arrangements), the scores of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (R-UCLA), the Big Five scale of personality traits, and the sizes of personal networks. RESULTS: The translated TIL Scale showed essential unidimensionality and characteristics to differentiate among respondents at different levels of loneliness. The scale score was related positively with the scores of R-UCLA and neuroticism and negatively with the scores of extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, agreeableness, and the sizes of overall and support networks. Those who were unmarried and alone recorded a higher score on the scale than those who were married and living with someone. Age showed a negative correlation with the scale score only in Sample 1, in which the equal allocation procedure was introduced for the age stratum. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the Japanese version of the TIL Scale demonstrates adequate reliability and validity for the assessment of loneliness.


Assuntos
Solidão/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Psychol ; 153(7): 701-713, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017841

RESUMO

Loneliness is a subjective and emotionally unpleasant experience of perceiving insufficient social relationships. Previous research has revealed that loneliness constitutes a psychosocial risk factor for depression, and is also related to unhealthy behaviors such as smoking. This study aims to examine the relation between loneliness, depression, and cigarette dependence, and to explore the role of sex in this relationship. A total sample of 275 adult treatment-seeking daily smokers (Mage = 45.3; 61.5% females) was used. Our results showed a significant correlation between higher scores of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and cigarette dependence. In addition, mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of loneliness on cigarette dependence, via depressive symptoms. Regarding the effect of sex, we found that this variable significantly moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette dependence. Results of this study extend previous literature by showing that, in treatment seeking smokers, loneliness is a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, and through this relation, it predicts cigarette dependence. Additionally, sex was a significant moderator of this relation. These findings have several clinical implications, and also contribute to the understanding of cigarette dependence, which is a well-known barrier for smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Negociação , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979042

RESUMO

There is a high prevalence of loneliness among older people, especially in residential care settings. Loneliness is often accompanied by maladaptive cognitions which can affect the maintenance and establishment of meaningful social connections. This study implemented and evaluated a low-intensity Cognitive Behavior Therapy (LI-CBT) mHealth-supported intervention which targeted maladaptive cognitions in older people (≥60 years) experiencing loneliness. The three-month intervention using WhatsApp was implemented with older people in four inner-city residential care facilities. The intervention included three components: technology acceptance, psycho-education, and individualized positively worded messages addressing maladaptive cognitions. The intervention was evaluated using a randomized control design. Key outcomes were measured pre-, post-, and one month after the intervention. There were significant changes in social cognition (YSQ-SF T0-T1-T2, X² = 9.69, p = 0.008) and loneliness levels (total loneliness T0-T1-T2, X² = 14.62, p = 0.001), and an increase in WhatsApp usage (T0 = 26% vs. T1 = 60%, X²=15.22, p = 0.019). At 1-month follow-up, even with a significant reduction in WhatsApp usage, a significant reduction in loneliness was maintained. LI-CBT delivered via instant messaging may be effective in reducing loneliness experienced by older people.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Solidão/psicologia , Telemedicina , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Comportamento Social , Meio Social , África do Sul
8.
J Affect Disord ; 251: 149-155, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loneliness is widespread in adolescents and associated with a myriad of adverse physical and mental health outcomes. Exploring variables associated with loneliness is important for the development of targeted interventions. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between leisure-time sedentary behavior (LTSB) and loneliness in adolescents from 52 low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey were analyzed. Data on past 12-month self-perceived loneliness and LTSB were collected. Multivariable logistic regression and meta-analysis were conducted to assess the associations. RESULTS: Among 148,045 adolescents (mean age 13.7± SD 1.0 years; 48.5% female), the prevalence of loneliness increased from 8.7% among those with 1-2 h/day of LTSB to 17.5% among those spending >8 h/day sedentary. Compared to those who engage in less than 1 h of LTSB per day, the OR (95%CI) of loneliness for 1-2 h/day, 3-4 h/day, 5-8 h/day and >8 h/day were 1.00 (0.91-1.11), 1.29 (1.15-1.45), 1.37 (1.17-1.61), and 1.66 (1.39-1.99), respectively. LIMITATIONS: The study is cross-sectional, therefore the directionality of the relationships cannot be deduced. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that LTSB is associated with increased odds for feeling lonely in adolescence. Future longitudinal data are required to confirm/refute the findings to inform public health campaigns.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Classe Social , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 14(3): 376-396, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844327

RESUMO

Loneliness is a negative and distressing emotional state that arises from a discrepancy between one's desired and achieved levels of social connectedness. The evolutionary theory of loneliness (ETL) posits that experiencing loneliness is an inherited adaptation that signals that salutary social relations are endangered or damaged and prompts people to reconnect to significant others. The basic tenets of the ETL has led researchers to examine the genetic underpinnings of loneliness. The current review provides an updated overview of genetic studies on loneliness and discusses the importance of genetic research for the ETL. The most recent studies suggest that the many genes that contribute to a small degree to differences in loneliness partially overlap with genes that contribute to neuroticism, but not with depression. In addition, the genetic studies discussed in this review show that genes are unlikely to have a direct effect on loneliness. Instead, environmental factors determine in a dynamic fashion how genes that contribute to loneliness are expressed. Future research on epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, can further elucidate the dynamic interplay between genes and the environment and how this interplay contributes to loneliness.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Genes , Solidão , Animais , Epigênese Genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Psicológicos
10.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(3): 277-288, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838670

RESUMO

Social media usage has been popular for the last decade. Individuals use their social media environments for various reasons such as to socialize, play games, have fun and share posts. Overuse of these environments may lead to negative psychological and behavioral consequences for individuals. Additionally, it increases the worries about potential addicted/problematic use of social media. In this study, it is aimed to determine the level of problematic social media usage of participants who are active social media users and to analyze the relationships between problematic social media usage and various personal characteristics and social variables. Study in relational screening model is carried out with the participation of 580 volunteers. Partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modeling is used to analyze the data obtained through various scale according to the research model. The structural equation modeling analysis shows that there is a significant relationship between problematic social media usage and the daily time of social media usage, the use of frequency of social media for recognition, publicity, communication/interaction and education, loneliness, and social anxiety. The variable which shows higher correlation between problematic social media usage is social anxiety.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Desejabilidade Social , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(6): 1146-1160, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835034

RESUMO

Parental absence, a consequence of parents' rural-to-urban migration, exerts negative influences on their left-behind adolescents in rural China. Existing studies are limited by their focus on the isolated developmental outcomes of left-behind adolescents and by a dearth of work focused on naturally occurring patterns of their developmental outcomes. The present study used a person-centered approach to identify adolescents' adaptation profiles based on internalizing indicators (i.e., depressive symptoms, loneliness, subjective happiness, life satisfaction), externalizing indicators (i.e., rule-breaking behavior, aggressive behavior, prosocial behavior) and academic achievement and to relate these profiles to left-behind status, characteristics of parent-adolescent separation and gender. The study included 2102 adolescents (Mage = 13.48 ± 1.10 years, 46.8% girls) in junior high schools in rural China. A latent profile analysis identified 3 profiles: an adequate adaptation profile, an internalizing problem profile and an externalizing problem profile. These profiles were linked to left-behind status, to characteristics of parent-adolescent separation (i.e., separation duration, interval of long-distance communication and face-to-face communication) and to gender. These findings provide significant implications for future research and the development of interventions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Separação da Família , Saúde Mental , Relações Pais-Filho , Saúde da População Rural , Migrantes , Adolescente , China , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente
12.
Gerontology ; 65(2): 198-206, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given findings that generally support the benefits of information and communication technology (ICT) for older adults' psychosocial adjustment, one might surmise that lonely older adults, who have a stronger need for psychological support, would reap more psychosocial benefits from ICT use. However, scant research has examined this view, much less the likelihood that ICT use might worsen the psychological well-being of lonely older adults, as has been shown to be the case in younger adults. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the association between ICT use and psychological adjustment (i.e., psychological distress and sense of community [SOC]) among older adults depends on their loneliness levels. METHODS: A representative sample of 738 Hong Kong SAR Chinese older adults aged 60 years or older (56% female) was interviewed in 2017 on loneliness, frequency of ICT use (i.e., Internet and smart devices), psychological distress (6-item Kessler scale; K6), and SOC. RESULTS: Regression analyses showed that loneliness significantly moderated the relationship between ICT use frequency and psychological adjustment (psychological distress and SOC); more frequent ICT use was associated with more psychological distress and less SOC, with higher levels of loneliness. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that ICT use may be a mixed blessing for older adults, i.e., using more ICT might predict worse psychological adjustment among lonelier older adults. Efforts that promote ICT use among older adults should take their loneliness levels into account.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente aos Computadores , Ajustamento Emocional , Tecnologia da Informação , Solidão/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Idoso , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Smartphone , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
14.
Inf. psiquiátr ; (235): 83-88, ene.-mar. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183989

RESUMO

Las personas mayores presentan mayor riesgo de sufrir pérdidas relacionales, disminuir el tamaño de la red social y aumentar los sentimientos de soledad. La soledad es un sentimiento frecuente en las personas mayores porque las relaciones sociales pueden deteriorarse. Se producen pérdidas de personas cercanas que pueden provocar sentimientos de soledad. Se plantea realizar una evaluación de la red social de las personas mayores de forma cualitativa mediante el cuestionario Sociotipo Geriátrico que evalúa la red social en cuatro áreas (familia, amigos, conocidos, y medios de comunicación). Con este cuestionario podríamos conocer la red social de la persona, y como se siente en esta red social. Las personas en riesgo, como las personas mayores, podrían ser evaluadas a través de este cuestionario y poder realizar medidas de intervención para mejorar la calidad de vida y evitar las consecuencias de la soledad. Por tanto, el cuestionario Sociotipo Geriátrico podría utilizarse en la evaluación de la red social tanto desde el punto de vista de la valoración cómo del pronóstico respecto a la institucionalización


Elderly are at greater risk of suffering relational losses, reducing the size of the social network and increasing feelings of loneliness. Loneliness is a common feeling in older people because social relationships can get worse. There are losses of nearby people that can cause feelings of loneliness. It is proposed to perform an evaluation of the social network of elderly qualitatively using the Geriatric Sociotype questionnaire that assesses the social network in four areas (family, friends, acquaintances, and media). With this questionnaire we could know the social network of the person, and how he feels in this social network. People at risk, such as the elderly, could be evaluated through this questionnaire and make intervention measures to improve the quality of life and avoid the consequences of loneliness. Therefore, the Geriatric Sociotype questionnaire has shown be useful in the evaluation of the social network of the elderly for the assessment and the prognosis with respect to institutionalization


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Rede Social , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Meios de Comunicação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ajustamento Emocional
15.
Psicooncología (Pozuelo de Alarcón) ; 16(1): 161-176, mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184805

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar las propiedades psicométricas y la utilidad clínica de la Escala de Soledad Existencial (EDSOL) en enfermos hospitalizados con enfermedad avanzada. Método: Para determinar las propiedades psicométricas de la escala, se administró la escala EDSOL junto con otros instrumentos a 103 pacientes adultos con enfermedades avanzadas ingresados en 5 unidades de cuidados paliativos de hospitales catalanes. Resultados: La escala presenta una excelente fiabilidad medida a través del alfa de Cronbach (0,902) y una adecuada estabilidad temporal (r=0,71). La escala mostró correlaciones positivas y significativas con ansiedad y depresión de la escala HADS y con la suma total de la misma, así como con la valoración clínica psicológica (p<0,01). A través del análisis estadístico de las curvas ROC se determinó que la escala presentaba una sensibilidad del 79,8% y una especificidad del 74,6% y se sugiere que el punto de corte para la detección de la EDSOL sea una puntuación de 5. Conclusiones: La EDSOL presenta unas buenas propiedades psicométricas, es sencilla, breve, fiable y fácil de administrar. Consideramos que es una escala útil para detectar la presencia de soledad existencial en enfermos hospitalizados que padecen enfermedades avanzadas


Aim: To analyze the psychometric properties and the clinical utility of the Scale of Existential Loneliness (EDSOL) in hospitalized patients with advanced disease. Method: To determine the psychometric properties of the scale, the EDSOL scale was administered along with other instruments to 103 adult patients with advanced diseases admitted to 5 palliative care units of Catalan hospitals. Results: The scale presents an excellent reliability measured through Cronbach’s alpha (0.902) and adequate temporal stability (r = 0.71). The scale showed positive and significant correlations with anxiety and depression of the HADS scale and with the overall score of HADS, as well as with the clinical psychological assessment (p <0.01). Through the statistical analysis of the ROC curves, it was determined that the scale had a sensitivity of 79.8% and a specificity of 74.6% and it is suggested that the cut-off point for the detection of EDSOL be a score of 5. Conclusions: The EDSOL scale has good psychometric properties, is simple, brief, reliable and easy to administer. We consider that is an useful scale to detect the presence of existential loneliness in hospitalized patients suffering from advanced diseases


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Solidão/psicologia , Estado Terminal/psicologia , Doença Catastrófica/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Psicometria , Cuidados Paliativos , Estudos Transversais
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(9): 3488-3493, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808743

RESUMO

Loneliness and social isolation are a growing public health concern, yet there are few evidence-based interventions for mitigating these social risk factors. Accumulating evidence suggests that mindfulness interventions can improve social-relationship processes. However, the active ingredients of mindfulness training underlying these improvements are unclear. Developing mindfulness-specific skills-namely, (i) monitoring present-moment experiences with (ii) an orientation of acceptance-may change the way people perceive and relate toward others. We predicted that developing openness and acceptance toward present experiences is critical for reducing loneliness and increasing social contact and that removing acceptance-skills training from a mindfulness intervention would eliminate these benefits. In this dismantling trial, 153 community adults were randomly assigned to a 14-lesson smartphone-based intervention: (i) training in both monitoring and acceptance (Monitor+Accept), (ii) training in monitoring only (Monitor Only), or (iii) active control training. For 3 d before and after the intervention, ambulatory assessments were used to measure loneliness and social contact in daily life. Consistent with predictions, Monitor+Accept training reduced daily-life loneliness by 22% (d = 0.44, P = 0.0001) and increased social contact by two more interactions each day (d = 0.47, P = 0.001) and one more person each day (d = 0.39, P = 0.004), compared with both Monitor Only and control trainings. These findings describe a behavioral therapeutic target for improving social-relationship functioning; by fostering equanimity with feelings of loneliness and social disconnect, acceptance-skills training may allow loneliness to dissipate and encourage greater engagement with others in daily life.


Assuntos
Solidão/psicologia , Atenção Plena , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meditação/psicologia , Saúde Pública , Smartphone , Comportamento Social , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Behav Med ; 26(2): 217-229, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current studies investigated associations between pain intensity and pain frequency with loneliness, hostility, and social functioning using cross-sectional, longitudinal, and within-person data from community-dwelling adults with varying levels of pain. METHOD: Secondary analysis of preexisting data was conducted. Study 1 investigated cross-sectional (baseline data: n = 741) and longitudinal (follow-up data: n = 549, observed range between baseline and follow-up: 6-53 months) associations. Study 2 tested within-person associations using daily diaries across 30 days from a subset of the participants in Study 1 (n = 69). RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, pain intensity and frequency were associated with higher loneliness (ßintensity = 0.16, ßfrequency = 0.17) and worse social functioning (ßintensity = - 0.40, ßfrequency = - 0.34). Intensity was also associated with higher hostility (ß = 0.11). Longitudinally, pain intensity at baseline predicted hostility (ß = 0.19) and social functioning (ß = - 0.20) at follow-up, whereas pain frequency only predicted social functioning (ß = - 0.21). Within people, participants reported higher hostility (γ = 0.002) and worse social functioning (γ = - 0.013) on days with higher pain, and a significant average pain by daily pain interaction was found for loneliness. Pain intensity did not predict social well-being variables on the following day. CONCLUSION: Pain intensity and frequency were associated with social well-being, although the effects were dependent on the social well-being outcome and the time course being examined.


Assuntos
Hostilidade , Relações Interpessoais , Solidão/psicologia , Dor/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Evol Psychol ; 17(1): 1474704919826845, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791701

RESUMO

Instagram selfies and groupies symbolize social media users' public display of narcissism. From an evolutionary psychological perspective on the renovated hierarchy of fundamental human motives and needs, this study examined the interaction effects of Instagram photo types (selfies, group selfies, long-shot photos taken by others, and neutral photos) and Instagram peer viewers' individual difference factors (intrasexual competition [ISC] for mates, need for popularity [NfP], loneliness, and need to belong [NtB]) on intersexual attraction. A randomized between-subjects experiment ( N = 110) was executed to see how the interaction affects the intention to date the target opposite-sex person. Multiple regression analyses confirm the moderating effects of ISC for mates, NfP, loneliness, and NtB on dating desire, among heterosexual/bisexual males exposed to female Instagram photos. Viewer characteristics moderate the influence of the potential mate's photo types on perception and dating desirability. This study makes theoretical contributions to the literature on evolutionary psychology of narcissism and the renovated pyramid of primary needs. With regard to practical implications for online dating apps/social networking sites, neutral photos are more effective to appeal to men who feel lonely and have higher need for belonging and popularity, whereas group selfies are more appealing to men who have lower ISC for mate, NtB, and NfP.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento Competitivo , Solidão/psicologia , Narcisismo , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Desejabilidade Social , Mídias Sociais , Percepção Social , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Inquiry ; 56: 46958018823929, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791836

RESUMO

Social relations are part of the complex set of factors affecting health and well-being in old age. This systematic review seeks to uncover whether social interventions have an effect on social and health-related measures among nursing home residents. The authors screened PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO for relevant peer-reviewed literature. Interventions were included if (1) they focused primarily on social relations or related terms such as loneliness, social support, social isolation, social network, or being involuntarily alone either as the base theory of the intervention or as an outcome measure of the intervention; (2) they were implemented at nursing homes (or similar setting); (3) they had a narrative activity as its core (as opposed to dancing, gardening or other physical activity); (4) their participants met either physically or nonphysically, ie, via video-conference or the like; and if (5) they targeted residents at a nursing home. The authors systematically appraised the quality of the final selection of studies using the Mixed Methods Assessments Tool (MMAT) version 2011 and did a qualitative synthesis of the final study selection. A total of 10 studies were included. Reminiscence therapy was the most common intervention. Studies also included video-conference, cognitive, and support group interventions. All studies found the social interventions brought about positive trends on either/or the social and health-related measures included. Despite limited and very diverse evidence, our systematic review indicated a positive social and health-related potential of social interventions for older people living in nursing homes or similar institutions.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Solidão/psicologia , Casas de Saúde/normas , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Apoio Social , Idoso , Humanos
20.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(4): 352-356, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743313

RESUMO

AIM: The level of happiness of older adults is associated with their psychosocial and physical health. Currently, little is known about the predictors of happiness among older women living alone in the community. The present study aimed to identify these predictors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of older women who were living alone and were registered with a social welfare center in an old urban area in South Korea. We designated various demographic factors along with health-related information, perceived self-esteem and depressive symptoms as independent variables predicting happiness. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis were carried out. RESULTS: In total, 154 participants were recruited. They showed a moderate level of happiness. Furthermore, happiness was negatively correlated with the number of comorbidities, presence of pain and depressive symptoms, but positively correlated with self-esteem. The final model in hierarchical regression showed that depressive symptoms were powerful predictors of happiness after controlling the covariates and accounted for approximately 76.7% of the total variances. CONCLUSIONS: The happiness of older women living alone was associated with their self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Interventions aimed at reducing depressive symptoms and improving self-esteem should be developed and applied to this population. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 352-356.


Assuntos
Depressão , Felicidade , Solidão/psicologia , Autoimagem , Idoso , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Carência Psicossocial , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
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