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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435368

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a challenge to global mental health. Loneliness and isolation may put people at higher risk for increased psychological distress. However, there is a lack of research investigating the development of COVID-19-related distress over time. Materials and Methods: We undertook an online survey among general population (N = 1903) in Germany throughout 6 months from the peak transmission period in April to the off-peak period by September 2020. Results: We found that the average prevalence of psychological distress caused by the COVID-19 pandemic significantly rose from 24% to 66% between the peak and off-peak transmission period, respectively. Unemployment rate and loneliness increased negative mental health outcomes, although the number of active COVID-19 cases decreased from April to September. Psychological distress scores increased mostly in female, young, and lonely people. Conclusions: Our results underline the importance of considering innovative alternatives to facilitate employment opportunities, distant contacts, and self-help over the course of the pandemic. Our study highlights the urgent need to pay attention to mental health services specifically targeting female, young, unemployed, and lonely people.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Solidão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Angústia Psicológica , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(1): 3-13, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914668

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with several short- and long-term negative impacts on the well-being of older adults. Physical distancing recommendations to reduce transmission of the SARS-CoV2-19 virus increase the risk of social isolation and loneliness, which are associated with negative outcomes including anxiety, depression, cognitive decline, and mortality. Taken together, social isolation and additional psychological impacts of the pandemic (e.g., worry, grief) underscore the importance of intervention efforts to older adults. This narrative review draws upon a wide range of evidence to provide a comprehensive overview of appropriate remotely-delivered interventions for older adults that target loneliness and psychological symptoms. These include interventions delivered by a range of individuals (i.e., community members to mental health professionals), and interventions that vary by implementation (e.g., self-guided therapy, remotely-delivered interventions via telephone or video call). Recommendations to overcome barriers to implementation and delivery are provided, with consideration given to the different living situations.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Angústia Psicológica , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Telecomunicações , Idoso , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Moradias Assistidas , Atitude Frente aos Computadores , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Vida Independente , Solidão/psicologia , Casas de Saúde , Privacidade , Mídias Sociais
3.
Psychol Trauma ; 13(1): 9-15, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382329

RESUMO

Objective: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic represents an acute worldwide public health crisis causing an immediate disruption to every demographic group. One group significantly affected both educationally and psychosocially is college students, as they experienced an abrupt cancellation of in-person courses, were forced to leave their dormitories, and witnessed a loss of social activities. Method: This study utilizes survey data from college students in the throes of COVID-19-based home schooling collected for a Belgium-based international study including more than 134,000 participants from 28 countries around the world. Two hundred fifty-seven college students from a U.S. university participated in this study. Results: Results indicate that college students are affected by COVID-19 on several levels, including fear of themselves or others in their social network contracting the virus, apprehension about the changes in coursework delivery and unclear instructional parameters, overall loneliness, compromised motivation, and sleep disturbances, as well as anxious and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Analyses reveal a positive relationship between academic frustrations and mental health symptoms, the latter also negatively related to trust in the government regarding the preventive measures being implemented. Worries about becoming infected were positively related to mental health symptoms and negatively related to trust in the government. Results and implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Saúde Mental , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(1): 48-57, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loneliness is experienced by a third of older adults in the UK and is a modifiable potential risk factor for depressive symptoms. It is unclear how the association between loneliness and depressive symptoms persists over time, and whether it is independent of related social constructs and genetic confounders. We aimed to investigate the association between loneliness and depressive symptoms, assessed on multiple occasions during 12 years of follow-up, in a large, nationally representative cohort of adults aged 50 years and older in England. METHODS: We did a longitudinal study using seven waves of data that were collected once every 2 years between 2004 and 2017, from adults aged 50 years and older in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). The exposure was loneliness at baseline (wave two), measured with the short 1980 revision of the University of California, Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (R-UCLA). The primary outcome was a score indicating severity of depression measured at six subsequent timepoints (waves three to eight), using the eight-item version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Analyses were linear multilevel regressions, before and after adjusting for social isolation, social support, polygenic risk scores, and other sociodemographic and health-related confounders. The secondary outcome was depression diagnosis, measured using a binary version of the CES-D. FINDINGS: 4211 (46%) of 9171 eligible participants had complete data on exposure, outcome, and confounders, and were included in our complete case sample. After all adjustments, a 1-point increase in loneliness score was associated with a 0·16 (95% CI 0·13-0·19) increase in depressive symptom severity score (averaged across all follow-ups). We estimated a population attributable fraction for depression associated with loneliness of 18% (95% CI 12-24) at 1 year of follow-up and 11% (3-19) at the final follow-up (wave eight), suggesting that 11-18% of cases of depression could potentially be prevented if loneliness were eliminated. Associations between loneliness and depressive symptoms remained after 12 years of follow-up, although effect sizes were smaller with longer follow-up. INTERPRETATION: Irrespective of other social experiences, higher loneliness scores at baseline were associated with higher depression symptom severity scores during 12 years of follow-up among adults aged 50 years and older. Interventions that reduce loneliness could prevent or reduce depression in older adults, which presents a growing public health problem worldwide. FUNDING: National Institute on Aging and a consortium of UK Government departments coordinated by the National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Solidão/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Isolamento Social , Apoio Social
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291458

RESUMO

Watching videos/livestreams concerning pets is becoming an increasingly popular phenomenon among youth in China, thus the social dynamics and psychological impacts of this pet-centred online activities worth in-depth exploration. This study investigates the sensual experiences of the audiences who have watched pet videos/livestreams and examines how these online experiences influence their subjective well-being. We develop a conceptual model that bases on the relationships between telepresence, social presence, flow experience, and subjective well-being to comprehend this mechanism. The result of 439 samples indicates that both telepresence and social presence have significant positive effects on flow experience, and social presence also has a positive impact on subjective well-being. We also examine the role of loneliness and perceived stress in moderating the effects of online pet watching on subjective well-being, showing that loneliness has a significant positive moderating effect on the relationship between social presence and flow experience, while perceived pressure has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between telepresence and flow experience. This study not only demonstrates the positive effect of an online pet on subjective well-being and but also uses interview data to comprehend the social processes underlying this effect. We also discuss the theoretical and practical values of this study in improving public health in the digital age.


Assuntos
Solidão/psicologia , Animais de Estimação , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Animais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto Jovem
6.
Soc Sci Med ; 265: 113521, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257177

RESUMO

RATIONALE: There are increasing worries that lockdowns and 'stay-at-home' orders due to the COVID-19 pandemic could lead to a rise in loneliness, which is recognised as a major public health concern. But profiles of loneliness during the pandemic and risk factors remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine if and how loneliness levels changed during the strict lockdown and to explore the clustering of loneliness growth trajectories. METHODS: Data from 38,217 UK adults in the UCL COVID -19 Social Study (a panel study collecting data weekly during the pandemic) were analysed during the strict lockdown period in the UK (23/03/2020-10/05/2020). The sample was well-stratified and weighted to population proportions of gender, age, ethnicity, education and geographical location. Growth mixture modelling was used to identify the latent classes of loneliness growth trajectories and their predictors. RESULTS: Analyses revealed four classes, with the baseline loneliness level ranging from low to high. In the first a few weeks of lockdown, loneliness levels increased in the highest loneliness group, decreased in the lowest loneliness group, and stayed relatively constant in the middle two groups. Younger adults (OR = 2.17-6.81), women (OR = 1.59), people with low income (OR = 1.3), the economically inactive (OR = 1.3-2.04) and people with mental health conditions (OR = 5.32) were more likely to be in highest loneliness class relative to the lowest. Further, living with others or in a rural area, and having more close friends or greater social support were protective. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived levels of loneliness under strict lockdown measures due to COVID-19 were relatively stable in the UK, but for many people these levels were high with no signs of improvement. Results suggest that more efforts are needed to address loneliness.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Solidão/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(12): 7141-7145, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Previous reviews of Social determinants of health in lung cancer patients have not examined essential factors such as social isolation and loneliness. This study aimed to explore the factors affecting social isolation and loneliness among lung cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Social isolation, loneliness, and the presence of dementia were measured using Japanese adaptations of the Lubben Social Network Scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, and Life Function Evaluation for Care Provision, respectively. RESULTS: From March 2019 to March 2020, 264 patients were included. Social isolation was significantly higher for patients receiving welfare (adjusted OR=5.28, 95% CI=2.24-12.4). Loneliness was significantly higher for patients receiving welfare (beta coefficient=0.52, 95% Cl=0.13-0.90) with symptoms of dementia (beta coefficient=0.28, 95% Cl=0.03-0.54). CONCLUSION: Results showed that receiving welfare was associated with experiencing social isolation. Receiving welfare and symptoms of dementia were associated with experiencing loneliness.


Assuntos
Solidão/psicologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 131, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on the relationship between resilience and loneliness is sparse. The construct of resilience has been conceptualized in multiple ways, including the measurement of resilience. The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) is a measure of protective factors. The present study examined whether resiliency moderates any negative relationship between loneliness and mental health and additionally examined the psychometric properties of the Danish translation of the RSA. METHODS: A Danish sample (N = 422) completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale, Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 (HSCL-25), the Sense of Coherence (SOC-13), and the RSA, Resilience Scale for Adults. RESULTS: The measure of loneliness correlated significantly and negatively with most facets of the RSA, except the subscales of family cohesion and structured style. The strongest correlation was the negative one between loneliness and SOC. The results indicated that people feeling lonely also experience their life as less meaningful. CONCLUSION: The study supports the existing six-factor structure of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) in a Danish sample. The results indicate that all facets of resiliency were negatively related to loneliness. Also, the facets of perception of self and family coherence could explain a substantial amount of the variance associated with symptoms of depression in relation to loneliness.


Assuntos
Solidão/psicologia , Psicometria , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Dinamarca , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental
9.
J Aging Stud ; 55: 100878, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This paper explores current concerns and practice related to older people dying alone in Intensive Care Units, care homes, and at home through media discussions during the Covid-19 pandemic and before. It addresses the historically-situated concept of a good death and a bad death and suggests why dying alone, whether completely alone or without significant others physically present, may be considered a bad death. METHODS: As evidence for collective fears about dying alone, we explored the treatment of these deaths in media using headline examples from the US New York Times and the English Guardian newspaper from the 19th century through Sept. 2020. RESULTS: A search of the New York Times located 39 articles with either lonely dying or lonely death in the headline. The Guardian had 25 articles with use of the term, but unlike the New York Times, no obituaries were included. Although the deaths profiled were deemed unusual, deaths by suicide were only minimally classed as dying alone. The condition of dying alone is represented as a stigmatised death. Themes addressed: 1) dying alone is a nonnormative event; 2) this death matters; and 3) where people die alone, societies should honour the death and learn from it. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Contemporary dying involves conditions for which we are unprepared as a society. We seldom address our civic obligations to each other. Few people have discussed their wishes about their preferences in dying and whether and how they want to be accompanied at their death, if possible. This is an invisible constraint of modern healthcare. Because of limited discussions and preparation, these deaths may lead to disenfranchised grief for the mourners. Cultural and societal responses to lonely dying are important in easing the emotional burden of dying alone, helping individuals prepare for this possibility and better integrating death with the life course. Recommendations include inclusion of accompaniment/nonaccompaniment at death as part of advance care planning and mitigation if this condition occurs. It is essential for individuals to find their own still point of acceptance within competing societal narratives of privileging the self in dying alone and the value of social connection.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Solidão/psicologia , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pandemias , Cultura , Inglaterra , Humanos , New York , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Assistência Terminal/psicologia
10.
Rehabilitation (Stuttg) ; 59(6): 341-347, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285613

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: In Germany, a disability that prevents a person from fully participating in the labor market can partly be compensated for financially with temporary disability pension. Due to fewer financial resources, this group is at a higher risk of poverty, which in conjunction with a worse health status might be related to other limitations such as lower social participation, loneliness and reduced life satisfaction. This study examined the relationships between household income, subjective financial resources, loneliness and life satisfaction. METHODOLOGY: 199 former employees with current reduced earning capacity status were interviewed at 2 points in time (T1; T2=T1+approx. 8 months) by means of structured telephone interviews. RESULTS: Income was not related to loneliness or life satisfaction. However, lower perceived financial resources were associated with higher levels of loneliness, which in turn was related to lower life satisfaction. Loneliness partially mediated this relationship. A lower health status was associated with more loneliness and lower life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Rehabilitative measures that teach money management skills and aim to overcome loneliness could improve the life satisfaction of people with reduced earning capacity. This is highly relevant, as other studies have shown a connection between life satisfaction and return to work as well as social participation.


Assuntos
Solidão/psicologia , Pensões/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Participação Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Vida Independente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Isolamento Social/psicologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6393, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319780

RESUMO

Humans survive and thrive through social exchange. Yet, social dependency also comes at a cost. Perceived social isolation, or loneliness, affects physical and mental health, cognitive performance, overall life expectancy, and increases vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease-related dementias. Despite severe consequences on behavior and health, the neural basis of loneliness remains elusive. Using the UK Biobank population imaging-genetics cohort (n = ~40,000, aged 40-69 years when recruited, mean age = 54.9), we test for signatures of loneliness in grey matter morphology, intrinsic functional coupling, and fiber tract microstructure. The loneliness-linked neurobiological profiles converge on a collection of brain regions known as the 'default network'. This higher associative network shows more consistent loneliness associations in grey matter volume than other cortical brain networks. Lonely individuals display stronger functional communication in the default network, and greater microstructural integrity of its fornix pathway. The findings fit with the possibility that the up-regulation of these neural circuits supports mentalizing, reminiscence and imagination to fill the social void.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Rede Social , Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Fórnice , Substância Cinzenta/fisiologia , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos
12.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 352, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To enhance and better understand health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents, it is important to study factors associated with HRQOL. The present study aimed to assess possible associations between sociodemographic variables, self-efficacy, self-esteem, pain, sleep, loneliness, stress and HRQOL in 14 to 15-year-old adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among 696 adolescents (14-15 years) in a school-based setting. Sociodemographic variables, self-efficacy, self-esteem, pain, sleep, loneliness and stress were analyzed. The variables were all assessed with well-validated instruments. HRQOL was analyzed using KIDSCREEN 27. Analyses included Chi-square, independent t-tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, linear regression analyses and hierarchical regression analyses. The results from linear regression models were expressed as standardized beta. RESULTS: The adolescents generally reported high levels of HRQOL. However, girls scored significantly worse on HRQOL, self-efficacy, self-esteem, pain, sleep, loneliness and stress compared to boys. Using hierarchical regression analyses we found that Self-efficacy (beta = 0.11-0.24), Self-esteem: (beta = 0.12-0.21), Loneliness: (beta = - 0.24 to - 0.45) and Stress: (beta = - 0.26 to - 0.34) revealed the strongest associations with the HRQOL dimensions. Sociodemographic-, pain- and sleep related covariates were all significantly associated with some of the KIDSCREEN subscales, however their effect on the outcome was smaller than for the psychosocial variables listed above. Being a girl, not living with both parents, not having both parents working, being absent from school more than 4 days, having pain and having lack of enough sleep were all independently negatively associated with HRQOL. CONCLUSIONS: HRQOL is strongly associated with self-efficacy, self-esteem, loneliness and stress in 14 to 15-year-old adolescents. Our findings indicate that positive psychosocial factors such as self-efficacy and self-esteem might play a buffer role for negative psychosocial factors (e.g. stress) in adolescents. Further, our results show that girls score significantly worse on factors that are associated to HRQOL compared to boys. To improve HRQOL in school-based populations of adolescents, we suggest that future interventions should aim to strengthen self-efficacy and self-esteem. We recommend gender specific interventions.


Assuntos
Solidão/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoimagem , Autoeficácia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Soc Sci Med ; 265: 113541, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248868

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has dramatically altered people's social lives due to social restriction measures taken to control the coronavirus spread. Early on, increased loneliness has been publicly discussed as a harmful psychological side effect of these measures. Due to the serious adverse health consequences of loneliness, it is essential to take these concerns seriously and investigate them systematically to allow for evidence-based decision making. Thus far, however, high-resolution empirical evidence of such harmful side effects is rare. METHODS: The present preregistered large-scale daily diary study assessed daily loneliness in 4,844 German adults between March 16 and April 12, 2020. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Daily loneliness slightly increased during the first two weeks since implementing the pandemic-related measures and slightly decreased thereafter. With increasing age, daily loneliness increased more strongly over the four weeks. Moreover, daily loneliness increased more strongly for parents compared to people without children. Thus, despite some increases in loneliness in some individuals, there was no linear increase in loneliness in response to the first pandemic-related measures in the present sample.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Solidão/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores Sexuais , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Public Health ; 189: 158-161, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The number of people testing positive for Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) in the UK, particularly among young adults, is increasing. We report here on the mental health of young adults and related psychological and behavioural responses to the pandemic and consider the role of these factors in fuelling the increase in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in this group. METHODS: An online survey was completed during the first six weeks of the first UK-wide lockdown by 3097 respondents, including data for 364 respondents aged 18-24 years. The survey included measures of mental health and indices capturing related psychological and behavioural responses to the pandemic. RESULTS: The mental health of 18- to 24-years-olds in the first 6 weeks of lockdown was significantly poorer than that of older respondents and previously published norms: with 84% reporting symptoms of depression and 72% reporting symptoms of anxiety. Young adults also reported significantly greater loneliness and reduced positive mood, both of which were also associated with greater mental health difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: We contend that the combination of mental health, social and economic considerations may have contributed to the rise of COVID-19 infections in young adults, and ascribing blame to this group will not aid our efforts to regain control of the disease.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , /psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Pastoral Care Counsel ; 74(4): 258-264, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228490

RESUMO

Shifts in chaplain requests from patients and families and lack of engagement by staff in now traditional support forms in the COVID-19 context suggest that new insights and resourcing are needed. This exploratory translational study suggests that the evolutionary psychology of R. I. M. Dunbar and the social neuroscience of J. T. Cacioppo, his collaborators, and successors and their concerns for human loneliness have potential for use in development of effective healthcare chaplaincy practice in the COVID-19 context.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Clero/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Assistência Religiosa/métodos , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Apego ao Objeto , Espiritualidade
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 294: 113551, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171416

RESUMO

During the first 6-months of the COVID-19 pandemic, the primary weapons against the spread of the virus have included local government orders for restriction of movement and broad implementation of face masks and social distancing policies. While some early reports suggested increases in loneliness during the pandemic restrictions, others reported no changes. Here, we provide an update on self-reported loneliness over the first 6-months of community lockdown restrictions from a nationwide sample of 6,186 U.S. adults who completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale-3 and Public Health Questionnaire-9 during the pandemic. Loneliness scores increased significantly from April through September 2020 and were significantly higher for those reporting they were under stay-at-home, shelter-in-place, or lockdown orders compared to those reporting no restrictions. Greater loneliness was positively correlated with depression and suicidal ideation. Loneliness has increased over the first half-year of the pandemic, particularly for those under lockdown restrictions, and remains a significant mental health concern.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(6)2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Loneliness is a prevalent and serious public health problem due to its effects on health, well-being, and longevity. Understanding correlates of loneliness is critical for guiding efforts toward the development of evidence-based strategies for prevention and intervention. Considering that patterns of association between age and loneliness vary, the present study sought to examine age-related differences in risk and protective factors for loneliness. METHODS: Correlates of loneliness were examined through a large web-based survey of 2,843 participants (aged 20-69 years) from across the United States from April 10, 2019, through May 10, 2019. Participants completed the 4-item UCLA Loneliness Scale, San Diego Wisdom Scale (with the following subscales measuring components of wisdom: Prosocial Behaviors, Emotional Regulation, Self-Reflection, Acceptance of Divergent Values, Decisiveness, and Social Advising), and other scales measuring psychosocial variables. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify the best model of loneliness and examine potential age-related differences. RESULTS: Age demonstrated a nonlinear quadratic relationship with loneliness (Wald statistic = 5.48, P = .019); levels were highest in the 20s and lowest in the 60s with another peak in the mid-40s. Across all decades, loneliness was associated with not having a spouse or partner (P < .001), sleep disturbance (P < .02), lower prosocial behaviors (P < .001), and smaller social network (P < .001). Lower social self-efficacy (P < .001) and higher anxiety (P < .005) were associated with worse loneliness in all age decades, except the 60s. Loneliness was uniquely associated with decisiveness in the 50s (P = .012) and with education (P = .046) and memory complaints (P = .013) in the 60s. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identify several potentially modifiable targets related to loneliness, including several aspects of wisdom and social self-efficacy. Differential predictors at different decades suggest a need for a personalized and nuanced prioritizing of prevention and intervention targets.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Solidão , Estado Civil , Autoeficácia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Comportamento Social , Rede Social , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050221

RESUMO

The current study examined whether perceived social support mediated the effects of loneliness and self-efficacy on well-being among students with or without a learning disability (LD). Participants included 834 elementary, middle, and high school students from Israel (29.6% students with LDs) who completed self-report questionnaires. The results of structural equation modeling indicate that social support mediates the indirect effects of age, gender, loneliness and self-efficacy on well-being. In addition, the results show differences between groups, as non-LD girls noted a higher self-efficacy and well-being than boys, and well-being had indirect effects in the non-LD group than in the LD group. These results indicate students with LDs have a unique social-emotional profile that affects their well-being. The study highlights the importance of enhancing self-efficacy and reducing loneliness in order to increase social support, thus predicting positive well-being. Effective and practical educational programs are needed for both groups across age and gender.


Assuntos
Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Solidão , Criança , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/complicações , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Autoeficácia
20.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 435-442, oct. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195659

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine whether loneliness is a mediator between internet addiction and social self-efficacy among undergraduates. The participants involved 325 undergraduates (female: 57.8%; male, 42.2%). The age of participants ranged between 17 and 30 years (M = 20.54, SD = 1.99). The study data was gathered using the Young's Internet Addiction Test-Short Form, the Social Efficacy and Social Outcome Expectation Scale and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and bootstrapping method. Structural equation modeling showed that internet addiction had an indirect effect on social self-efficacy, mediated by loneliness. The results of bootstrapping procedure indicated that the indirect effect of loneliness on the relationship between internet addiction and social self-efficacy was significant. The possibility explanations, the research implication, limitations, and future directions were discussed


El propósito de este estudio fue examinar si la soledad es un mediador entre Internet y la autoeficacia entre lo social. Los participantes involucraron a 325 estudiantes universitarios (mujeres: 57.8%; hombres, 42.2%). La edad de los participantes osciló entre 17 y 30 años (M = 20.54, SD = 1.99). Los datos del estudio se obtuvieron mediante el formulario corto de prueba de adicción a Internet de Young, la escala de eficacia social y expectativas de resultados sociales y la escala de soledad de UCLA. Los datos se analizaron utilizando el método de modelado de ecuaciones estructurales y bootstrapping. El modelo de ecuaciones estructurales mostró que había un efecto indirecto sobre la autoeficacia social, mediado por la soledad. Los resultados del procedimiento de arranque indicaron que el efecto indirecto de la soledad fue significativo. Se discutieron las posibles explicaciones, la implicación de la investigación, las limitaciones y las direcciones futuras


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudantes/psicologia , Internet , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Valores de Referência , Análise de Classes Latentes
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