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1.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20003, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016634

RESUMO

Root anatomical phenes have important roles in soil resource capture and plant performance; however, their phenotypic plasticity and genetic architecture is poorly understood. We hypothesized that (a) the responses of root anatomical phenes to water deficit (stress plasticity) and different environmental conditions (environmental plasticity) are genetically controlled and (b) stress and environmental plasticity are associated with different genetic loci than those controlling the expression of phenes under water-stress and well-watered conditions. Root anatomy was phenotyped in a large maize (Zea mays L.) association panel in the field with and without water deficit stress in Arizona and without water deficit stress in South Africa. Anatomical phenes displayed stress and environmental plasticity; many phenotypic responses to water deficit were adaptive, and the magnitude of response varied by genotype. We identified 57 candidate genes associated with stress and environmental plasticity and 64 candidate genes associated with phenes under well-watered and water-stress conditions in Arizona and under well-watered conditions in South Africa. Four candidate genes co-localized between plasticity groups or for phenes expressed under each condition. The genetic architecture of phenotypic plasticity is highly quantitative, and many distinct genes control plasticity in response to water deficit and different environments, which poses a challenge for breeding programs.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas , Zea mays , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Solo , Água , Zea mays/genética
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 613-627, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016388

RESUMO

Regulatory watershed mitigation programs typically emphasize widespread adoption of best management practices (BMPs) to meet total maximum daily load (TMDL) goals. To comply with the Chesapeake Bay TMDL, jurisdictions must develop watershed implementation plans (WIPs) to determine the number and type of BMPs to implement. However, the spatial resolution of the bay-level model used to determine these load reduction goals is so coarse that the regulatory plan cannot consider heterogeneity in local conditions, which affects BMP effectiveness. Using the Topo-SWAT modification of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), we simulated two BMP adoption scenarios in the Spring Creek watershed in central Pennsylvania to determine if leveraging fine-scale spatial heterogeneity to place BMPs could achieve the same (or better) nutrient and sediment reduction at a lower cost than the state-level WIP BMP adoption recommendations. Topo-SWAT was initialized with detailed land use and management practice information, systematically calibrated, and validated against 12 yr of observed data. After determining individual BMP cost effectiveness, results were ranked to design a cost-effective BMP adoption scenario that achieved equal or greater load reduction as the WIP scenario for 74% of the cost using eight management-based BMPs: no-till, manure injection, cover cropping, riparian buffers, land retirement, manure application timing, wetland restoration, and nitrogen management (15% less N input). Because watersheds of this size typically represent the smallest modeling unit in the Chesapeake Bay Model, results demonstrate the potential to use watershed models with finer inference scales to improve recommendations for BMP implementation under the Chesapeake Bay TMDL.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pennsylvania , Áreas Alagadas
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 675, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025222

RESUMO

The largest uranium-phosphate deposit in Brazil also contains considerable levels of rare earth elements (REEs), which allows for the co-mining of these three ores. The most common methods for REE determination are time-consuming and demand complex sample preparation and use of hazardous reagents. Thus, the development of a safer and faster method to predict REEs in soil could aid in the assessment of these elements. We investigated the efficiency of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to predict REEs in the soil of the uranium-phosphate deposit of Itataia, Brazil. We collected 50 composite topsoil samples in a well-distributed sampling grid along the deposit. The NIR measures in the soils ranged from 750 to 2500 nm. Three partial least squares regressions (PLSR) were selected to calibrate the spectra: full-spectrum partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithms for interval selection in partial least squares (iSPA-PLS). The concentrations of REEs were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). In addition to raw spectral data, we also used spectral pretreatments to investigate the effects on prediction results: multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), Savitzky-Golay derivatives (SG), and standard normal variate transformation (SNV). Positive results were obtained in PLS for La and ΣLREE using MSC pretreatment and in iSPA-PLS for Nd and Ce using raw data. The accuracy of the measurements was related to the REE concentration in soil; i.e., elements with higher concentrations tended to present more accurate results. The results obtained here aim to contribute to the development of NIR spectroscopy techniques as a tool for mapping the concentrations of REEs in topsoil.


Assuntos
Urânio , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Fosfatos , Solo , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027397

RESUMO

Poverty, malnutrition and neglected tropical diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) interact in a multi-causal feedback network. This study aimed to assess the relationships between STHs, income and nutritional status of children in impoverished communities in the city of Caxias, Maranhao State, Northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional survey (n=259 children) was carried out with the collection of fecal samples and assessment of sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and sanitation data. Hookworm infection and ascariasis presented prevalence rates of 14.3% and 9.3%, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed that hookworm infection was more frequent in males (odds ratio [OR]=3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.45-8.08), children aged 11-15 years old (OR=3.72; 95% CI=1.19-11.62), children living in poor families (OR=2.44; 95% CI=1.04-5.68) and those living in rented houses (OR=5.74; 95%CI=1.91-17.25). Concerning ascariasis, living in the Caldeiroes community (OR=0.01; 95%CI=0-0.17) and belonging to the 11-15 years age group (OR=0.21; 95%CI=0.04-1.02) were protection factors. Poor children have a significantly lower frequency of consumption of meat, milk, vegetables, tubers and fruits than not poor children. The frequent consumption of meat, milk and tubers was associated with significant higher values in the parameter height-for-age, whereas the consumption of meat and milk positively influenced the weight-for-age. The frequencies of stunting, underweight and wasting were 8.1%, 4.9% and 2.9%, respectively. The multivariate model demonstrated that stunting was significantly associated with economic poverty (OR=2.82; 95%CI=1.03-7.70) and low weight was associated with male sex (OR=6.43; 95% CI=1.35-30.68). In conclusion, the study describes the interactions between the dimensions of development represented by income, STHs and nutritional status revealing the importance of raising income levels to improve the living conditions of families in impoverished communities in Northeastern Brazil.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Oecologia ; 194(1-2): 237-250, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009940

RESUMO

Climate change causes species range expansions to higher latitudes and altitudes. It is expected that, due to differences in dispersal abilities between plants and soil biota, range-expanding plant species will become associated with a partly new belowground community in their expanded range. Theory on biological invasions predicts that outside their native range, range-expanding plant species may be released from specialist natural enemies, leading to the evolution of enhanced defence against generalist enemies. Here we tested the hypothesis that expanded range populations of the range-expanding plant species Centaurea stoebe accumulate fewer root-feeding nematodes than populations from the original range. Moreover, we examined whether Centaurea stoebe accumulates fewer root-feeding nematodes in expanded range soil than in original range soil. We grew plants from three expanded range and three original range populations of C. stoebe in soil from the original and from the new range. We compared nematode communities of C. stoebe with those of C. jacea, a congeneric species native to both ranges. Our results show that expanded range populations of C. stoebe did not accumulate fewer root-feeding nematodes than populations from the original range, but that C. stoebe, unlike C. jacea, accumulated fewest root-feeding nematodes in expanded range soil. Moreover, when we examined other nematode feeding groups, we found intra-specific plant population effects on all these groups. We conclude that range-expanding plant populations from the expanded range were not better defended against root-feeding nematodes than populations from the original range, but that C. stoebe might experience partial belowground enemy release.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Rizosfera , Animais , Biota , Plantas , Solo
6.
Zootaxa ; 4838(3): zootaxa.4838.3.10, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056819

RESUMO

As part of a comparison of the collembolan fauna in soil of forest, grasslands and broadacre agriculture in north east Iran, several pale green specimens were found that complied with all characters of Isotomurus prasinus (Reuter, 1891) and keyed out as such in Potapov (2001) except that the body covering consisted of smooth mesochaetae and not ciliated chaetae as are present in prasinus according to Potapov (2001). On a more extensive examination of the recent literature, it was clear that the Iranian specimens belonged to the species Isotomurus graminis Fjellberg, 2007 described six years later. In his description, Fjellberg (2007) notes that some specimens of the new species could have previously been identified as I. prasinus in spite of having a different chaetotaxic covering. He also notes that, in a number of characters, it is identical with Isotomurus unifasciatus (Börner, 1901) but the colour differentiates them as this latter species usually has a broad, pigmented, longitudinal dorsal stripe.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Cor , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Solo
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 666, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001295

RESUMO

Knowledge of the background activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides before the start of operation of the new nuclear power plant in Belarus, BelNPP, is an issue of great importance for neighbouring countries. In this study, we provide the pilot characterisation of the Lithuanian part of the 30-km zone of the BelNPP, emphasising the forest plants, terrestrial mosses, forest organic and mineral topsoil to describe the preoperational radioecological state of the pine forest ecosystem. Key anthropogenic radionuclides (14C, 3H, 137Cs and 239,240Pu) were analysed. The 14C specific activity varied from 97.80 ± 1.30 to 102.40 ± 0.79 pMC. The 3H specific activity in the tissue-free water tritium form varied from 13.2 ± 2.2 TU to 20.8 ± 2.3 TU, which corresponded to the 3H level of precipitation in this region. The activity concentrations of 239,240Pu in soil and moss samples did not exceed 1 Bq/kg and were mainly due to global fallout after nuclear tests. The 137Cs inventory in the pine forest soils of the Lithuanian part of the BelNPP 30-km zone varied from 930 ± 70 to 1650 ± 430 Bq/m2. High variation of the inventory and uneven distribution in the soil profile conditioned a wide range of 137Сs activity in terrestrial plants from 1.0 ± 0.5 to 40.5 ± 1.8 Bq/kg dry weight. The abundance of microorganisms in different seasons and soil depths do not exceed the natural levels. According to PCA loads, the number of microorganisms and variability of 137Cs specific activity is determined by soil abiotic parameters.


Assuntos
Centrais Nucleares , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Solo
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 668, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005999

RESUMO

Watershed morphometric assessment is about measurements and calculations of land surface forms for the purpose of understanding hydro-geomorphological character and patterns. Important natural environment geo-information and summary of the spatial characteristics of Tana River Basin (TRB) in Kenya have been obtained through hydro-geomorphometric analysis. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Digital Elevation Model (ASTERDEM) data and ArcGIS (ESRI Inc., version 10.4.1) together with published mathematical equations were applied to extract morphometric parameters of the drainage basin, which covers a total area of 94,930 km2 and a span of 527.75 km. The quantitative morphometric analysis considered a total of 28 relief, areal, and linear hydro-morphometric characteristics of the TRB. Relief parameters of the basin suggest moderate-to-low overall watershed steepness, upland with rolling land surface patterns, rugged landforms susceptible to erosion and sediment transportation, and a landscape in evolution process tending towards maturity. This means stability of the land surface can be attained with intensive land degradation reversing strategies like erosion control measures. Areal characteristics further support the basin's susceptibility to erosion as shown by stream length, stream drainage density, and circulatory ratio values. Also, the areal aspects portray peak runoffs with short duration flashes. Linear parameter value results such as bifurcation ratio imply that infiltration capacity varies with stream orders across the watershed. This hydro-geomorphometric analysis would be useful to land and water managers, researchers and practitioners of TRB, and other similar systems in designing and planning soil and water conservation and management practices such as soil erosion control, groundwater recharge activities, catchment modelling, runoff and flood studies, prospecting groundwater mapping, and biological applications.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Quênia , Rios , Solo
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 670, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009644

RESUMO

Antarctica is considered as one of the most pristine areas on Earth. However, increasing intensity of human presence on the sixth continent (scientific operations, functioning of the numerous scientific stations, tourism activities) makes it crucial to investigate the level of environmental pollution within the vulnerable ecosystem of Antarctica. Soils play a significant role in processes of accumulation, mobilization, redistribution of chemical elements within landscapes, and ecosystems. The aim of this work was to analyze the levels of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eight trace elements in soils of King George and Ardley islands, Western Antarctica. Moreover, our work was aimed to determine the trends and reasons of anthropogenic pollution of Antarctic soils and characterization of accumulation levels of trace elements and PAHs. Results showed the predominance of light PAHs in all studied sites. The content of benzo(a)pyrene does not exceed the threshold concentration (adopted by different national environmental legislation systems). At the same time, the content of benzo(a)pyrene, which is a marker of anthropogenic contamination, is relatively low or equal to 0 in soils of reference landscapes. Cu and Zn were found as most abundant elements in all studied soils. The highest lead concentration content has been described in soil from Bellingshausen station. In general term, obtained Igeo values for trace elements in all samples were under or slightly above the 0 level, indicating low to moderate pollution of the studied soils. This study also contributes new data on trace element accumulation in soils strongly influenced by ornithogenic factor. Principal component analysis allowed to estimate the probable sources of specific trace metals and their relationship with soil variables. Ornithogenic factor has been also revealed as a driver for some trace element accumulation especially in breeding penguin colonies. High contents of organic matter in ornithogenic habitats could increase trace metal mobility, environmental risks for surrounding terrestrial environments should be considered.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Regiões Antárticas , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Ilhas , Solo
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 671, 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009943

RESUMO

Plastic pollution is an emerging issue faced worldwide owing to rapid urbanization and extensive use of plastic products. The objective of this study was to determine and highlight the spatial distribution of microplastics (MPs) in the top soils of different land use types of an urbanized city, i.e., Lahore, Pakistan, influenced by different human activities. Soil samples (n = 40) were collected from eight different land use groups including agricultural areas, drains, dumping sites, industrial areas, lawns, parks, roadsides, and wastelands to represent the influence of corresponding human actions. After cleaning the samples through wet peroxide digestion and density separation, MPs were identified under a stereomicroscope. The range of MPs in top soils within Lahore district varied from 1750 to 12,200 MPs/kg with an average of 4483 ± 2315 MPs/kg. The highest concentration of MPs was present in the parks while the lowest numbers of MPs were enumerated in soil from dumping sites. About 99% of the identified MPs particles were fibers, sheets, and fragments in shape while foams and beads accounted for the rest. Moreover, among the size ranges, the large size MPs (300-5000 µm) were found in the majority (41.16%) followed by the fine size MPs (50-150 µm; 30.67%) and medium size MPs (150-300 µm; 28.17%). The current level of MPs pollution attracts the attention of researchers for a more comprehensive investigation in the future. It also incites the policy-makers to implement the regulations to prevent plastic pollution and its environmental implications.


Assuntos
Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microplásticos , Paquistão , Plásticos
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 672, 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009971

RESUMO

The effects of soil compaction on porosity (α), bulk density (ρs), and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) can create a physical barrier in the soil, reducing the vertical movement of toxic elements in the soil profile. However, the indirect effects of compaction in altering the forms and availability of heavy metals in soil have not been well-studied. This study examined the influence of compaction on forms of lead (Pb) in soils with contrasting texture. Four levels of compaction were imposed on a sandy loam and a clayey soil, which were artificially contaminated based on their maximum Pb adsorption capacity. Compaction had different effects on Pb forms depending on soil texture. In the sandy loam soil, compaction had a dual beneficial effect in mitigating the impact of Pb contamination, since it decreased Ksat, reducing metal transport to deeper soil layers, and also prevented transformation to more available Pb forms (soluble and exchangeable). Instead, there was an increase in the most environmentally stable forms of Pb (inner sphere adsorption on iron and manganese oxides). In the clayey soil, compaction caused a significant increase in soluble and exchangeable Pb, accompanied by a significant reduction in environmentally stable Pb (inner sphere adsorption on gibbsite and kaolinite). In addition, studies about Pb contents under compacted soil layers should be investigated, mainly in clayey soils with edible crops, and environmental remediation practices that involve the machines traffic (for example, phytoremediation-successive cultivation of Pb-hyperaccumulating plants) should be used with care to minimise the compaction of clayey soils.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo , Solo
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 674, 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011837

RESUMO

Prediction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) based on catchment characteristics is a useful tool for efficient and effective water management, but in the case of arid and semi-arid regions, such predictive capacity is scarce. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the significance of principal components for predicting DOC concentrations and fluxes in nine headwater catchments of the Hiv catchment located in the Southern Alborz Mountains in the west of Tehran, Iran. To achieve this aim, data were assembled on 24 headwater catchment characteristics comprising soil properties, physiography, seasonal rainfall, and flow attributes, as well as estimates of DOC concentrations and fluxes across four seasons. The results revealed a major positive correlation between DOC and soil organic matter parameters related to soil biological processes. Using general linear modelling, an organic matter component related to soil biology, a seasonal component related to the dummy effect of sampling seasons, and a soil physical component related to soil texture were found to be the best predictors for DOC responses in the study area.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Carbono/análise , Irã (Geográfico) , Solo
13.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 61-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016353

RESUMO

Land reclamation in the Athabasca oil sands region requires construction of entire soil profiles from materials salvaged during mining. Although much attention has been paid to the limited supply of suitable topsoil materials and their impact on ecosystem recovery, suitable clean subsoil materials are also in limited supply, and their efficient and effective use is an important consideration for land managers in the region. Using data from an oil sands reclamation site in northern Alberta, Canada, we compared soil and foliar nutrients to a wildfire-impacted reference ecosystem with a similarity index. Specifically, we evaluated the similarity of forest floor-mineral mix (FFM) and peat-mineral mix (PM) as topsoil, as well as the effect of different depths of salvaged B and C horizon subsoil with PM on top. All reclamation treatments were planted with jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), which were used to examine foliar nutrient concentrations. Individual macronutrient concentrations were different among treatments in total soil nutrients, but differences decreased in soil bioavailable nutrients and disappeared altogether in foliar nutrients. The similarity index revealed that distinct differences existed between treatments, with FFM being the most similar to the wildfire site. It also revealed a potential deficiency in foliar and soil bioavailable Mn on PM, and that increased water content of deeper subsoils had little to no effect. With use of this nutrient profile similarity index, reclamation practitioners may be able to determine if different soil prescriptions lead to higher levels of similarity to natural ecosystems more quickly.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Alberta , Animais , Nutrientes , Ovinos , Solo
14.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 74-84, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016354

RESUMO

Plants release carbon-based exudates from their roots into the rhizosphere to increase phosphorus (P) supply to the soil solution. However, if more P than required is brought into solution, additional P could be available for leaching from riparian soils. To investigate this further, soil columns containing a riparian arable and buffer strip soil, which differed in organic matter contents, were sown with three common agricultural and riparian grass species. The P loads in leachate were measured and compared with those from unplanted columns, which were 0.17 ± 0.01 and 0.89 ± 0.04 mg kg-1 for the arable and buffer strip soil, respectively. A mixture of ryegrass and red fescue significantly (p ≤ .05) increased dissolved inorganic P loads in leachate from the arable (0.23 ± 0.01 mg kg-1 ) and buffer strip soil (1.06 ± 0.05 mg kg-1 ), whereas barley significantly reduced P leaching from the buffer strip soil (0.53 ± 0.08 mg kg-1 ). This was dependent on the dissolved organic C released under different plant species and on interactions with soil management history and biogeochemical conditions, rather than on plant uptake of P and accumulation into biomass. This suggested that the amount and forms of P present in the soil and the ability of the plants to mobilize them could be key factors in determining how plants affect leaching of soil P. Selecting grass species for different stages of buffer strip development, basing species selection on root physiological traits, and correcting soil nutrient stoichiometry in riparian soils through vegetative mining could help to lower this contribution.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Poaceae , Carbono , Rizosfera , Solo
15.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 172-183, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016355

RESUMO

Use of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) as highway basecourse material conserves virgin aggregate, reduces energy consumption and CO2 emissions, and may also decrease costs during construction. However, concerns remain over possible negative environmental impacts associated with high pH (>11) effluent from RCA in contact with water. This study examines the reactive transport of high-pH and high-alkalinity water, modeled on RCA leachate, through model subgrade soils. By developing an understanding of the reactions controlling effluent neutralization, this study aims to quantify the change in pH from the discharge site through surrounding subgrade soils. Four types of subgrade soils with a range of mineral composition, Atterberg limits, and cation exchange capacities (CECs) are examined. They include a clayey sand (SC10), low-plasticity clays (M14, SC25), and a high-plasticity clay (CH38). Batch reaction experiments are used to develop kinetic parameters describing the neutralization of high-pH and -alkalinity leachate by clay minerals through mineral dissolution and reprecipitation. Given this information, a reactive transport model incorporating advection, diffusion, and reaction is used to model the change in pH as a function of distance traveled through model subgrade soils and is applied to laboratory-scale column experiments. The rate at which the high pH front travels is directly related to a soil's clay mineral content. Soils with high CECs effectively delay the propagation of hydroxide front by the dissolution of clay minerals. This study demonstrates that common subgrade soils with moderate clay content will effectively neutralize high pH leachate initially produced by RCA.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo , Argila , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Reciclagem
16.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 1-13, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016361

RESUMO

Nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission from agricultural soils represents a significant source of greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. We evaluated the suitability of a modified Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to estimate the N2 O flux from the application of solid manure at two grassland sites (North Wyke [NW] and Pwllpeiran [PW]) in the United Kingdom. The simulated N2 O emissions were validated against field observations measured in 2011 and 2012 for model calibration and validation, respectively. The SWAT model predicts water-filled pore space (WFPS) very well with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), R2 , RMSE, and percentage bias (PBIAS) values of 0.67, .72, 0.06, and 3.64, respectively, during the calibration period for NW site, whereas it gives 0.68, .69, 0.07, and 3.04, respectively during the validation period. At PW, the model predicted the NSE, R2 , RMSE, and PBIAS of 0.55, .69, 0.04, and -4.5, respectively, during calibration and 0.63, .71, 0.05, and -2.6, respectively, during the validation period. Compared with WFPS, the model resulted in a slightly lower fit for N2 O emissions for NW (NSE = 0.47, R2  = .63 during calibration, and NSE = 0.55, R2  = .58 during validation) and for PW (NSE = 0.54, R2  = .71 for calibration, and NSE = 0.47, R2  = .69 for validation). Results revealed that the SWAT model performed reasonably well in representing the dynamics of N2 O emissions after solid manure application to grassland.


Assuntos
Esterco , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Pradaria , Solo , Reino Unido
17.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 14-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016364

RESUMO

The impacts of soil properties and urea fertigation on nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from uncropped areas of furrow-irrigated Vertisol paddocks are unknown. We sampled soils from the head-ditch end (upslope) and sediments from the tail-drain end (downslope) of 10 Vertisols under irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production in northeastern Australia. Four replicates of each sample were incubated in open-top polyvinyl chloride (PVC) chambers at 25 ± 2°C for 25 d. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured periodically after simulated irrigations on Days 0 and 15 with either water or, for soils, urea solution. Compared with the soils, sediments were enriched in silt, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), ammonium N, and dissolved organic C (DOC) but had lower pH and sand content. Sediments emitted more N2 O than soils from the same paddocks after water irrigations. Nitrous oxide fluxes varied by two orders of magnitude between paddocks, with most variation explained by baseline nitrate N, TOC, pH (inversely), and sand content. Urea solution applied to soils at 30 kg N ha-1 irrigation-1 increased N2 O emitted, but more so after the second irrigation. In irrigated cotton systems, tail-drain sediments are a potential hotspot for N2 O emissions that has not previously been documented.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Austrália , Nitrogênio , Solo
18.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 184-193, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016369

RESUMO

Phosphorus deficiency and excess are concomitant problems in agricultural soils of the mid-Atlantic region. A fundamental understanding of soil P speciation is essential to assess P fate and transport in these soils. Current methods for soil P speciation often rely on sequential chemical extractions, which can introduce artifacts during analysis. To overcome limitations of current methods, this study evaluated synchrotron-based micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (µ-XANES) techniques to assess soil P speciation in agricultural soils collected from the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Three soils with varying chemical and physical properties were analyzed with µ-XRF maps collected at high (12,000 eV) and tender (2240 eV) energies to evaluate colocation of P with Fe, Al, Ca, and Si in soil samples, and µ-XANES spectra were collected at the P K-edge for P hotspots. Combined µ-XRF and µ-XANES analysis was useful for identifying Ca phosphate, Fe phosphate, Al-sorbed P, and Fe-sorbed P species in heterogeneous soil samples. X-ray fluorescence maps were valuable to distinguish Al-oxide sorbed P from Fe-oxide sorbed P species. A low signal-to-noise ratio often limited µ-XANES data collection in regions with diffuse, low concentrations of P. Therefore, some P species may not have been detected during analysis. Even with varying degrees of self-absorption and signal-to-noise ratios in µ-XANES spectra, important inferences regarding P speciation in mid-Atlantic soils were made. This study highlights the potential of µ-XANES analysis for use in environmental and agricultural sciences to provide insights into P fate and transport in soils.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo , Fósforo , Síncrotrons , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
19.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 163-171, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016370

RESUMO

Annual and multiyear records of trace element deposition are difficult to develop using monitoring systems but have proven feasible using plant material in several settings. Here, we used material from several tree species (Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall, Platanus occidentalis L., and Ginkgo biloba L.) to detect atmospheric deposition of trace elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in six localities along a transect from near-urban to far-urban in southeastern Indianapolis, IN, and one control site. We captured soil (legacy footprint), bark (multiannual record), and leaves (seasonal record) across a broad swath of the urban landscape and using a multi-metal approach. Tree bark, leaf, and proximal soil samples were collected and analyzed for their trace element content. The highest trace metal concentrations occurred at the near-urban sites, with particularly high Cu and Pb values. The highest Zn values were found at one of the far-urban sites, which is located near a large brownfield that was a former coal and coke storage and processing facility. No correlation was found between soil trace element composition and that of bark and leaves, perhaps indicating a disconnect between legacy inputs recorded in soils and current inputs recorded in the biological materials. Overall, the tree species analyzed served well as trace element bioindicators, although less so for G. biloba, and thus this approach is promising for further understanding the role that airborne pollution and deposition play in urban watersheds.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo , Árvores
20.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 675-687, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016383

RESUMO

Legacy phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils can be transported to surface waters via runoff and tile drainage, where it contributes to the development of harmful and nuisance algal blooms and hypoxia. However, a limited understanding of legacy P loss dynamics impedes the identification of mitigation strategies. Edge-of-field data from 41 agricultural fields in northwestern Ohio, USA, were used to develop regressions between legacy P concentrations (C) and discharge (Q) for two P fractions: total P (TP) and dissolved reactive P (DRP). Tile drainage TP concentration (CTP ) and DRP concentration (CDRP ) both increased as Q increased, and CTP tended to increase at a greater rate than CDRP . Surface runoff showed greater variation in C-Q regressions, indicating that the response of TP and DRP to elevated Q was field specific. The relative variability of C and Q was explored using a ratio of CVs (CVC /CVQ ), which indicated that tile drainage TP and DRP losses were chemodynamic, whereas losses via surface runoff demonstrated both chemodynamic and chemostatic behavior. The chemodynamic behavior indicated that legacy P losses were strongly influenced by variation in P source availability and transport pathways. In addition, legacy P source size influenced C, as demonstrated by a positive relationship between soil-test P and the CTP and CDRP in both tile drainage and surface runoff. Progress towards legacy P mitigation will require further characterization of the drivers of variability in CTP and CDRP , including weather-, soil-, and management-related factors.


Assuntos
Fósforo/análise , Movimentos da Água , Agricultura , Ohio , Solo
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