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1.
Perit Dial Int ; 41(1): 101-103, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499779

RESUMO

Peritoneal dialysis treatment generates significant amounts of waste for disposal from patients' homes. In Australia, in the days after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, waste collection from homes was temporarily stopped. Our patient tried to dispose of his waste by burning the used bags and tubing, using paint thinner as an accelerant. We present a case report of the unusual neurological complication he developed.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Mioclonia/etiologia , Diálise Peritoneal , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Tolueno/efeitos adversos , Austrália , /transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Fogo , Calefação , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mioclonia/diagnóstico , Mioclonia/terapia
2.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(11): 681-693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132242

RESUMO

Trichloroethylene (TCE) as a common organic solvent in industrial production can cause occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis (OMDT) in some exposed workers. In addition to systemic skin damage, OMDT is also accompanied by severe kidney injury. Our previous studies show that complement (C) plays an important role in immune kidney injury caused by TCE. Specifically, C3 is mainly deposited on glomeruli. Recent studies have found that intracellular complement can be activated by cathepsin L (CTSL) and exert a series of biological effects. The purpose of this study was to explore where C3 on glomeruli comes from and what role it plays. A BALB/c mouse model of skin sensitization induced by TCE in the presence or absence of CTSL inhibitor (CTSLi,10 mg/kg). In TCE sensitization-positive mice, C3 was mainly expressed on podocytes and the expression of CTSL significantly increased in podocytes. Kidney function test and related indicators showed abnormal glomerular filtration and transmission electron microscopy revealed ultrastructure damage to podocytes. These lesions were alleviated in TCE/CTSLi positive mice. These results provide the first evidence that in TCE-induced immune kidney injury, intracellular complement in podocytes can be over-activated by CTSL and aggravates podocytes injury, thereby damaging glomerular filtration function. Intracellular complement activation and cathepsin L in podocytes may be a potential target for treating immune kidney injury induced by TCE.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/imunologia , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Podócitos/imunologia , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Tricloroetileno/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Animais , Catepsina L/efeitos adversos , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glomérulos Renais/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Podócitos/patologia , Podócitos/ultraestrutura
3.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 99, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies of adults with occupational exposure to solvents such as tetrachloroethylene (PCE) have shown adverse effects on cognition, mood and behavioral problems. Much less is known about neurotoxic effects in early life at lower exposure levels seen in community settings. We recently reported that illicit drug use was more frequent among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts who were exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood than their unexposed counterparts. Using newly collected data from this population-based retrospective cohort study, the current analysis examines whether early life PCE exposure is also associated with drug use disorder over the life course. METHODS: Three-hundred and sixty-three subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 255 unexposed subjects were studied. These individuals (median age: 40-41 years) completed self-administered questionnaires on the eleven established diagnostic criteria for drug use disorder and confounding variables. A validated leaching and transport model was used to estimate exposure to PCE-contaminated water. RESULTS: Overall, 23.3% of subjects reported having at least one criterion for drug use disorder over their lifetime. Early life PCE exposure was associated with a modest increase in the lifetime presence of one or more diagnostic criteria for drug use disorder (adjusted RR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8). Compared to unexposed subjects, PCE-exposed subjects were more likely to report having most diagnostic criteria of drug use disorder, including neglecting major roles due to drug use, physical and psychological problems related to drug use, and giving up activities due to drug use. No dose-response relationships were observed with increasing levels of PCE exposure. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water during early life modestly increases the risk of developing diagnostic criteria for drug use disorder later in life. Because this study has several limitations, these findings should be confirmed in follow-up investigations of other exposed populations with more diverse racial and socioeconomic characteristics.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Tetracloroetileno/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Água Potável/análise , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia
5.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(3): e201, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150172

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la frecuencia de micronúcleos (MN) e influencia de los polimorfismos en los genes del metabolismo GSTM1 y GSTT1 como biomarcadores de riesgo de cáncer en pintores de carros (n=152) con respecto a individuos no expuestos (n=152). Métodos Estudio Epidemiológico Molecular, tipo Corte Transversal analítico, interacción gen-ambiente. La evaluación de MNs y polimorfismos genéticos se determinó con pruebas moleculares en linfocitos de los individuos objeto de estudio. Resultados Se determinó que la frecuencia de MNs es 1.6 más alta en el grupo expuesto con relación al grupo referente (1.39±0.92 versus 0,87±0.78, p<0,0001). No se determinó un incremento en la frecuencia de MNs asociado a los polimorfismos en GSTM1 y GSTT1. Conclusiones El incremento de MNs en pintores de carros sirve para alertar al incremento de riesgo de cáncer en esta población expuesta a solventes orgánicos. Estos resultados pueden servir en Programas de Vigilancia Epidemiológica Ocupacional, como estrategia de prevención y en otros países con un amplio sector informal de individuos expuestos a estos químicos para reducir el riesgo de cáncer.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the frequency of micronuclei (MNs) and influence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms as biomarkers of cancer risk in car painters (n=152) compared to unexposed individuals (n=152). Methods Molecular epidemiology study, cross-sectional analysis of gen and environment interaction. The evaluation of MN and genetic polymorphisms was determined by molecular tests in lymphocytes from subjects involved in the study. Results It was determined that the frequency of MNs is 1.6 higher in the exposed group compared to the reference group (1.39 ± 0.92 versus 0.87 ± 0.78, p<0.0001). There was no increase in the frequency of MNs associated with the polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTT1. Conclusions The increase of MNs in car painters serves to alert the increased risk of cancer in this population exposed to organic solvents. These results can be used in Occupational Epidemiological Surveillance Programs, as a prevention strategy and policies to regulate and control the use of solvents at a national level and in other countries with a large informal sector of individuals exposed to these chemicals to reduce the risk of cancer.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Predisposição Genética para Doença/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Testes para Micronúcleos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Estudos Transversais
6.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(3): 241-249, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193761

RESUMO

Studies of occupational solvent exposures and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been conflicting. We conducted a population-based case-control study of mixed occupational solvent exposures and ALS. Using the Danish National Patient Registry, we identified ALS cases in Denmark from 1982 to 2013, and matched them to 100 controls based on sex and birth year. We estimated cumulative exposures to solvents (benzene, methylene chloride, toluene, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane) via job exposure matrices and applied them to occupational history from the Danish Pension Fund. Sex-stratified conditional logistic regression analyses revealed higher adjusted odds of ALS for men with exposure to benzene (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.02, 1.41) and methylene chloride (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.07, 1.42). We used weighted quantile sum regression to explore combined solvent exposures and risk of ALS in exposed subjects and found increased odds of 26 to 28% in all exposure lag periods for every one-unit increase in the mixture index in men. Weights of methylene chloride predominated the mixture index in all lag periods. Our study suggests an increased risk of ALS in men exposed to multiple solvents, with the greatest influence being from methylene chloride. These findings highlight the need to utilize mixtures analysis when considering co-occurring exposures.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cloreto de Metileno/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco
7.
Rev. bras. med. trab ; 18(1): 103-108, jan-mar.2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116154

RESUMO

Introdução: Fatores de risco associados ao trabalho podem causar, entre outros, câncer de colo uterino. Objetivo: Identificar na literatura especializada a associação entre câncer de colo de útero e a exposição aos fatores ocupacionais de risco. Métodos: Realizou-se um levantamento bibliográfico em bases de dados eletrônicos com os seguintes descritores: câncer de colo uterino e riscos ocupacionais. Resultados: Trabalhadores expostos ao tabaco nas fábricas de cigarro, fluidos de motores, exposição ocupacional a fungos e bactérias e ao tetracloroetileno, presente em produtos de limpeza usados em lavanderias e para desengraxar metais, estariam mais susceptíveis ao desenvolvimento de câncer de colo uterino. Conclusão: Há poucos estudos que identificam a relação entre o câncer de colo de útero e os fatores de risco ocupacional, dificultando a associação entre o carcinogênese e o fator de risco.


Background: Occupational risk factors are associated with many types of neoplasms including cervical cancer. Objective: To review the specialized literature for evidence on the relationship between cervical cancer and exposure to occupational hazards. Methods: Literature search in electronic databases using keywords cervical cancer and occupational risk. Results: Workers occupationally exposed to tobacco, fungi or bacteria, metalworking fluids and tetrachloroethylene used in dry cleaning and for metal degreasing exhibited higher susceptibility to cervical cancer. Conclusion: Few studies sought to investigate relationships between cervical cancer and occupational hazards, which hinders the attempts at establishing a causal link.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Riscos Ocupacionais , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Tetracloroetileno/efeitos adversos , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Micoses/complicações
8.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(4): 223-230, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between occupational exposure to solvents and cognitive performance in middle-aged and early-ageing participants, taking into account the working environment. METHODS: In the French Cohorte des consultants des Centres d'examens de santé (CONSTANCES) cohort, 41 854 participants aged 45-69 years completed a self-reported, lifetime occupational exposure questionnaire. Exposure to solvents (gasoline for hand washing, trichloroethylene, white spirit, cellulosic thinner) was first considered as a binary variable (exposed/not exposed). We computed number of solvent types to which participants were exposed, solvent exposure time and delay since last exposure. Cognitive performance was assessed and analysed in reference to norms of neuropsychological battery previously established in CONSTANCES according to age, sex and education. Multiple linear and modified Poisson regression were used to estimate the associations between solvent exposure and cognitive performance adjusting for individual and environmental characteristics, and working conditions (night shift, repetitive and noisy work). RESULTS: Men had a greater risk of global cognitive impairment when they were exposed to gasoline (relative risk (RR)=1.12, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.22), white spirit (RR=1.14, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.25) or cellulosic thinner (RR=1.17, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.31) at the workplace, even after adjusting for confounders. Women exposed to white spirit or exposed for more than 20 years had poorer global cognitive performance. CONCLUSION: These findings strengthen our understanding of the detrimental effect of solvent exposure on cognitive health not only in men but also in women for the first time, in a large general population middle-aged and early-ageing sample from France, taking into account working conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(3): 172-178, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal occupational exposure to solvents and gastroschisis in offspring. METHODS: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study of major birth defects conducted in 10 US states from 1997 to 2011. Infants with gastroschisis were ascertained by active birth defects surveillance systems. Control infants without major birth defects were selected from vital records or birth hospital records. Self-reported maternal occupational histories were collected by telephone interview. Industrial hygienists reviewed this information to estimate exposure to aromatic, chlorinated and petroleum-based solvents from 1 month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy. Cumulative exposure to solvents was estimated for the same period accounting for estimated exposure intensity and frequency, job duration and hours worked per week. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated to assess the association between exposure to any solvents or solvent classes, and gastroschisis risk. RESULTS: Among 879 cases and 7817 controls, the overall prevalence of periconceptional solvent exposure was 7.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Exposure to any solvent versus no exposure to solvents was not associated with gastroschisis after adjusting for maternal age (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.32), nor was an association noted for solvent classes. There was no exposure-response relationship between estimated cumulative solvent exposure and gastroschisis after adjusting for maternal age. CONCLUSION: Our study found no association between maternal occupational solvent exposure and gastroschisis in offspring. Further research is needed to understand risk factors for gastroschisis.


Assuntos
Gastrosquise/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(2): 64-69, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Increased risk has been suggested for autoimmune rheumatic diseases following solvent exposure. The evidence for specific solvents is limited, and little is known about exposure-response relations. Styrene is an aromatic, organic solvent and the objective of this study was to analyse the association between occupational styrene exposure and autoimmune rheumatic diseases in men and women. METHODS: We followed 72 212 styrene-exposed workers of the Danish reinforced plastics industry from 1979 to 2012. We modelled full work history of styrene exposure from employment history, survey data and historical styrene exposure measurements. We identified cases in the national patient registry and investigated gender-specific exposure-response relations by cumulative styrene exposure for different exposure time windows adjusting for age, calendar year and educational level. RESULTS: During 1 515 126 person-years of follow-up, we identified 718 cases of an autoimmune rheumatic disease, of which 73% were rheumatoid arthritis. When adjusting for potential confounders and comparing the highest with the lowest styrene exposure tertile, we observed a statistically non-significantly increased risk of systemic sclerosis among women (incidence rate ratio (IRR)=2.50; 95% CI 0.50 to 12.50) and men (IRR=1.86; 95 % CI 0.50 to 7.00), based on 9 and 22 cases, respectively. Results were inconsistent for the other autoimmune rheumatic diseases examined. CONCLUSION: This study suggests an association between occupational styrene exposure and systemic sclerosis in men as well as in women but based on few cases. This is a new finding and has to be replicated before conclusions can be drawn.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças Reumáticas/etiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/etiologia , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Estireno/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indústria Manufatureira , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Plásticos , Sistema de Registros , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 22(1): 158-162, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041717

RESUMO

One of the major challenges related to solvent-based taxanes administration in clinical practice is the high rate of hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs). Nab-paclitaxel is a solvent-free, albumin-bound, paclitaxel, which minimize the risk of HSR occurrence. In this single-institution, retrospective analysis, we evaluated stage IIIc-IV epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients, treated with first-line carboplatin/nab-paclitaxel (± bevacizumab), after the occurrence of an HSR with solvent-based paclitaxel (and/or docetaxel). Between April 2012 and December 2018, ten patients (20.8%) received carboplatin/nab-paclitaxel (± bevacizumab) after the occurrence of an HSR to solvent-based taxanes. Among the evaluable patients, ORR was 100%. At median follow-up of 28.5 months, median PFS was 16.7 months, and median OS was 65.4 months, respectively. Median received dose intensity (DI) was 86% and 80% of the projected DI for nab-paclitaxel and carboplatin, respectively. There were no treatment-related grade 4 adverse events. Most relevant treatment-related grade 3 adverse events were: asthenia (10%), hypertransaminasemia (10%), neutropenia (20%), thrombocytopenia (20%), and anemia (10%). No HSR recurrence was observed. The high rate of HSR occurrence could limit first-line treatment options in clinical practice. Carboplatin/nab-paclitaxel association could represent a valid treatment option in this setting.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Solventes/química , Taxoides/administração & dosagem
13.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(39): 5936-5952, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to dissolve gallstones has been limited due to concerns over its toxicity and the widespread recognition of the safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The adverse effects of MTBE are largely attributed to its low boiling point, resulting in a tendency to evaporate. Therefore, if there is a material with a higher boiling point and similar or higher dissolubility than MTBE, it is expected to be an attractive alternative to MTBE. AIM: To determine whether tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), an MTBE analogue with a relatively higher boiling point (102 °C), could be used as an alternative to MTBE in terms of gallstone dissolubility and toxicity. METHODS: The in vitro dissolubility of MTBE and TAEE was determined by measuring the dry weights of human gallstones at predetermined time intervals after placing them in glass containers with either of the two solvents. The in vivo dissolubility was determined by comparing the weights of solvent-treated gallstones and control (dimethyl sulfoxide)-treated gallstones, after the direct infusion of each solvent into the gallbladder in both hamster models with cholesterol and pigmented gallstones. RESULTS: The in vitro results demonstrated a 24 h TAEE-dissolubility of 76.7%, 56.5% and 38.75% for cholesterol, mixed, and pigmented gallstones, respectively, which represented a 1.2-, 1.4-, and 1.3-fold increase in dissolubility compared to that of MTBE. In the in vitro experiment, the 24 h-dissolubility of TAEE was 71.7% and 63.0% for cholesterol and pigmented gallstones, respectively, which represented a 1.4- and 1.9-fold increase in dissolubility compared to that of MTBE. In addition, the results of the cell viability assay and western blot analysis indicated that TAEE had a lower toxicity towards gallbladder epithelial cells than MTBE. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that TAEE has higher gallstone dissolubility properties and safety than those of MTBE. As such, TAEE could present an attractive alternative to MTBE if our findings regarding its efficacy and safety can be consistently reproduced in further subclinical and clinical studies.


Assuntos
Éter/administração & dosagem , Cálculos Biliares/terapia , Éteres Metílicos/administração & dosagem , Solventes/administração & dosagem , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Éter/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Cálculos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Biliares/etiologia , Humanos , Mesocricetus , Éteres Metílicos/efeitos adversos , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
14.
J Clin Invest ; 129(10): 4290-4304, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483291

RESUMO

Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) or e-cigarettes have emerged as a popular recreational tool among adolescents and adults. Although the use of ENDS is often promoted as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, few comprehensive studies have assessed the long-term effects of vaporized nicotine and its associated solvents, propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG). Here, we show that compared with smoke exposure, mice receiving ENDS vapor for 4 months failed to develop pulmonary inflammation or emphysema. However, ENDS exposure, independent of nicotine, altered lung lipid homeostasis in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. Comprehensive lipidomic and structural analyses of the lungs revealed aberrant phospholipids in alveolar macrophages and increased surfactant-associated phospholipids in the airway. In addition to ENDS-induced lipid deposition, chronic ENDS vapor exposure downregulated innate immunity against viral pathogens in resident macrophages. Moreover, independent of nicotine, ENDS-exposed mice infected with influenza demonstrated enhanced lung inflammation and tissue damage. Together, our findings reveal that chronic e-cigarette vapor aberrantly alters the physiology of lung epithelial cells and resident immune cells and promotes poor response to infectious challenge. Notably, alterations in lipid homeostasis and immune impairment are independent of nicotine, thereby warranting more extensive investigations of the vehicle solvents used in e-cigarettes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Lipidômica , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/metabolismo , Enfisema Pulmonar/patologia , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Solventes/administração & dosagem , Solventes/efeitos adversos
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11564, 2019 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399615

RESUMO

There have been no large, nationwide, birth cohort studies in Japan examining the effects of house renovation during pregnancy on congenital abnormality. This study examined the impact of (1) prenatal exposure to house renovation and (2) maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents and/or formaldehyde on the incidence of congenital abnormality. The fixed data of 67,503 singleton births from a large national birth cohort study that commenced in 2011 were used to evaluate the presence of congenital abnormalities and potential confounding factors. We employed multiple logistic regression analysis to search for correlations between maternal exposure to house renovation or organic solvents and/or formaldehyde during pregnancy and such congenital abnormalities as congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate, male genital abnormality, limb defect, and gastrointestinal obstruction. After controlling for potential confounding factors, we observed that house renovation was significantly associated with male genital abnormality (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.03-3.17, P = 0.04) when stratified by congenital abnormality, with no other remarkable relations to house renovation or occupational use of organic solvents and/or formaldehyde during pregnancy. There were also significant correlations for maternal BMI before pregnancy, history of ovulation induction through medication, maternal diabetes mellitus/gestational diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with an increased risk of congenital abnormality. In conclusion, this large nationwide survey provides important information on a possible association of house renovation during pregnancy with congenital male genital abnormality which needs confirmation in future studies.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Habitação , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Solventes/efeitos adversos
16.
Transfusion ; 59(9): 2974-2988, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A small body of literature assessing the efficacy and safety of pathogen reduced (PR) plasma has been published. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: An AABB committee systematically reviewed the literature and graded the clinical trial evidence with the assistance of a GRADE expert. RESULTS: Most studies identified were low quality and had a small sample size; in addition, efficacy and safety were monitored in many different ways making it difficult to quantify therapeutic benefit and risk. The data analyzed in this systematic review showed that pathogen inactivation did not adversely affect the efficacy of S/D or amotosalen plasma transfusions in any patient population studied. In addition, there were no significant safety issues for these patient populations, other than the specific contraindications noted in their respective package inserts. CONCLUSION: Larger, well-designed trials are needed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of all of the PR plasma products.


Assuntos
Segurança do Sangue , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue/isolamento & purificação , Desinfecção , Viabilidade Microbiana , Plasma , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos/normas , Segurança do Sangue/métodos , Segurança do Sangue/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Desinfecção/métodos , Desinfecção/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Humanos , Plasma/química , Plasma/microbiologia , Plasma/virologia , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Reação Transfusional/prevenção & controle
17.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 195, 2019 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is the only clinical topical agent for gallstone dissolution, its use is limited by its side effects mostly arising from a relatively low boiling point (55 °C). In this study, we developed the gallstone-dissolving compound containing an aromatic moiety, named 2-methoxy-6-methylpyridine (MMP) with higher boiling point (156 °C), and compared its effectiveness and toxicities with MTBE. METHODS: The dissolubility of MTBE and MMP in vitro was determined by placing human gallstones in glass containers with either solvent and, then, measuring their dry weights. Their dissolubility in vivo was determined by comparing the weights of solvent-treated gallstones and control (dimethyl sulfoxide)-treated gallstones, after directly injecting each solvent into the gallbladder in hamster models with cholesterol and pigmented gallstones. RESULTS: In the in vitro dissolution test, MMP demonstrated statistically higher dissolubility than did MTBE for cholesterol and pigmented gallstones (88.2% vs. 65.7%, 50.8% vs. 29.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). In the in vivo experiments, MMP exhibited 59.0% and 54.3% dissolubility for cholesterol and pigmented gallstones, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of MTBE (50.0% and 32.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The immunohistochemical stains of gallbladder specimens obtained from the MMP-treated hamsters demonstrated that MMP did not significantly increase the expression of cleaved caspase 9 or significantly decrease the expression of proliferation cell nuclear antigen. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that MMP has better potential than does MTBE in dissolving gallstones, especially pigmented gallstones, while resulting in lesser toxicities.


Assuntos
Cálculos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Solventes/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Células CHO , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Cálculos Biliares/patologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Células NIH 3T3 , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Células Vero , Peixe-Zebra
18.
S Afr J Commun Disord ; 66(1): e1-e11, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Chemical substances can negatively affect the auditory system. Chemical substances alone or combined with high-level noise have recently become a major concern as a cause of occupational hearing loss. OBJECTIVE:  To assess the combined effect of solvents and noise versus solvents only, or noise only, on the auditory function of workers. METHOD:  Published articles which included noise and/or solvent exposure or combined effects of solvents and noise, studies conducted on human beings only and the use of audiological tests on participants. RESULTS:  Thirteen papers were eligible for inclusion. The participants' ages ranged from 18 to 68 years. Results revealed that 24.5% presented with hearing loss as a result of noise exposure only; 18% presented with hearing loss owing to solvent exposure only; and a total of 43.3% presented with hearing loss owing to combined noise and solvent exposure. Furthermore, the prevalence of hearing loss in the noise and solvent group was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than the other groups in 10 out of the 13 studies analysed, with a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 2.754. Of the 178 participants (total of all participants exposed to solvents), a total of 32 participants presented with auditory pathology as a result of exposure to solvents only. There was a significantly higher pooled odds of hearing loss in noise and solvent-exposed group compared to solvent-only group (pooled OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.24-3.72, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION:  The findings revealed significantly higher odds of acquiring hearing loss when workers were exposed to a combination of solvents and noise as opposed to solvents only, motivating for its inclusion into hearing conservation programmes.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Audição/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(9): 644-651, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248991

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine if parental occupational exposure to 16 agents is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Demographic, health and parental occupational data were collected as part of the CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study. The workplace exposure assessment was conducted by two experienced industrial hygienists for the parents of 537 children with ASD and 414 typically developing (TD) children. For each job, frequency and intensity of 16 agents were assessed and both binary and semi-quantitative cumulative exposure variables were derived. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to assess associations between parental occupational exposures 3 months pre-pregnancy until birth. RESULTS: The OR of ASD in the children of mothers exposed to any solvents was 1.5 times higher than the mothers of TD children (95% CI=1.01-2.23). Cumulative exposure indicated that the OR associated with a moderate level of solvent exposure in mothers was 1.85 (95% CI=1.09, 3.15) for children with ASD compared with TD children. No other exposures were associated with ASD in mothers, fathers or the parents combined. CONCLUSION: Maternal occupational exposure to solvents may increase the risk for ASD. These results are consistent with a growing body of evidence indicating that environmental and occupational exposures may be associated with ASD. Future research should consider specific types of solvents, larger samples and/or different study designs to evaluate other exposures for potential associations with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Paterna , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
20.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 139: 16-23, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112878

RESUMO

Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy is a common reason for dose reduction or early cessation of therapy. Nab-paclitaxel was developed to provide additional clinical benefits and overcome the safety drawbacks of solvent-based paclitaxel. However, the incidence of peripheral neuropathy induced by nab-paclitaxel was reported higher than solvent-based paclitaxel but evidence remains inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to compare the incidence and severity of peripheral neuropathy between nab-paclitaxel and solvent-based paclitaxel mono-chemotherapy. In total, 24 articles were included in this meta-analysis. Results revealed the incidence of peripheral neuropathy induced by nab-paclitaxel was higher than solvent-based paclitaxel. The dosage and assessment method could influence the comparison of the incidence and severity of peripheral neuropathy between nab-paclitaxel and solvent-based paclitaxel. Current evidence suggests the incidence of peripheral neuropathy induced by nab-paclitaxel was higher than solvent-based paclitaxel among cancer patients received mono-chemotherapy. When received nab-paclitaxel, more attention should be paid to peripheral neuropathy.


Assuntos
Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/epidemiologia , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Prognóstico
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