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1.
Behav Brain Res ; 437: 114105, 2023 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089097

RESUMO

Sleep is a complex biological state characterized by large populations of neurons firing in a rhythmic or synchronized manner. HCN channels play a critical role in generating and sustaining synchronized neuronal firing and are involved in the actions of anaesthetics. However, the role of these channels in sleep-wakefulness per se has yet to be studied. We conducted polysomnographic recordings of Hcn1 constitutive knockout (Hcn1 KO) and wild-type (WT) mice in order to investigate the potential role of HCN1 channels in sleep/wake regulation. EEG and EMG data were analysed using the Somnivore™ machine learning algorithm. Time spent in each vigilance state, bout number and duration, and EEG power spectral activity were compared between genotypes. There were no significant differences in the time spent in wake, rapid eye movement (REM) or non-REM (NREM) sleep between Hcn1 KO and WT mice. Wake bout duration during the inactive phase was significantly shorter in Hcn1 KO mice whilst no other bout parameters were affected by genotype. Hcn1 KO mice showed a reduction in overall EEG power which was particularly prominent in the theta (5-9 Hz) and alpha (9-15 Hz) frequency bands and most evident during NREM sleep. Together these data suggest that HCN1 channels do not play a major role in sleep architecture or modulation of vigilance states. However, loss of these channels significantly alters underlying neuronal activity within these states which may have functional consequences.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização , Canais de Potássio , Sono , Vigília , Animais , Camundongos , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/genética , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Canais de Potássio/genética , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Sono/genética , Sono/fisiologia , Sono REM/genética , Sono REM/fisiologia , Vigília/genética , Vigília/fisiologia
2.
Brain Nerve ; 74(11): 1303-1308, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343936

RESUMO

The sleep cycle alternates between REM and NREM sleep, but the mechanisms by which this cycle is generated are totally unknown. We found that a periodic transient increase of the dopamine level in the amygdala during NREM sleep terminates NREM sleep and initiates REM sleep. This mechanism also plays a role in cataplectic attack, which is a pathological intrusion of REM sleep into wakefulness in narcoleptics.


Assuntos
Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala , Sono REM , Camundongos , Animais , Dopamina , Vigília , Sono , Eletroencefalografia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361024

RESUMO

(1) Background: The clinical significance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-dependent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains controversial because various criteria have been used to describe it. This study determined the clinical significance of REM-OSA in Koreans using data from patients with sufficient total sleep time (TST) and REM sleep duration. (2) Methods: We investigated 1824 patients with OSA who were diagnosed by polysomnography (PSG). REM-OSA was defined as an overall apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5, NREM-AHI < 15, and REM-AHI/NREM-AHI ≥ 2. Demographic and medical data were collected from digital medical records and sleep questionnaires. We compared clinical and PSG data between REM-OSA and REM sleep-nondependent OSA (nREM-OSA). (3) Results: In total, 140 patients (20.2%) were categorized as REM-OSA. Those patients were predominantly female (53.6% vs. 21.7% of the overall cohort, p < 0.001). REM-OSA is frequent in the mild (69.3% vs. 18.8%) to moderate (30% vs. 27.9%) range of OSA (p < 0.001). (4) Conclusions: The prevalence of REM-OSA was similar to that in previous study findings: frequent in mild to moderate OSA and females, which is consistent with results in Western populations. Our findings suggest that REM-OSA does not have clinical significance as a subtype of OSA.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Sono REM , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Polissonografia , Sono , Prevalência
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362177

RESUMO

Accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) is the pathological hallmark of α-synucleinopathy. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a pivotal manifestation of α-synucleinopathy including Parkinson's disease (PD). RBD is clinically confirmed by REM sleep without atonia (RWA) in polysomnography. To accurately characterize RWA preceding RBD and their underlying α-syn pathology, we inoculated α-syn preformed fibrils (PFFs) into the striatum of A53T human α-syn BAC transgenic (A53T BAC-SNCA Tg) mice which exhibit RBD-like phenotypes with RWA. RWA phenotypes were aggravated by PFFs-inoculation in A53T BAC-SNCA Tg mice at 1 month after inoculation, in which prominent α-syn pathology in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) was observed. The intensity of RWA phenotype could be dependent on the severity of the underlying α-syn pathology.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM , Sinucleinopatias , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , Sono REM , Camundongos Transgênicos , Sinucleinopatias/genética , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/genética , Hipotonia Muscular , Fenótipo
5.
Washington, D.C.; Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé; 2022-11-16. (OPS/NMH/MH/21-0022).
em Francês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56721

RESUMO

Cette fiche d’information d’une page fournit une explication concise des répercussions de la consommation d’alcool sur le sommeil des gens. La consommation d’alcool peut affecter la qualité et la durée du sommeil, supprimer le sommeil paradoxal et aggraver les symptômes de l’apnée du sommeil et de l’insomnie. En particulier, la fiche d’information met en évidence le cercle vicieux des troubles liés à la consommation d’alcool et des troubles du sommeil, souligne le lien entre le fait de bien dormir et la santé globale et exhorte les gens à demander de l’aide si leur consommation d’alcool nuit à leur sommeil. Enfin, il offre cinq conseils simples pour aider les gens à améliorer leur sommeil.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Saúde Mental , Abuso Oral de Substâncias , Fatores de Risco , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Sono REM , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(45): e2123528119, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331996

RESUMO

In our daily life, we are exposed to uncontrollable and stressful events that disrupt our sleep. However, the underlying neural mechanisms deteriorating the quality of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMs) and REM sleep are largely unknown. Here, we show in mice that acute psychosocial stress disrupts sleep by increasing brief arousals (microarousals [MAs]), reducing sleep spindles, and impairing infraslow oscillations in the spindle band of the electroencephalogram during NREMs, while reducing REMs. This poor sleep quality was reflected in an increased number of calcium transients in the activity of noradrenergic (NE) neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) during NREMs. Opto- and chemogenetic LC-NE activation in naïve mice is sufficient to change the sleep microarchitecture similar to stress. Conversely, chemogenetically inhibiting LC-NE neurons reduced MAs during NREMs and normalized their number after stress. Specifically inhibiting LC-NE neurons projecting to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) decreased MAs and enhanced spindles and REMs after stress. Optrode recordings revealed that stimulating LC-NE fibers in the POA indeed suppressed the spiking activity of POA neurons that are activated during sleep spindles and REMs and inactivated during MAs. Our findings reveal that changes in the dynamics of the stress-regulatory LC-NE neurons during sleep negatively affect sleep quality, partially through their interaction with the POA.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Sono REM , Animais , Camundongos , Sono REM/fisiologia , Hipotálamo , Sono/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Norepinefrina
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6896, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371399

RESUMO

The cerebral cortex is spontaneously active during sleep, yet it is unclear how this global cortical activity is spatiotemporally organized, and whether such activity not only reflects sleep states but also contributes to sleep state switching. Here we report that cortex-wide calcium imaging in mice revealed distinct sleep stage-dependent spatiotemporal patterns of global cortical activity, and modulation of such patterns could regulate sleep state switching. In particular, elevated activation in the occipital cortical regions (including the retrosplenial cortex and visual areas) became dominant during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. Furthermore, such pontogeniculooccipital (PGO) wave-like activity was associated with transitions to REM sleep, and optogenetic inhibition of occipital activity strongly promoted deep sleep by suppressing the NREM-to-REM transition. Thus, whereas subcortical networks are critical for initiating and maintaining sleep and wakefulness states, distinct global cortical activity also plays an active role in controlling sleep states.


Assuntos
Lobo Occipital , Sono REM , Camundongos , Animais , Sono REM/fisiologia , Lobo Occipital/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia
8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 632: 10-16, 2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191372

RESUMO

Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) is prevalent in modern society, and impaired memory is one of its serious consequences. The pathogenic mechanism is still unclear, and the therapeutic strategies for PSD are limited. Here, we found that quercetin treatment ameliorated memory impairments caused by PSD in a dose-dependent manner in an animal model. Quercetin could restore the dynamic changes of the gamma band while the animals performed novel object recognition (NOR) tasks as determined by electroencephalogram analysis. Morphological analysis showed that quercetin, by targeting the hippocampal CA1 region, strikingly ameliorated the overactivation of microglia induced by PSD. Mechanistically, quercetin inhibited the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor kappa-b (NF-κB) cascade, which is critical for abnormal microglial activation following PSD stress. Our results provided experimental evidence for the therapeutic effects of quercetin on PSD-related memory impairments by suppressing TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling that mediated abnormal microglia activation in the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Memória , Microglia , Quercetina , Animais , Camundongos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Sono REM/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293678

RESUMO

The ontogenetic sleep hypothesis suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is ontogenetically primitive. Namely, REM sleep plays an imperative role in the maturation of the central nervous system. In coincidence with a rapidly developing brain during the early period of life, a remarkably large amount of REM sleep has been identified in numerous behavioral and polysomnographic studies across species. The abundant REM sleep appears to serve to optimize a cerebral state suitable for homeostasis and inherent neuronal activities favorable to brain maturation, ranging from neuronal differentiation, migration, and myelination to synaptic formation and elimination. Progressively more studies in Mammalia have provided the underlying mechanisms involved in some REM sleep-related disorders (e.g., narcolepsy, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)). We summarize the remarkable alterations of polysomnographic, behavioral, and physiological characteristics in humans and Mammalia. Through a comprehensive review, we offer a hybrid of animal and human findings, demonstrating that early-life REM sleep disturbances constitute a common feature of many neurodevelopmental disorders. Our review may assist and promote investigations of the underlying mechanisms, functions, and neurodevelopmental diseases involved in REM sleep during early life.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Animais , Humanos , Sono REM/fisiologia , Sono , Encéfalo/fisiologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232526

RESUMO

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation triggers mania and induces cardiac fibrosis. Beyond neuroprotection, lithium has cardioprotective potential and antifibrotic activity. This study investigated whether lithium improved REM sleep deprivation-induced cardiac dysfunction and evaluated the potential mechanisms. Transthoracic echocardiography, histopathological analysis, and Western blot analysis were performed in control and REM sleep-deprived rats with or without lithium treatment (LiCl of 1 mmol/kg/day administered by oral gavage for 4 weeks) in vivo and in isolated ventricular preparations. The results revealed that REM sleep-deprived rats exhibited impaired contractility and greater fibrosis than control and lithium-treated REM sleep-deprived rats. Western blot analysis showed that REM sleep-deprived hearts had higher expression levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß), phosphorylated Smad 2/3, and alpha-smooth muscle actin than lithium-treated REM sleep-deprived and control hearts. Moreover, lithium-treated REM sleep-deprived hearts had lower expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor, phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B p65, calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1, transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 1, and TRPC3 than REM sleep-deprived hearts. The findings suggest that lithium attenuates REM sleep deprivation-induced cardiac fibrogenesis and dysfunction possibly through the downregulation of TGF-ß, angiotensin II, and Ca2+ signaling.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Sono REM , Actinas/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Animais , Lítio/farmacologia , Lítio/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Lítio , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína ORAI1 , Ratos , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Privação do Sono/complicações , Privação do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233081

RESUMO

This work aimed to study the recovery of consciousness during forced awakening from slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM) in healthy volunteers. To track the changes in the degree of awareness of the stimuli during the transition to wakefulness, event-related potentials (ERPs) and motor responses (MR) in the auditory local-global paradigm were analyzed. The results show that during awakening from both SWS and REM, first, alpha-activity restores in the EEG, and only 20 and 25 s (for REM and SWS awakenings, respectively) after alpha onset MR to target stimuli recovers. During REM awakening, alpha-rhythm, MR, and conscious awareness of stimuli recover faster than during SWS awakening. Moreover, pre-attentive processing of local irregularities emerges earlier, even before alpha-rhythm onset, while during SWS awakening, the local effect we registered only after alpha restoration. The P300-like response both on global and local irregularities was found only when accurate MR was restored. Thus, the appearance in EEG predominating alpha-activity is insufficient either for conscious awareness of external stimuli or for generating MR to them. This work may help to understand the pathophysiology of sleep disorders well as conditions characterized by the dissociation between behavior and various aspects of consciousness.


Assuntos
Sono REM , Sono de Ondas Lentas , Estado de Consciência , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Sono/fisiologia , Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia
12.
Sleep Med ; 100: 311-346, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182725

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Fatal insomnia (FI) is a rare prion disease severely affecting sleep architecture. Breathing during sleep has not been systematically assessed. Our aim was to characterize the sleep architecture, respiratory patterns, and neuropathologic findings in FI. METHODS: Eleven consecutive FI patients (ten familial, one sporadic) were examined with video-polysomnography (vPSG) between 2002 and 2017. Wake/sleep stages and respiration were evaluated using a modified scoring system. Postmortem neuropathology was assessed in seven patients. RESULTS: Median age at onset was 48 years and survival after vPSG was 1 year. All patients had different combinations of breathing disturbances including increased respiratory rate variability (RRV; n = 7), stridor (n = 9), central sleep apnea (CSA) (n = 5), hiccup (n = 6), catathrenia (n = 7), and other expiratory sounds (n = 10). RRV in NREM sleep correlated with ambiguous and solitary nuclei degeneration (r = 0.9, p = 0.008) and reduced survival (r = -0.7, p = 0.037). Two new stages, Subwake1 and Subwake2, present in all patients, were characterized. NREM sleep (conventional or undifferentiated) was identifiable in ten patients but reduced in duration in eight. REM sleep occurred in short segments in nine patients, and their reduced duration correlated with medullary raphe nuclei degeneration (r = -0.9, p = 0.005). Seven patients had REM without atonia. Three vPSG patterns were identified: agitated, with aperiodic, manipulative, and finalistic movements (n = 4); quiet-apneic, with CSA (n = 4); and quiet-non-apneic (n = 3). CONCLUSIONS: FI patients show frequent breathing alterations, associated with respiratory nuclei damage, and, in addition to NREM sleep distortion, have severe impairment of REM sleep, related with raphe nuclei degeneration. Brainstem impairment is crucial in FI.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Humanos , Polissonografia , Sono , Sono REM
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(44): e2123418119, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279459

RESUMO

Lucid dreaming (LD) is a mental state in which we realize not being awake but are dreaming while asleep. It often involves vivid, perceptually intense dream images as well as peculiar kinesthetic sensations, such as flying, levitating, or out-of-body experiences. LD is in the cross-spotlight of cognitive neuroscience and sleep research as a particular case to study consciousness, cognition, and the neural background of dream experiences. Here, we present a multicomponent framework for the study and understanding of neurocognitive mechanisms and phenomenological aspects of LD. We propose that LD is associated with prediction error signals arising during sleep and occurring at higher or lower levels of the processing hierarchy. Prediction errors are resolved by generating a superordinate self-model able to integrate ambiguous stimuli arriving from sensory periphery and higher-order cortical regions. While multisensory integration enables lucidity maintenance and contributes to peculiar kinesthetic experiences, attentional control facilitates multisensory integration by dynamically regulating the balance between the influence of top-down mental models and the precision weighting of bottom-up sensory inputs. Our novel framework aims to link neural correlates of LD with current concepts of sleep and arousal regulation and provide testable predictions on interindividual differences in LD as well as neurocognitive mechanisms inducing lucid dreams.


Assuntos
Sonhos , Sono REM , Sono REM/fisiologia , Sonhos/fisiologia , Sonhos/psicologia , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Sono
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 155: 113771, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271553

RESUMO

Memory storage in the brain is one of the most extensively studied subjects in neuroscience. However, due to the highly complex structure of the memory-related systems in the brain, the mystery remains unsolved. Consolidation is one of the most important parts of the memory process, and one that can be affected by numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Hypothalamic melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neuronal activity has been of particular interest to researchers in terms of the association between sleep, neurodegenerative diseases, and memory consolidation. We used Pmch-Cre animals to investigate the role of MCH neuronal activity in memory consolidation. In order to observe the differences in memory consolidation, we chemogenetically inhibited MCH neurons using the DREADD method and measured hippocampus-dependent memory performance with a novel object recognition test applicable to early memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Our results revealed no significant improvement or worsening with MCH inhibition, suggesting that the role of MCH should now be evaluated in a wider setting.


Assuntos
Hormônios Hipotalâmicos , Animais , Camundongos , Hormônios Hipotalâmicos/fisiologia , Hormônios Hipofisários/fisiologia , Sono REM , Melaninas , Neurônios/fisiologia
15.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 162: 111310, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of growth and development level on polysomnography results in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Preschool children (ages 3-6) with symptoms of snoring and were diagnosed with OSA by polysomnography in the sleep center were selected as the research object. They were split into three groups based on their growth rates: restricted, normal, and excessive. Sleep structure, respiratory events, and oxygenation index were compared between the three groups. RESULTS: A total of 183 (111 boys and 72 girls) preschool children were enrolled. There were 26 cases in the growth restricted group, 112 cases in the normal growth group, and 45 cases in the overgrowth group. The weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children in the growth restricted and overgrowth groups were significantly different from those in the normal group. In terms of sleep structure, the sleep efficiency of the growth restricted group was poorer than that of the normal group. For sleep breathing events, the growth restricted group showed a greater apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI), hypoventilation index, and more hypoventilation than the normal group. In terms of oxygenation, the difference in degree of hypoxia between the three groups was statistically significant, and the overgrowth group had lower minimum oxygen saturation during the rapid eye movement phase than the normal group, as well as a quicker mean heart rate. CONCLUSIONS: OSA is more likely in preschool-aged children with stunted or overgrown growth than in children with OSA alone, and the more severe the disorder, especially when accompanied with stunted growth.


Assuntos
Hipoventilação , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoventilação/complicações , Masculino , Polissonografia/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Sono REM/fisiologia , Ronco
16.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 143: 84-94, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study changes of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical connectivity during wakefulness, non-Rapid Eye Movement (non-REM) sleep, including N2 and N3 stages, and REM sleep, using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) recording in humans. METHODS: We studied SEEG recordings of ten patients during wakefulness, non-REM sleep and REM sleep, in seven brain regions of interest including the thalamus. We calculated directed and undirected functional connectivity using a measure of non-linear correlation coefficient h2. RESULTS: The thalamus was more connected to other brain regions during N2 stage and REM sleep than during N3 stage during which cortex was more connected than the thalamus. We found two significant directed links: the first from the prefrontal region to the lateral parietal region in the delta band during N3 sleep and the second from the thalamus to the insula during REM sleep. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that cortico-cortical connectivity is more prominent in N3 stage than in N2 and REM sleep. During REM sleep we found significant thalamo-insular connectivity, with a driving role of the thalamus. SIGNIFICANCE: We found a pattern of cortical connectivity during N3 sleep concordant with antero-posterior traveling slow waves. The thalamus seemed particularly involved as a hub of connectivity during REM sleep.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Sono REM , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Humanos , Sono/fisiologia , Sono REM/fisiologia , Tálamo/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia
17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 399, 2022 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130941

RESUMO

Alterations of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have long been observed in patients with psychiatric disorders and proposed as an endophenotype-a link between behavior and genes. Recent experimental work has shown that REM sleep plays an important role in the emotional processing of memories, emotion regulation, and is altered in the presence of stress, suggesting a mechanism by which REM sleep may impact psychiatric illness. REM sleep shows a developmental progression and increases during adolescence-a period of rapid maturation of the emotional centers of the brain. This study uses a behavioral genetics approach to understand the relative contribution of genes, shared environmental and unique environmental factors to REM sleep neurophysiology in adolescents. Eighteen monozygotic (MZ; n = 36; 18 females) and 12 dizygotic (DZ; n = 24; 12 females) same-sex twin pairs (mean age = 12.46; SD = 1.36) underwent whole-night high-density sleep EEG recordings. We find a significant genetic contribution to REM sleep EEG power across frequency bands, explaining, on average, between 75 to 88% of the variance in power, dependent on the frequency band. In the lower frequency bands between delta and sigma, however, we find an additional impact of shared environmental factors over prescribed regions. We hypothesize that these regions may reflect the contribution of familial and environmental stress shared amongst the twins. The observed strong genetic contribution to REM sleep EEG power in early adolescence establish REM sleep neurophysiology as a potentially strong endophenotype, even in adolescence-a period marked by significant brain maturation.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Sono REM , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Polissonografia , Sono/fisiologia , Sono REM/genética , Gêmeos
18.
J Neurosci Res ; 100(12): 2174-2186, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056598

RESUMO

Sleep problems are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), can be observed before diagnosis, and are associated with increased restricted and repetitive behaviors. Therefore, sleep abnormalities may be a core feature of the disorder, but the developmental trajectory remains unknown. Animal models provide a unique opportunity to understand sleep ontogenesis in ASD. Previously we showed that adult mice with a truncation in the high-confidence ASD gene Shank3 (Shank3∆C ) recapitulate the clinical sleep phenotype. In this study we used longitudinal electro-encephalographic (EEG) recordings to define, for the first time, changes in sleep from weaning to young adulthood in an ASD mouse model. We show that Shank3∆C male mice sleep less overall throughout their lifespan, have increased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep early in life despite significantly reduced non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and have abnormal responses to increased sleep pressure that emerge during a specific developmental period. We demonstrate that the ability to fall asleep quickly in response to sleep loss develops normally between 24 and 30 days in mice. However, mutants are unable to reduce sleep latency after periods of prolonged waking and maintain the same response to sleep loss regardless of age. This phenomenon seems independent of homeostatic NREM sleep slow-wave dynamics. Overall, our study recapitulates both preclinical models and clinical studies showing that reduced sleep is consistently associated with ASD and suggests that problems falling asleep may reflect abnormal development of sleep and arousal mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Sono , Eletroencefalografia , Sono REM/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Mamíferos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273281, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103479

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic changed people's lives all over the world. While anxiety and stress decreased sleep quality for most people, an increase in total sleep time was also observed in certain cohorts. Dream recall frequency also increased, especially for nightmares. However, to date, there are no consistent reports focusing on pandemic-related changes in lucid dreaming, a state during which dreamers become conscious of being in a dream as it unfolds. Here we investigated lucid dreaming recall frequency and other sleep variables in 1,857 Brazilian subjects, using an online questionnaire. Firstly, we found that most participants (64.78%) maintained their lucid dream recall frequency during the pandemic, but a considerable fraction (22.62%) informed that lucid dreams became more frequent, whereas a smaller subset (12.60%) reported a decrease in these events during the pandemic. Secondly, the number of participants reporting lucid dreams at least once per week increased during the pandemic. Using a mixed logistic regression model, we confirmed that the pandemic significantly enhanced the recall frequency of lucid dreams (p = 0.002). Such increase in lucid dreaming during the pandemic was significantly associated with an enhancement in both dream and nightmare recall frequencies, as well as with sleep quality and symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder. Pandemic-related increases in stress, anxiety, sleep fragmentation, and sleep extension, which enhance REM sleep awakening, may be associated with the increase in the occurrence of lucid dreams, dreams in general, and nightmares.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sonhos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Sono REM , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Int Med Res ; 50(9): 3000605221121941, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124891

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rapid eye movement (REM) obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with the risk of cardiovascular events. Arterial stiffness and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) predict these events, but few relevant studies have been conducted. We compared long-term changes in arterial stiffness and IMT between patients with REM OSA and non-REM (NREM) OSA receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or oral appliance (OA) therapy. METHODS: Newly diagnosed female patients with OSA received CPAP (n = 6) or OA (n = 7). Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and carotid artery ultrasound were performed before and 60 months after treatment. RESULTS: There were no differences in baseline characteristics (mean age: 56.0 vs. 61.3 years; mean body mass index: 22.6 vs. 21.7 kg/m2) between the REM OSA and non-REM OSA groups. The median apnea-hypopnea index was lower in the REM OSA group than in the non-REM OSA group. Increased PWV (12.92 ± 1.64 to 14.56 ± 2.73 m/s) and deteriorated glucose metabolism were observed in the REM OSA group after treatment. PWV, IMT, and cardiovascular risk factors were unaffected in the non-REM OSA group. CONCLUSION: Arterial stiffness and glucose metabolism are deteriorated in patients with REM OSA compared with these parameters in patients with non-REM OSA after CPAP or OA treatment.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Rigidez Vascular , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Carótida Primitiva , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Feminino , Glucose , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Sono REM
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