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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3149-3162, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062961

RESUMO

Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO), which is widely consumed as both food and herbal medicine in tropical and subtropical regions, has a wide spectrum of health benefits. Yet, whether the oil obtained from MO seeds could affect (improve) the sleep activity remains unclear. Herein, we used the locomotor activity, pentobarbital-induced sleeping, and pentetrazol-induced convulsions test to examine sedative-hypnotic effects (SHE) of MO oil (MOO) and explored the underlying mechanisms. Besides, the main components of MOO like oleic acid, ß-Sitosterol, and Stigmasterol were also evaluated. The results showed that they possessed good SHE. Except for oleic acid and Stigmasterol, they could significantly elevate γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and reduce glutamic acid (Glu) levels in the hypothalamus of mice. Moreover, SHE was blocked by picrotoxin, flumazenil, and bicuculline, except for oleic acid, which could not be antagonized by picrotoxin. Molecular mechanisms showed that MOO and ß-Sitosterol significantly upregulated the amount of protein-level expression of Glu decarboxylase-65 (GAD65) and α1-subunit of GABAA receptors in the hypothalamus of mice, not affecting GAD67, γ2 subunits. These data indicated that MOO modulates sleep architectures via activation of the GABAA-ergic systems.


Assuntos
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Moringa oleifera/química , Pentobarbital/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Sementes/química , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/genética
2.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(3): 297-306, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899990

RESUMO

Introduction: Insomnia has been implicated in the development, maintenance, worsening, and relapse of alcohol use disorder (AUD).Areas covered: The authors review the possible pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options of insomnia for patients with alcohol-use disorder and provide their expert opinion.Expert opinion: Abstinence, or at least a decrease in alcohol use, may improve insomnia symptoms. Second, sleep education is a cornerstone intervention that should be completed by more structured behavioral therapies or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I). CBT-I is the recommended first-line treatment of combined insomnia and AUD (high level of evidence). Third, in case of insufficient response or non-availability of CBT-I, pharmacological treatments might be added. In addition, CBT-I may take several weeks to be effective, and these medications could be proposed to patients with severe symptoms or psychiatric comorbidities. Mirtazapine, gabapentin immediate release, and quetiapine exhibit a moderate level of evidence. Melatonin, topimarate, trazodone, and acamprosate, have a low level of evidence. Benzodiazepines and other GABA-A agonists should be avoided. A particular attention should be provided to patients who use alcohol to help fall asleep as a higher risk of relapse exists after stopping treatment.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Comorbidade , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Int Heart J ; 61(1): 128-137, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956144

RESUMO

Sleep and estrogen levels have an impact on neural regulation and are associated with cardiovascular (CV) events. We investigated the effects of estrogen on heart rate variability (HRV) and circadian cycle in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Polysomnographic recording was performed in seven male and seven female SHRs during sleep. The electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) were evaluated to define active waking (AW), quiet sleep (QS), and paradoxical sleep (PS) stages. Cardiac activities were measured by RR interval of the electrocardiogram (ECG), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and power spectrum of HRV.In ECG, estrogen prolonged the RR interval in total sleep when compared with that at baseline in male SHRs (203.74 ± 6.61 versus 181.30 ± 8.06 ms, P < 0.001) and in female SHRs (169.21 ± 6.43 versus 160.76 ± 10.66 ms, P < 0.05). In HRV, the estrogen increased the high frequency (HF) in total sleep when compared with that at baseline in male SHRs (1.03 ± 0.28 versus 0.60 ± 0.43 ln (ms2), P < 0.001) and in female SHRs (0.71 ± 0.26 versus 0.42 ± 0.19 ln (ms2), P < 0.05).In male SHRs, estrogen increased the frequency of QS (26.50 ± 4.85 versus 20.79 ± 5.07, P < 0.01) and PS (25.64 ± 5.18 versus 20.14 ± 4.75, P < 0.05) stages when compared with baseline. In female SHRs, estrogen increased the percentage of delta waves in total sleep (79.87% ± 3.10% versus 76.71% ± 2.74%, P < 0.05) when compared with that at baseline.In HRV, estrogen leads to neuromodulation by increased parasympathetic tone in all SHRs, suggesting a lower risk to CV events. In sleep analyses, estrogen in male SHRs caused poor sleep quality. In contrast, estrogen in female SHRs demonstrated improved quality of sleep and decreased risk of hypertension.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relógios Circadianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletrocardiografia , Eletroencefalografia , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Polissonografia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
4.
J Food Sci ; 85(1): 5-13, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856339

RESUMO

Sleep is an essential biological phenomenon, being a physiological and behavioral process necessary for quality of life. Melatonin is a circadian hormone produced at night by the pineal gland, regulated by the light/dark cycle, under the control of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Melatonin is an indoleamine, synthesized from the essential amino acid tryptophan via serotonin. Melatonin is also found in plants, where it helps fight oxidative stress. To present a systematic review on the ability of food sources of melatonin to promote healthy sleep. A literature search was performed on the PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect databases, including only randomized, placebo-controlled trials published in English between 2005 and 2019. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed by the Jadad scale. Of the 25 eligible articles, eight met the inclusion criteria. They addressed the intake of milk or cherry juice in children, adults, and elderly subjects and evaluated sleep quality by questionnaires, sleep diary, actigraphy, or polysomnography. The analysis of the studies presented limitations, including lack of homogeneity of treatment dosage and duration. Nonetheless, the results indicated that the consumption of milk and sour cherries, sources of melatonin, may improve sleep quality in humans. These results pointed out to the potential suitability of food sources of melatonin as adjuvants in the prevention and treatment of sleep disorders. Further studies are necessary to better ascertain the aspects relevant to their use.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Melatonina/análise , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Sono , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 20(18): 2257-2271, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638842

RESUMO

Introduction: Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Without appropriate treatment, sleep disorders can become chronic and last for many years. However, there are no sleep medications approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and only one has been approved by the European Medicines Agency for pediatric insomnia; thus, most medications are prescribed off-label.Areas covered: In this narrative review, the authors highlight and summarize the most common drugs and supplements used for the treatment of sleep problems in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Recommendations are formulated regarding the use of melatonin and melatonin receptor agonists, sedating antidepressants, antipsychotics, antihistamines, gabapentin, clonidine and orexin receptor antagonists, and benzodiazepines and hypnotic benzodiazepine receptor agonists.Expert opinion: The choice of pharmacological agents and their dosage should be individualized taking into consideration multiple factors, including the severity and type of sleep problem and the associated neurological pathology. Melatonin is widely used and safe in children with neurodevelopmental conditions. Gabapentin, clonidine, trazodone, and mirtazapine hold promise but require further study. Supplements (iron, vitamin D, and 5-hydroxytryptophan) might be helpful. Due to the lack of clinical data, there is still uncertainty concerning dosing regimens and tolerability.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(10): 1726-1732, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582660

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of green romaine lettuce (GRE) on sleep enhancement. GRE contains 1071.7 and 199.2 µg/g of extracts of lactucin and lactucopicrin, respectively, known as sleep enhancement substances. When 100 mg/kg of GRE was administered orally, sleep latency and duration time were significantly increased compared to controls (p < 0.05). Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep decreased with 100 mg/kg of GRE administration and non-REM (NREM) sleep also increased. There was no significant difference between REM and NREM among the oral GRE administration groups receiving 100, 120, and 160 mg/kg GRE. In the caffeine-induced insomnia model, total sleep time was significantly increased by 100 mg/kg GRE administration compared to the caffeine-treated group (p < 0.05). In addition, GRE inhibited the binding of [3H]-flumazenil in a concentration-dependent manner, and affinity of both lactucin and lactucopicrin to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A-benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor was 80.7% and 55.9%, respectively. Finally, in the pentobarbital-induced sleep mouse model, the sleep enhancement effect of GRE was inhibited by flumazenil, an antagonist of BDZ. Thus, these results demonstrate that GRE acts via a GABAergic mechanism to promote sleep in a rodent model.


Assuntos
Lactonas/farmacologia , Alface , Forbóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Lactonas/análise , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Forbóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/análise
7.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 79(3): 251-260, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587017

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids arising from chronic stress and long-term inflammatory treatment with corticosteroids are both associated with neuropathology and cognitive impairments. Many previous studies have focused on changes in brain morphology and deficits in learning behavior. However, effects of long-term exposure to stress hormones on electrical brain signaling and sleep-wake patterns have remained largely unexplored. This study aimed to monitor electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns induced by prolonged dexamethasone exposure. Adult male Wistar rats implanted with electrodes on the skull over the frontal and parietal cortices were intraperitoneally injected with either saline or dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg) once daily for 21 consecutive days. Longitudinal EEG recording was performed on day 6, 11, 16 and 21. Fast Fourier transform was used for frequency power analysis. One-way ANOVA revealed significant increases in parietal EEG power of slow frequencies (delta, theta and alpha) particularly, with the dominant theta activity seen as early as day 11 of dexamethasone treatment. Sleep-wake analysis on day 21 confirmed a significant reduction of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep and increased slow frequency oscillations mainly in the parietal cortex during the awake period. The number of high-voltage spindles (HVSs) (6-10 Hz EEG oscillation) was significantly increased during awake and slow wave sleep (SWS) periods following dexamethasone treatment. These findings demonstrated that distinct frequency oscillations, sleep-wakefulness and sleep spindles may be parameters of neuropathology produced by long-term dexamethasone exposure. Early detection of these parameters might be predictive of neuropathology in long-term corticosteroid users.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Sono REM/fisiologia , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Movimentos Oculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos Wistar
8.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626183

RESUMO

According to modern concepts, sleep disorders are considered as a common geriatric syndrome, which also emphasizes their polyfactorial genesis. One of the important factors inducing sleep disorders is the intake of various drugs, which becomes especially significant with the problems of polymorbidity and polypharmacy occurring in older age groups. The article provides a classification of drug-induced sleep disorders, which presents a wide range of conditions associated with a disturbance of the sleep-wake cycle. The authors present the frequency of insomnia associated with taking drugs from different pharmacological groups according to the literature, and consider mechanisms of insomnia development due to the effect on various receptors and neurotransmitter systems, as well as data on their effect on sleep structure. The article presents risk factors for drug-induced insomnia and discusses preventive measures and management of patients.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Idoso , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/induzido quimicamente
9.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caffeine ingestion improves athletic performance, but impairs sleep quality. We aimed to analyze the effect of caffeine intake on 800-m running performance, sleep quality (SQ), and nocturnal cardiac autonomic activity (CAA) in trained runners. METHODS: Fifteen male middle-distance runners participated in the study (aged 23.7 ± 8.2 years). In a randomized and comparative crossover study design, the athletes ingested a placebo (PL) or caffeine supplement (CAF; 6 mg∙kg-1) one hour before an 800-m running time-trial test in the evening. During the night, CAA and SQ were assessed using actigraphy and a sleep questionnaire. A second 800-m running test was performed 24 h after the first. Time, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate concentration were analyzed for each running test. RESULTS: No significant differences in CAA and performance variables were found between the two conditions. However, CAF impaired sleep efficiency (p = 0.003), actual wake time (p = 0.001), and the number of awakenings (p = 0.005), as measured by actigraphy. Also, CAF impaired the questionnaire variables of SQ (p = 0.005), calm sleep (p = 0.005), ease of falling asleep (p = 0.003), and feeling refreshed after waking (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: The supplementation with caffeine (6 mg∙kg-1) did not improve the 800-m running performance, but did impair the SQ of trained runners.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Actigrafia , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 14(1): 289, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a proven surgical option for patients with end-stage osteoarthritis in terms of improved function and pain relief. A prospective study was conducted to examine and evaluate the effect and impact of zolpidem postoperatively on the sleep quality, pain alleviation, and quality of life of patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: A total of 160 patients was randomized 1:1 to receive either zolpidem or placebo 2 days preoperative to 5 days postoperatively. Pain scores using visual analog scale (VAS), sleep quality using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, quality of life using QoR-40, and Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score were recorded. The total amount of opioid analgesics and antiemetics taken was recorded as well. RESULTS: Patients in the intervention group had higher VAS score and took less analgesic and antiemetic. Moreover, the study demonstrated that QoR-40 was higher and Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score had relatively lower mean value (P < 0.05) in the treatment group. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale were also lower in the treatment group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients taking zolpidem achieved greater improvement in the quality of life and reported better satisfaction. The study demonstrated zolpidem 10 mg can improve sleep quality effectively, relieve pain, increase early range of motion and muscle strength, reduce the perioperative anxiety and depression, and improve perioperative experience and satisfaction, thereby reducing the hospital stay and medical costs and promote the rapid recovery and quality of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IOR-16007861 .


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/uso terapêutico , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Zolpidem/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/tendências , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono/fisiologia , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/farmacologia , Zolpidem/farmacologia
11.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110802, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493462

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize the central effects of the Hyptis martiusii leaf essential oil (OEHM) and 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) using behavioral animal models. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to characterize the chemical compounds present in the OEHM. For the behavioral tests, female Swiss mice treated with the OEHM (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and 1,8-cineole (50 mg/kg, i.p.) were used and subjected to the following tests: open field, elevated cross maze, rotarod, sodium pentobarbital- or ethyl ether-induced sleep time, pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions, haloperidol-induced catalepsy, and ketamine-induced hyperkinesia. GC/MS analysis identified 20 constituents with the majority of them being monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, with eucalyptol (1,8-cineol), the major sample compound (25.93%), standing out. The results showed the OEHM (25, 50 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and its major compound (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced animal motility in the open field test, increased pentobarbital- and ethyl ether-induced sleep time, as well as death latency in the pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion model. However, the tested compounds were devoid of anxiolytic-like and myorelaxant activity. In addition, the OEHM (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and 1,8-cineole (50 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated haloperidol-induced catalepsy and reduced ketamine-induced hyperkinesia. Taken together, the results suggest the OEHM has important hypnotic-sedative and antipsychotic-like effects, which appear to be due to the monoterpene 1,8-cineole, the major compound identified in the essential oil.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Eucaliptol/farmacologia , Hyptis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Eucaliptol/toxicidade , Feminino , Hipercinese/tratamento farmacológico , Ketamina , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(9): 1301-1303, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489871

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain responds poorly to common analgesics that effectively control nociceptive pain because its pathophysiology is different and it is usually associated with co-morbidities such as sleep disturbance, depression and anxiety. Patients with this chronic pain are sometimes left with neurolysis as the last resort. A 65-year-old male multiply-injured retiree presented with disabling pain following traumatic brachial plexus injury sustained from road traffic accident 5 years earlier. Other injuries resolved with therapy except the chronic severe burning and electrifying pain (VAS score 9) in the paralyzed left upper limb associated with allodynia and insomnia which was unresponsive to conventional analgesics. PainDETECT score was 29. A test supraclavicular block with 0.25% Bupivacaine was done, followed by chemical neurolysis one month later. He was placed on oral Gabapentin. The pain score a week post injection was 3 and has remained same 18 months post injection. Patient's level of satisfaction on 5 point Likert scale was 5. Chronic neuropathic pain following traumatic brachial plexus injury could be successfully managed by chemical neurolysis and oral gabapentin.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/complicações , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/tratamento farmacológico , Plexo Braquial/lesões , Gabapentina/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Extremidade Superior/lesões , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/fisiopatologia , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Gabapentina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Masculino , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Neuralgia/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Altern Complement Med ; 25(12): 1193-1199, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556690

RESUMO

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference between the sleep quality of patients who inhaled placebo and those who inhaled an aroma comprising a mixture of Lavandula x intermedia (Lavandin Super), Citrus bergamia (bergamot), and Cananga odorata (ylang ylang). Design: This was a randomized, double-blind crossover study, which compared a treatment with placebo. Settings/location: The study was conducted in an outpatient cardiac rehabilitation unit located in an urban, private nonprofit hospital in north Texas. Subjects: Participants included 42 adult patients referred to the rehabilitation service following hospitalizations by local cardiologists. Interventions: Cotton balls infused with a combination of lavender, bergamot, and ylang ylang or placebo were placed at subjects' bedsides for five nights. After a washout period, subjects crossed over to the other condition for five nights. Outcome measures: Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) after treatment and placebo periods. Lower PSQI scores indicate better sleep quality. Results: The mean PSQI global score was statistically significantly lower when receiving the intervention oil (mean = 4.9) than the mean PSQI global score when receiving placebo (mean = 8). Duration of sleep and the time it took to fall asleep were no different between treatment groups, but patient-reported sleep quality was significantly better when participants were exposed to essential oils (χ2 = 4.5, p = 0.03) than when exposed to placebo. Although sleep efficiency (time asleep while lying in bed) was perceived as the same under both conditions, participants reported that they had to get up to use the bathroom significantly less often when exposed to the treatment than when exposed to placebo (t = -2.04, p = 0.05; Wilcoxon p = 0.05). Participants also reported that they had trouble sleeping because they felt too cold, which occurred significantly less often when exposed to the treatment than when exposed to placebo (t = -2.03, p = 0.05; Wilcoxon p = 0.05). Conclusions: Sleep quality of participants receiving intervention oils was significantly better than the sleep quality of participants receiving the placebo oil. Low-cost, nontraditional aromatherapy treatment is potentially effective for improving sleep quality among cardiac rehabilitation patients.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia
14.
Trials ; 20(1): 518, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a syndrome characterized by significant forgetfulness that does not meet the criteria of dementia. Individuals with aMCI are at greater risk of progressing to dementia. Current studies suggest that good sleep quality is linked with preserved cognition in the elderly, and sleep complaints are common among the elderly with amnesia. Therefore, improving their sleep may be helpful for maintaining and improving their cognitive capacity. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, Yi-Zhi-An-Shen is an herbal compound which may ameliorate forgetfulness and sleep disorders. As growing evidence indicates that the gut microbiome is associated with major mental symptoms, a hypothesis was proposed that Yi-Zhi-An-Shen granules (YZASG) might work by alternating microbial abundance and diversity. In this study, the investigators intend to assess the efficacy of YZASG on global cognition in the elderly suffering from aMCI and evaluate its safety as well as its potential mechanisms via sleep quality, fecal microbial 16S ribosomal DNA and metagenomics analyses, and serum markers. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 80 patients (aged 60-85 years) will be recruited and allocated randomly to a treatment group and a placebo group in a 1:1 ratio and will then be administered YZASG or isodose placebo three times a day. The intervention course is 16 weeks, with an 18 months follow-up. The primary outcome is the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale. Secondary outcome measures are the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, serum concentrations of immunological factors and inflammatory cytokines, and fecal microbiota. Fecal microbiota will only be collected at the baseline and endpoint of the intervention. DISCUSSION: The results of this trial will be conducive to assessing the safety and effectiveness on cognition of YZASG in intervening aMCI among the elderly and determining if it takes effect via the improvement of sleep quality, regulation of gut microbiota, and concentration of certain serum markers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03601000 . Registered on 26 July 2018.


Assuntos
Amnésia/tratamento farmacológico , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Nootrópicos/uso terapêutico , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amnésia/diagnóstico , Amnésia/fisiopatologia , Amnésia/psicologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nootrópicos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Nature ; 571(7764): 198-204, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292557

RESUMO

Slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement (or paradoxical) sleep have been found in mammals, birds and lizards, but it is unclear whether these neuronal signatures are found in non-amniotic vertebrates. Here we develop non-invasive fluorescence-based polysomnography for zebrafish, and show-using unbiased, brain-wide activity recording coupled with assessment of eye movement, muscle dynamics and heart rate-that there are at least two major sleep signatures in zebrafish. These signatures, which we term slow bursting sleep and propagating wave sleep, share commonalities with those of slow-wave sleep and paradoxical or rapid eye movement sleep, respectively. Further, we find that melanin-concentrating hormone signalling (which is involved in mammalian sleep) also regulates propagating wave sleep signatures and the overall amount of sleep in zebrafish, probably via activation of ependymal cells. These observations suggest that common neural signatures of sleep may have emerged in the vertebrate brain over 450 million years ago.


Assuntos
Neurônios/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Epêndima/citologia , Movimentos Oculares , Fluorescência , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Hormônios Hipotalâmicos/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Hormônios Hipofisários/metabolismo , Polissonografia/métodos , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono REM/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono REM/fisiologia , Sono de Ondas Lentas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono de Ondas Lentas/fisiologia
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262103

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the parameters of polysomnography (PSG) in sleep structure and respiratory events between dexmedetomidine-induced sleep and natural sleep. Methods: From April 2016 to September 2018, a total of 44 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 3 patients with simple snoring completed PSG monitor both in natural sleep and dexmedetomidine-induced sleep in Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital. The PSG parameters were statistically analysed with SPSS 22.0 software. Results: The average dose of dexmedetomidine was (104.60±27.93) µg, and there was no significant difference between the induced-sleep efficiency and the natural sleep efficiency (82.14%±16.66% vs. 86.50%±9.18%, t=-1.559, P>0.05). There was no rapid eye movement(REM) stages in all 47 subjects and only 1 case of them had non-rapid eye movement(NREM) stage 3 in induced sleep. The percentage of NREM1 in total sleep time was statistically different between the two groups (42.10%±26.71% vs. 17.47%±11.68%, t=5.997, P<0.001),but there was no significant difference in the percentage of NREM2 in total sleep time between the two groups (56.96%±26.0% vs. 62.95%±9.03%, t=-1.521, P=0.135). About respiratory events, there were significant differences in apnea hypopnea index ((46.29±20.23)/h vs. (39.67±25.41)/h), obstructive apnea index (25.20[10.50,45.40]/h vs. 16.20[3.30,35.20]/h) between induced-sleep and natural sleep (t=2.297, Z=-3.008, all P<0.05), these difference were more significant in mild-to-moderate OSA. There were no statistically significant differences in central apnea index (0.00[0.00,2.80]/h vs. 0.40[0.10,1.20]/h), mixed apnea index (0.00[0.00,6.20]/h vs. 0.00[0.00,3.40]/h, hypopnea index (4.20[0.00,3.30]/h vs. 12.00[5.20,17.40]/h), Z=-0.110,-0.508,-1.544, all P>0.05). There were statistical differences in the lowest oxygen saturation (84.77%±7. 59% vs. 80.21%±11.62%, t=2.558, P=0.014). Conclusions: There is no significant difference in sleep efficiency and NREM2 between dexmedetomidine induced sleep and natural sleep.NREM3 sleep is rare induced, but REM sleep is none of all. And dexmedetomidine induced sleep may aggravate obstructive sleep apnea, but not central apnea.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Polissonografia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono , Ronco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono/fisiologia
17.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 161(3): 507-513, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: (1) Determine the correlation of awake tonsil scores and preadenotonsillectomy (pre-AT) sleep endoscopy findings. (2) Assess the relationship between polysomnographic AT outcomes with awake tonsil scores and sleep endoscopy ratings of tonsil and adenoid obstruction. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series with chart review. SETTING: Tertiary care children's hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Children aged 1 to 18 years who underwent sleep endoscopy and AT from January 1, 2013, to August 30, 2016, were included. Pre-AT sleep endoscopy findings were scored with the Sleep Endoscopy Rating Scale. Awake tonsil scores and sleep endoscopy ratings were compared with Spearman correlation. Associations between changes in pre- and post-AT polysomnography parameters and (1) awake tonsil scoring and (2) sleep endoscopy scoring were assessed with 1-way analysis of variance and linear regression. RESULTS: Participants included 36 children (mean ± SD age, 6.8 ± 4.3 years; 68% male, 44% obese). Awake tonsil scores and sleep endoscopy ratings were strongly correlated (R = 0.58, P = .003). Awake tonsil scores were not associated with changes in any polysomnography parameters after AT (all P > .05), while sleep endoscopy ratings of adenotonsillar obstruction were significantly associated (all P < .05, R2 = 0.16-0.35). Patients with minimal adenotonsillar obstruction during sleep endoscopy had less improvement than those with partial or complete obstruction (mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index change: -8.2 ± 11.5 vs -15.9 ± 14.3, and -46.8 ± 31.3, respectively; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In children at risk for AT failure, assessment of dynamic collapse with sleep endoscopy may better predict the outcome of AT than awake tonsil size assessment, thus helping to inform surgical expectations.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia , Endoscopia , Tonsila Palatina/anatomia & histologia , Tonsilectomia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Polissonografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Complement Ther Med ; 45: 104-108, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Currently available pharmaceutical therapies for sleep disorders have significant side effects and dependence potential, thus necessitating the need for alternative treatment approaches. This study investigated the effect of a combination of melatonin, vitamin B6 and medicinal plants in patients with mild-to-moderate sleep disorders. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a 4-week, single-center, single-arm, open-label study conducted in 40 participants with mild-to-moderate insomnia, in Poland. INTERVENTION: Participants received Novanuit® Triple Action (melatonin, vitamin B6, California poppy extract, passionflower extract, and lemon balm extract) capsules per day for two weeks. OUTCOMES: Using a daily electronic sleep diary, information was collected on sleep quality (assessed on a 0-10 scale), total sleep duration, sleep onset latency, sleep-related daytime impairment, and safety of the study medication. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant (p < 0.001) improvement in sleep quality by the end of the 2-week treatment period, with mean sleep quality score increasing by 1.9 points from pre-treatment (5.4 points) to post-treatment (7.3 points). Similarly, statistically significant improvements were observed following treatment completion in sleep onset latency, total sleep duration, and sleep-related daytime parameters (p < 0.01 for all outcomes). Administration of the combination of melatonin, vitamin B6, and medicinal plants was associated with high compliance (39/40; 97.5%). No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests that the combination of melatonin, vitamin B6, and medicinal plants may be beneficial in mild-to-moderate insomnia.


Assuntos
Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina B 6/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Polônia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Complement Ther Med ; 45: 156-166, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331554

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of aromatherapy on sleep improvements. METHODS: A search of randomized controlled trials was conducted in four English and two Chinese medical electronic databases. Two authors independently performed the search, assessed the methodological quality, and extracted data. Then, final studies were selected after consensus with the third author. RESULTS: In total, 31 trials met the inclusion criteria, of which four had low risk, while the overall bias in 26 was uncertain in terms of methodological quality. The heterogeneity was high among the trials (Q = 341.544, p < 0.001, I2 = 91.216%). There was a significant effect of aromatherapy on sleep quality (Hedges's g = 1.103 (95% confidence interval: 0.813˜1.393, p < 0.001). There was a publication bias (Egger's regression intercept = 7.127, t = 3.055, p = 0.004 and Begg test, Kendall's tau with continuity correction, tau = 0.335 and Z = 2.651, p = 0.008). The subgroup analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the methodological quality among different studies (Q = 18.350, p <  0.001). Sensitivity analyses still revealed high heterogeneity after omitting one study at a time. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that aromatherapy can be applied by clinical staff to effectively improve sleep quality. However, because there was a high degree of heterogeneity among studies, the inferences of the results need to be applied with caution.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono/fisiologia , Animais , Aromaterapia/métodos , Humanos , Terapias Mente-Corpo/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349690

RESUMO

Polygonatum sibiricum (PS) rhizome, which contains glyceryl-1-monolinoleate as its primary active component, has been shown to improve insomnia in animal models. Based on these findings, we aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of PS rhizome extract in improving sleep quality in individuals with mild insomnia. Eighty individuals with mild insomnia were enrolled in a four-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of PS rhizome extract (500 mg/day, n = 40, PS group) or placebo (n = 40, placebo group). The primary outcome measure was change in total score on the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) to indicate sleep quality. The secondary outcome measures included change in actigraphy data and perfusion levels in the brain regions within the default mode network (DMN), which is known to play a key role in insomnia. The PS group showed greater improvement in the total AIS score with a significant increase in total sleep time, relative to the placebo group. In addition, significant group-by-visit interactions were observed in the perfusion level of the medial prefrontal cortex within the DMN. Findings of the current study provide first evidence that PS rhizome extract could be an effective natural ingredient for improving sleep in mild insomnia using a human model.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polygonatum , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/uso terapêutico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polygonatum/química , Rizoma , Seul , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/isolamento & purificação , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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